legacy regarding methodology and information systems development and implementation,and by evaluating their joint use at the mental level of positivistic reasoning . As yet,they have not been tested in industrial service systems.
2. Concerted Regulative Cycles for Accelerated e-Transitions
Where research should lead to problem-solving or practical interventions, there is often aneed for the process of multi-methodology, that is, combining together several methods inan intervention . Originating in psychological practice, the regulative cycle  has been extensively applied also as a methodology of practice, geared towards the "interested"regulation of the behaviour of groups or organizations in the desired direction. Where principals are engaged with the operations and improvement of a work system such as a plant, a hospital or a service system, the cycle includes the following activities: evaluation(of system operations with respect to an instrument or via benchmarking), problemidentification (selection from a problem mess), diagnosis (of the problem situation – analysis), plan of action (design), and intervention (implementation). This last step isfollowed by evaluation to close the cycle. In the evaluation activity it is convenient to havean instrument to compare the performance or structure of the work system. The referencefab methodology  uses a reference model for systematic target setting on high level performance indicators. The model obtained from peer intelligence is translated into a sitespecific reference model with targets for the actual site work system. The translationconsiders factor costs, volumes and complexity of technologies.
real sitework system
site specificreference modelsProblemIdentificationAnalysis anddiagnosisInterventionImplementationPlan of actionDesignEvaluation/ Monitoring
TranslationPeer Intelligence(Market, Science,Roadmap,Benchmarking,..)Problem/GapRegister
Figure 1: Regulative Cycle Extended with Reference Models
As e-maintenance implementation problems involve the ICT-reliant work systems of multiple enterprises including the OEM and its customers, some form of concertation of their regulative cycles is recommended. Where benefits of model-based development are pursued, sharing model repositories can help reduce common project risks . Wherea trend to many-to-many relationships is observed , lock-in strategies by softwarevendors, and free-rider attitudes and prisoner's dilemma by OEM and their customers maydelay achieving solution flexibility, perpetual service-IT alignment, as well as affordabledevelopment and implementation costs. A complicating factor in deciding on investmentsin the maintenance value chain is the imitable nature of the standards, architectures,contracts and services that must be deployed. In economic theory, the relevant game is the public good game, a multi-player variant of the prisoner's dilemma .
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