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Studi Scient Rugby

Studi Scient Rugby

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Published by: giannidiet on Jun 21, 2013
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Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007 Dec;32(6):1052-7.Click here to read LinksEffect of in-season creatine supplementation on body composition and performance in rugbyunion football players.Chilibeck PD, Magnus C, Anderson M.College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, 87 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B2,Canada. phil.chilibeck@usask.caRugby union football requires muscular strength and endurance, as well as aerobic endurance.Creatine supplementation may enhance muscular performance, but it is unclear if it would interferewith aerobic endurance during running because of increased body mass. The purpose of this studywas to determine if creatine supplementation during 8 weeks of a season of rugby union footballcan increase muscular performance, without negatively affecting aerobic endurance. Rugby unionfootball players were randomized to receive 0.1 g.kg(-1).d(-1) creatine monohydrate (n=9) or  placebo (n=9) during 8 weeks of the rugby season. Players practiced twice per week for approximately 2 h per session and played one 80 min game per week. Before and after the 8 weeks, players were measured for body composition (air displacement plethysmography), muscular endurance (number of repetitions at 75% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) for bench press andleg press), and aerobic endurance (Leger shuttle-run test with 1 min stages of progressivelyincreasing speed). There were time main effects for body mass (-0.7+/-0.4 kg; p=0.05), fat mass (-1.9+/-0.8 kg; p<0.05), and a trend for an increase in lean tissue mass (+1.2+/-0.5 kg; p=0.07), withno differences between groups. The group receiving creatine supplementation had a greater increasein the number of repetitions for combined bench press and leg press tests compared with the placebo group (+5.8+/-1.4 vs. +0.9+/-2.0 repetitions; p<0.05). There were no changes in either group for aerobic endurance. Creatine supplementation during a rugby union football season iseffective for increasing muscular endurance, but has no effect on body composition or aerobicendurance.1: J Sports Sci. 2005 Sep;23(9):961-76.Click here to read LinksScience of rugby league football: a review.Gabbett TJ.Queensland Academy of Sport, PO Box 956, Sunnybank, Queensland 4109, Australia.tim.gabbett@qld.gov.auThe purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby leaguefootball at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), withspecial reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performanceanalysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide.A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval.Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition.Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiologicaldemands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactateconcentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur,semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and
172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professionaland junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been usedto develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactateresponses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition,recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioningactivities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning games is low. Collaborative research amongthe various sport science disciplines is required to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of rugby league players. An understanding of the movement patterns and physiological demands of different positions at all standards of competition wouldallow the development of strength and conditioning programmes to meet the precise requirementsof these positions. Finally, studies investigating the impact of improvements in physiologicalcapacities (including the effect of different strength and conditioning programmes) on rugby league playing performance are warranted.: J Strength Cond Res. 2007 Aug;21(3):875-81.LinksPhysiological and anthropometric characteristics of elite women rugby league players.Gabbett TJ.Athlete and Coach Support Services, Queensland Academy of Sport, Queensland, Australia.tim.gabbett@srq.qld.gov.auThis study investigated the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of elite womenrugby league players and developed physical performance standards for these athletes. Thirty-twoelite women rugby league players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (body mass,height, sum of 7 skinfolds), muscular power (vertical jump), speed (10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint),agility (505 test), glycolytic capacity (glycolytic agility test), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multistage fitness test). The skinfold thickness, speed, agility, vertical jump height, glycolyticcapacity, and estimated maximal aerobic power results were 6.0-38.1% poorer than previouslyreported for elite women team sport athletes (e.g., rugby union, soccer, and hockey). Although nosignificant differences (p > 0.05) were detected between selected and nonselected players for any of the physiological or anthropometric characteristics, significant differences (p < 0.05) were detected between forwards and backs for body mass, skinfold thickness, 10-, 20-, and 40-m speed, andestimated maximal aerobic power. When data were analyzed according to positional similarities, itwas found that the hit-up forwards positional group were heavier, had greater skinfold thickness,and had lower 10-, 20-, and 40-m speed, muscular power, glycolytic capacity, and estimatedmaximal aerobic power than the adjustables and outside backs positional groups. The results of thisstudy show that elite women rugby league players have slower speed and agility, lower muscular  power, glycolytic capacity, and estimated maximal aerobic power, and greater body mass andskinfold thickness than previously reported for other elite women team sport athletes. Thesefindings show the need to develop all physiological parameters to allow elite women rugby league players to more effectively tolerate the physiological demands of competition, reduce fatigue-related errors in skill execution, and decrease the risk of injury.
: J Strength Cond Res. 2007 Nov;21(4):1126-33.LinksRelationship between physical fitness and playing ability in rugby league players.Gabbett T, Kelly J, Pezet T.Athlete and Coach Support Services, Queensland Academy of Sport, Brisbane, Australia.tim.gabbett@srq.qld.gov.auThis study investigated the physiological, anthropometric, and skill characteristics of rugbyleague players and determined the relationship between physical fitness and playing ability in theseathletes. Eighty-six rugby league players (mean +/- SD age, 22.5 +/- 4.9 years) underwentmeasurements of standard anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of 4 skinfolds), muscular  power (vertical jump), speed (10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint), agility (L run), and estimated maximalaerobic power (multistage fitness test). In addition, 2 expert coaches independently assessed the playing ability of players using standardized skill criteria. First-grade players had significantlygreater (p < 0.05) basic passing and ball-carrying ability and superior skills under fatigue, tacklingand defensive skills, and evasion skills (i.e., ability to beat a player and 2 verse 1 skills) thansecond-grade and third-grade players. While no significant (p > 0.05) differences were detectedamong playing levels for body mass; skinfold thickness; height; 10-, 20-, or 40-m speed; agility;vertical jump height; or estimated maximal aerobic power, all the physiological and anthropometriccharacteristics were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with at least 1 measure of playing ability.The results of this study demonstrate that selected skill characteristics but not physiological or anthropometric characteristics discriminate between successful and less successful rugby league players. However, all physiological and anthropometric characteristics were related to playingability. These findings suggest that while physiological and anthropometric characteristics do notdiscriminate between successful and less successful rugby league players, a high level of physicalfitness contributes to effective playing ability in these athletes. A game-specific training programthat incorporates both physical conditioning and skills training may facilitate a greater transfer of  physical fitness to competitive performances in rugby league.
Sports Med.2003;33(13):973-91.
Applied physiology and game analysis of rugby union.
.Department of Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, Belconnen, Australian CapitalTerritory, Australia. grant.duthie@ausport.gov.auIncreased professionalism in rugby has elicited rapid changes in the fitness profile of elite players. Recent research, focusing on the physiological and anthropometrical characteristicsof rugby players, and the demands of competition are reviewed. The paucity of research oncontemporary elite rugby players is highlighted, along with the need for standardised testing protocols. Recent data reinforce the pronounced differences in the anthropometric and physical characteristics of the forwards and backs. Forwards are typically heavier, taller, andhave a greater proportion of body fat than backs. These characteristics are changing, withforwards developing greater total mass and higher muscularity. The forwards demonstratesuperior absolute aerobic and anaerobic power, and muscular strength. Results favour the backs when body mass is taken into account. The scaling of results to body mass can be problematic and future investigations should present results using power function ratios.Recommended tests for elite players include body mass and skinfolds, vertical jump, speed,and the multi-stage shuttle run. Repeat sprint testing is a possible avenue for more specific

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