Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) Discussion Paper
THE DOUBLE BURDEN OF MALNUTRITION:
A Review of Global Evidence
Principal author, Consultant, Health, Nutrition, and Population Unit, East Asia Pacific HumanDevelopment Sector, The World Bank, Jakarta, Indonesia
Task Team Leader, Lead Health Specialist, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, HumanDevelopment Sector, the World Bank Financing of this work was generously provided by the Millennium Challenge Corporation.
:The Double Burden of Malnutrition (DBM) is the coexistence of both undernutrition andovernutrition in the same population across the life course.
Across the life course
refers to the phenomenon that undernutrition early in life contributes to an increased propensity for overnutrition in adulthood. The DBM affects all countries, rich and poor, and is a particular concern in countries with high stunting rates. The consequences of the DBM are enormous; earlylife undernutrition is an underlying cause associated with about a third of young child deaths.Among the survivors who become stunted during the first two years of life, their capacity to resistdisease, to carry out physical work, to study and progress in school, are all impaired across thelife course. Later in the life course, diet and nutrition, and especially obesity, are importantunderlying causes of many non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including hypertension,diabetes, cancer, stroke, and ischemic heart disease. The causes of the DBM are related to a seriesof changes occurring in the world called the
of countries. The variables associated with the nutrition transitionand obesity epidemic can be grouped into four cross-cutting themes, which include: (i) theHealth/Biological Environment; (ii) the Economic/Food Environment; (iii) the Physical/BuiltEnvironment; and (iv)the Socio/Cultural Environment. The solutions for the DBM problems arereasonably well recognized in each of its parts: undernutrition and overnutrition. However, thesolutions have not been combined into an overarching policy and program framework, whichtogether with raising awareness about the serious future implications for the low-and middle-income countries is the aim of this paper.
: Undernutrition, Overnutrition, Obesity, Double Burden of Malnutrition
: The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in the paper are entirelythose of the authors, and do not represent the views of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent.
Claudia Rokx, Lead Health Specialist, ECSH1, World Bank, 1818H Street N.W. Washington DC, 20433, email@example.com