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Bawa- Arcadia in Sri Lanka_RIBAJ Feb 1986

Bawa- Arcadia in Sri Lanka_RIBAJ Feb 1986

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Geoffrey Bawa the renowned architect in Sri Lanka. This article was published in the RIBA Journal in February 1986.
Priyanka Tisseverasinghe
Geoffrey Bawa the renowned architect in Sri Lanka. This article was published in the RIBA Journal in February 1986.
Priyanka Tisseverasinghe

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Priyanka Tisseverasinghe on Jun 21, 2013
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06/26/2014

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An
exhibition
of
the work
of
Sri
Lankan
architect
Geoffrey
Bawaopens
at
the
RIBA
on March
6(runs
until
April2).
Ronald
Lewcock
discusses
Bawa's highly
individual
approach
to
building
and
argues
thathis
designs
transcend
the dichotomy
between
interior
and exterior.
AS
designerssearch
for
essen-
tials
in
the art
of
architecture,
it
is
refreshing
to
turn
to
the
work
of
men
who
have
been
steadily
following
their
own
bent
for
decades,
producing
buildings
of
common
sense
and
quality,
and
ignoring
to
a
large
extent
fashionable
theories and fads.
Britain
has
its own
share
of
such
men,
likeWalter
Segal
and more recent-
ly
Richard MacCormac,
but
we
might wishthere
were
more of them. Geoffrey
Bawa
in
Sri
Lanka
is
such
an
architect,
and one
of
great
distinction.
Sri
Lanka, formerly
Ceylon,
was
for
manyyears
regarded
as
"the
jewel
in
the
Indian
Ocean".
After
independence
in
1948,
the
former
British,
former Dutch, former
Portu-
guese
colony wasjudged
to
have
as
prosperous
an
eco-
BM:
ARCADIA
IN
SRI
LANKA
nomy,
based
on the export of
tea,
coconut
and rubber,
as
any
country
in
the
developing
world.
It
was
soon
after
that
time
thatGeoffrey
Bawa,then
32,
put
up the
shutters
of
his
law
practice
in
Colombo
and
decided
to follow
the
direction
of
his
private
preoccupation.and
enrol at the Architectural
Association.
After
qualifica-
tion,
he returned
to
Colombo
to
practise
as
a
partner
in
the
firm
of
Edwards
Reid
&
Begg.
His
clear-sighted,
unpre-
judicedview
of
the
architec-
ture
of
the
island,
with
itsBuddhist
simplicity
inthe
rural
and religious
buildings,
and
its
colonialpracticality
in
urban
architecture,produced
some
remarkable buildings
that
are
as
satisfying
today as
when
they
had
just
been finished.
One
house,
that
for
Ena
de
Silva
(1962)
initiated
an
entire-
ly
original
form
of
a
classic
style
of
colonnaded,
courtyard
house,
with tiled
roofs
and
shaded
courtyard
pavedwithriverstones.
Its
large
size
is
deceptive,
for
it
is
built to
theedge
of
its site. This
was the
architect's first tour
de
force.
It
was
followedby
a
house
for
a
doctor
in
1963
which
was
subsequently
acquired
by
the
architect's
firm
for
use
as
an
office.
It
is
altogether
granderthan the
de
Silva
house,
with
a
formal
entrance
court,
a
ba-
lanced
plan,
and a
succession
of
spaces
culminating
in
what
is
now the
architect's office,
with
a
wide
garden
court
beyond.
At
the
same
time
the Mon-
tessori School
for
St
Bridget's
Convent
in
Colombo
(1963)was
designed,and a
few
years
later,
the
Farm
School
at
Hanwella.
Both
were
econo-
mical
in
their
design
and
construction,
yethad
consider-
able
characterderived
fromthe
originalityof their
design.
The
Hanwella
Farm
School,
forms
aparticularly
satisfying
groupof
orange-tiled,whitewashedbuildings along
a
low
ridge.
Here
orphan
girls
were trained
inall
aspects
of
farming.
It
was
judgedimpor-
tant that
the buildings "relateto buildingsin the
countryside
with
which
the
girls
were
familiar"
andwhich
might
be
repeated economically.
Geoffrey
Bawa
next
embarked
on
larger
projects.
The Bentota
Beach
Hotel of
1969
is
sited
like
a fortress onthe banks
of
a
largecalm
river
as
it
enters
the
rough
sea;
it
is
approached
through
a
podiumof rubble
stone,executed
with
the
same
exquisite masonry
of
the
ancientbuildings
of
theTop
left,
Bawa'sstyle:
hisvintage Rolls-Royce
with
a
traditional
Sri
Lankan
backdrop;
left,
section
andplan
ofthe
architect's
oflice,
1963.Oppositepage:
top
right,
central
courtyard
of
Bawa'soflice
-
perfectfusion
of
interior
and
exterior
spacel
left,
Bawa's
skill
as
architect,gardener,decorator andcollector
combine to
produce
such exquisite
setpieces
as
this
courtyard
corner;
far
right,
the
architect's studio,
a
worldofwater,
shade
and
calmwhich
acknowledges
thedazzling
heat and
light
outside.
28
RIBAJ
February
1986
 
I
,
{:
5,F,!:':':ril
*;a*!;.,.
island,thenup
a
flightof
stairs
into
a
long
space
with
a
ceiling
entirely
ofgolden
batik,
which
faces
into
a
widecourt
and
pool.
The
main
rooms
and
bedrooms
of
the
hotel
have
fine
woodworkand
light
tim-ber
verandahs.
ln
later buildings
he handles
reinforced
concrete
with
thesame
attitudes
he
has
to
the
use
of
brick,
tiles
and
timber.The
frames
are
always clearly
expressed
inside and
out,
andare used
to articulatewalls
andspaces.
The finest examples
of
this
areprobabty
the
Neptune
and
Triton
Hotels
(1974
and1981)
withtheir
broad
sweep-
ing
spaces,
though
the
archi-
tect
himself
is
fond
of
the
Serendib
Hotel
(1969).
Bawa's
designs
really
start
with
nature.
Tremendous
pains
are
taken
to
site
the
building
carelully.
In
the
Tri-
tonHotel.
one
of
the
latest
and most characteristic
of
his
hotel buildings,
a
curving drive
on
both
sides
of
the
greatentrancelakegives
a
stunning
view
through
an
immense
open
lobby
across
a
wide
swimming
pool
to
the
beach
and
ocean
beyond. High
innercourtyards on both
sides
of
the
lobby
are
surrounded
by
corri-
dors and are
reminiscent of
colonial
domestic
buildings,
with
colouredplastered
walls
and
broad
white
plastered
frames
around small
window
openings.
In
the
Parliament building
of
Kotte(l9tt2),
Bawa
has
combined
his
understanding
ofthe traditional
architecture
of
Sri
Lanka
with the
approach
he
has
developed
towards
reinforced concrete
to
give
a
great
structure
five
storeys
high the
scale
and
articulation
of
much
smaller, more
familiar
buildings.Surrounded
by
a
man-made
lake and
with
a
number
of
small
pavilions
demarcating
the
edge
of
the
island. the Parliamentbuitding
is
approached
by a
great
ceremonial
causeway.
The
re-
lationship
of
the
pavilions
to
each
other, and
their
place-
ment
on
the tiered
terraces,
leads
to
a
cohesive whole.
RIBAJ February
1986
 
Below, early
sketches
for
the
Parliament
House,
Kotte,
19801
centre.
banners
flying
overKotte
for
a
modern
and
truly
regional architecture;bottom,
thehuge
copperroofs
of the
Parliamentpavilions
seen
across
from
theman-made lake and
architect
designedwoods
-
the
building
was
completed
in
threeyears;
right,
the
glittering,
galleriedParliament Chamber
-
coming
from
one
of the
world's
lushest
islands.
Bawa
is
unafraidof
decoration
and
colour.
I
1'l/
I
t
5+r------&
-
The
apogee
of
Geoffrey
Bawa's
work so
faris
un-
doubtedlyhis
new
Universitv
of
Ruhuna at
Matara,which
is
as
yetnot
complete.
Here
he
has created
a
skein
of
stairs
and
walkways draped
over
a
steep
hillside.
He
has
captured
every
conceivable
view,
and
wherethere
was
none.
created
his own.
One
climbs
up
through
the buildings and
look
downover incredible
orange
tiled
roofscapes
below
and.
beyond.
the
Indian
Ocean.
Modern andtraditional
nrat-
erials
match and
blendperfect-
ly,
and
thewhole
is
organised
with
the strictest discipline
by
a
highly disciplined
mind.
Turning
from
these
gran-
diose
schemes
to
the
simpler
buildings does
not
bring
any
diminution
of
quality.
Irr
numerous
small
houses
and
in
such
building
groups
as
the
Club
at
Madurai
in
South
India
(197.1)
and
the
AdultTraining
Centre
at
Pilyandala(1981)Bawa
shows
again how
the
:kilful
u:e
of
proportion
rnateriul:
lntl
cclkrur.
com
binetl
s
ith the
clarity
of simpl
fornr:.
can
crcate
tremendou
archrtecturll
satisfaction
an,
deli,'rht.
C)n unrrther
level
are
th
expennrcntal buildings.
suc
as
the nuninral
steel and
glas
CerlonPerilion
at
Expo
7[
30
RIBAJ
February
1

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