agent solution was mixed with water to prepare a bathcontaining cationic agent with 20% w/w ﬁber sam-ples. The samples were introduced into the bath and,after 5 min dwell time, the temperature was increasedfrom ambient to 60
C at 2–2.5
C/min and then heldconstant during the cationization process. The bathwas well agitated during the process. After that, 15%on weight of fabric, sodium hydroxide (40 g/L) wasadded in three steps every 5 min, and after the lastaddition the mixture was agitated for 10 min. Atthe end of the reaction the samples were removedfrom the bath, rinsed several times with water, andacidiﬁed with 1% acetic acid. They were then againrinsed with water and dried at ambient temperature.
Adsorption of nanosilver colloids
Fabric samples were treated with nanosilver colloidsby conventional exhaustion method, at 30:1 liquorratio. The silver concentration was varied as 10, 25,50, 100, and 150 mg L
of nanosized silver particlesin the exhaustion bath. Samples were immersed in afresh colloidal bath for 5 min at ambient temperatureand then the temperature of the bath was increased to80
C and 100
C during 20 min and held at ﬁnaltemperature for 30 min. Finally, the samples weretaken out of the bath, rinsed with water, and dried inthe dark at room temperature.Measurements
Solutions of two different nanosilver colloids (L andLS) were characterized by a Varian-Cary 100 scanultraviolet (UV)–visible spectrophotometer.
Dynamic light scattering
The particle size distribution of silver colloidalsolutions was determined by dynamic light scattering(DLS) using a SEM-633 goniometer (SEMATech)with a He–Ne laser (
632.8 nm) at roomtemperature.
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
Infrared spectra of the cotton samples were obtainedby KBr pellet technique. Samples were ground andwell mixed with the KBr and pressed in an evacuateddie under suitable pressure. Fourier-transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectra were recorded with a BrukerTensor 27 FT-IR spectrometer, which operated from400 to 4,000 cm
with resolution of 4 cm
X-ray diffraction patterns of samples were recordedon a STOE STADI P transmission X-ray powderdiffractometer system by monitoring the diffractionangle from 5
) using monochromatized CuK
1.54051 A˚) radiation.
Scanning electron microscopy measurements
Microscopic investigations on fabric samples werecarried out using a Philips XL30 scanning electronmicroscope (SEM) equipped with a LaB6 electrongun and a Philips-EDAX/DX4 energy-dispersivespectroscope (EDS). Images were taken at differentmagniﬁcations (from 150
), using sec-ondary electrons (SE) in accordance with the clarityof the images. Fabric samples were ﬁxed with carbonglue and metalized by gold vapor deposition to recordimages.
Inductively coupled plasma optical emissionspectrometry
Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spec-trometry (ICP-OES) CCD Dimultaneous was used onVarian Vista Pro (argon plasma, Ag 328.068-nmexcitation, Ag sensitivity 0.004 mg L
), Australia tomeasure the quantity of silver concentration on fabricsamples. Fabric samples (0.5 g) were incinerated in adigitally controlled furnace. Temperature was grad-ually increased to 600
C and then maintained for60 min. Remaining ashes were dissolved in concen-trated nitric acid in a 50-mL volumetric ﬂask, whichwas then ﬁlled with double-distilled water to theindication line. All solutions were stored in plasticcontainers at room temperatures unless otherwisementioned. Measurements for each sample wereperformed in triplicate and average results arereported.
Cellulose (2009) 16:1147–1157 1149