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Shanxi Farmers Embrance Modern Irrigation Methods to Adapt to Climate Change

Shanxi Farmers Embrance Modern Irrigation Methods to Adapt to Climate Change

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The Shanxi Province in the People’s Republic of China has been experiencing declining groundwater tables since 1956. From 2000 to 2007, overall water availability decreased by about 5% annually from 8.2 billion cubic meters to about 7 billion. Changing climate conditions have further compounded the issue, with unsustainable groundwater use and outdated agricultural practices threatening food production in the province.

In 2009, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a project to strengthen agricultural production in 26 counties in the Shanxi Province. Complementing the project was a grant aimed to support farmers by introducing water conservation and energy-efficient water use practices to increase climate change resilience and halt declining groundwater levels. ADB’s support resulted in savings in water, energy, fertilizers, pesticides, and labor that benefitted many farmers in Shanxi. Gradual replication of the project is currently under way and financed by counterpart funds from the Shanxi government. This indicates that despite climate change’s adverse impact on water resources and food production, there are opportunities for traditional farmers in Shanxi Province to adapt and make agricultural production more sustainable.

This publication gives an overview of how ADB's agricultural development support met the rising challenges in water security, food production, and climate change faced by communities in the province.
The Shanxi Province in the People’s Republic of China has been experiencing declining groundwater tables since 1956. From 2000 to 2007, overall water availability decreased by about 5% annually from 8.2 billion cubic meters to about 7 billion. Changing climate conditions have further compounded the issue, with unsustainable groundwater use and outdated agricultural practices threatening food production in the province.

In 2009, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a project to strengthen agricultural production in 26 counties in the Shanxi Province. Complementing the project was a grant aimed to support farmers by introducing water conservation and energy-efficient water use practices to increase climate change resilience and halt declining groundwater levels. ADB’s support resulted in savings in water, energy, fertilizers, pesticides, and labor that benefitted many farmers in Shanxi. Gradual replication of the project is currently under way and financed by counterpart funds from the Shanxi government. This indicates that despite climate change’s adverse impact on water resources and food production, there are opportunities for traditional farmers in Shanxi Province to adapt and make agricultural production more sustainable.

This publication gives an overview of how ADB's agricultural development support met the rising challenges in water security, food production, and climate change faced by communities in the province.

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Published by: ADB Knowledge Solutions on Jun 21, 2013
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07/18/2013

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Shanxi Farmers EmbraceModern Irrigation Methodsto Adapt to Climate Change
March 2013 | Issue 45People's Republic of China | Agriculture/Wate
CHALLENGES
Shanxi Province in the People’s Republic of China (PRC)is experiencing reduced water security for the agriculturesector. Changing climate conditions, including reducedrainfall, are increasing reliance on groundwater resourcesin the province. Unsustainable groundwater use for foodproduction intensifies the impacts of climate change,and cost-effective adaptation responses are neededto better equip vulnerable agricultural regions.
1
 Groundwater is the main source of water supply for manylocal farmers in Shanxi Province. Water is often used
with inefcientand outdated irrigation techniques.
However, most traditional farmers are eager to improveand modernize their crop production and adopt moresustainable agricultural methods.Given both its increasing agricultural and industrial water use,Shanxi’s groundwater tables have been declining since 1956,a problem compounded by the impacts of climate change.Currently, roughly a quarter of the province's land area—especially the fertile valleys—is experiencing falling groundwater tables. Moreover, a decrease in rainfall of 12% over the last 50years and a rise in temperature of 1.2
O
C over the same periodincrease pressure on groundwater availability. From 2000to 2007, overall water availability decreased by about 5%annually from 8.2 billion cubic meters (m
3
) to about 7 billionm
3
. The proportion of water available for irrigation reportedlydecreased from 95% in the 1950s to 59% in 2007.
APPROACH
A Climate Change Grant.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB)approved in 2009 the Shanxi Integrated Agricultural DevelopmentProject to strengthen agricultural production in 26 counties inthe Shanxi Province. Complementing the project is a $500,000grant from the Water Financing Partnership Facility to supportclimate change adaptation through groundwater management.The grant was given to Lishi, Pingshun, Qixian, and Xi countiesafter a competitive selection process among local governmentsand farmers.The grant aimed to support farmers introducing water 
conservation and energy-efcient water use practices
and increase climate change resilience to halt declininggroundwater levels. Declining groundwater tables leadto higher pumping costs and lower water security, makingsupport for farmers to adopt such sustainable practicesin selected pilot sites in Shanxi highly relevant.
2
Testing Modern Systems.
About 600 farmers in four counties
were introduced to modern and efcient horticultural irrigation
systems. Groundwater is being used more sustainablyto maintain its buffer and contingency supply for periodswhen demands may be higher.
Lishi
—Farmers in Xiaoshentou village, which battlesthe cold temperature of its irrigation water,
3
were introducedto a drip sprinkler irrigation combined with warming pondsin greenhouses.
Pingshun
—In the villages of Wanli, Wanggu, and Henantan,cultivation of prickly ash shoots, a local delicacy, got a boostin production with the introduction of microsprinklers suspendedin mesh tents. In addition to irrigating, this system washes downremaining aphids and avoids the soil getting too wet.
Qixian
—Farmers in the Xiliuzhi village changed irrigation
practices from ood to drip irrigation in their greenhouses.
The new system has pressure meters, dual distribution lines,
 ___________________ 
1
 ADB.
 Addressing Climate Change in Asia and the Pacifc 
.
http://adb.org/sites/default/les/addressing-cilmate-change.pdf 
 ADB. 2010.
 ADB Climate Change Programs: Facilitating Integrated Solutions in Asia and the Pacifc 
.
http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/les/adb-climate-change-
programs-brochure.pdf 
3
If irrigation water is colder than 10
O
C, plants will not do well. In Lishi, irrigation water for a large part of winter is close to or below 0
O
C.
Highlights
Climate change and declining water resources threatenfood production systems worldwide, increasing the need
for efcient agricultural processes.
 Four counties in the Shanxi Province of the People'sRepublic of China were selected as pilot areas,where traditional farmers learned modern methods of groundwater use and management.
 As a result, more sustainable use of groundwater wasintroduced while farm labor was reduced. Crop yields
increased and water was used more efciently.
 
Photos by Frank van Steenbergen
 At left, the "spring system" introduced in Xicounty. Above, the drip system in Qixiancounty.

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