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Good Judgment and Moral Reasoning

Good Judgment and Moral Reasoning

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Published by Paul Can
ethics subject
ethics subject

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Paul Can on Jun 24, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/24/2013

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Good Judgment and Moral ReasoningRight EthicsIs the ethical theory that makeshuman rights morally paramount andfundamental,Views human rights as foundational-the moral bottomlineWhat is a HUMAN RIGHTS?Are morally valid entitlements orclaims on other persons, recognizingthat others make similar claims on us.Are also called NATURAL RIGHTSAre “unalienable” in that they cannotbe abolished or taken awayLEGAL RIGHTS?Are simply the areas of freedom andbenefits recognized in a particularlegal systemLIBERTY RIGHTS?Are rights not to be interfered withAlso called NEGATIVE RIGHTSWELFARE RIGHTS?Also called POSITIVE RIGHTSAre rights to receive essential goodswhen one is unable to earn thosegoods on one’s own and when thecommunity has the resources toprovideSPECIAL MORAL RIGHTS?Arise from contracts, promises,legislation, school membership, andrelationships with professionalsDUTY ETHICSIMMANUEL KANTGerman philosopherMost influential duty ethicistPRINCIPLES:RESPECT FOR PERSONS PRINCIPLEACT SO THAT YOU TREAT HUMANITY,WHETHER IN YOUR OWN PERSON OR THAT OF ANOTHER, ALWAYS AS ANEND AND NEVER AS A MEANS ONLYRESPECTAPPRECIATINGDUTIES OF SELF-RESPECT2. TO CONTINUE LIVING3. TO DEVELOP THEIR TALENTS ANDAPTITUDES4. TO NOT HAVE OTHERS MAKEINSINCERE PROMISES TO THEM5. TELL THE TRUTH6. KEEP YOUR PROMISES7. we are to do our duty because it isour duty8. we are to do what is right because itis right9. do unto others as you would havethem do unto youDAVID ROSS
 
British philosopherPRIMA FACIE DUTIES: genuine dutiesthat sometimes have exceptions whenthey conflict with other duties havinggreater importance in a given situationDo not to lie To protect innocent life To protect a patient under one’s care“actual duty or duty proper” to tell alie in order to save a life“PRIMA FACIE RIGHT” meaning rightsthat have permissible exceptionswhen they conflict with other rightsBASIC ETHICSDUITIES OF FIDELITY means derivingfrom our own actions, either in makingcommitmentsDUTIES OF REPARATION means incausing harm to othersDUTIES OF GRATITUDE ANDRECIPROCITY means deriving fromother people’s acts of service towardsusDUTIES OF JUSTICEDUTIES OF BENEFICENCE means sheeropportunity to help othersDUTIES OF SELF-IMPROVEMENTDUTIES OF NONMALEFIANCE meansnot injuring othersDo not inflict harm; prevent harm;remove harm; promote goodULITARIANISMPRODUCE THE MOST GOOD FOR THEMOST PEOPLEMEANS lying is right when it promotesthe most good and it is wrong when itpromotes more bad than goodINTRINSIC GOODs- things worthseeking for their own sakeINTRINSIC BADs- things to be avoided Jeremy BenthamOnly intrinsic good is pleasure and theonly intrinsic bad is pain “ hedonism” The quality of pleasures, as well astheir quantity, must be taken intoaccount, saying that some pleasuresare inherently better in kind thanothersACT ULITARIANISMAn act is right when it maximizes goodeffects more than any other optionavailable in a situationRULE ULITARIANISMIs the view that we should follow aparticular set of rules that wouldmaximize overall goodVIRTUE ETHICSCHARACTER ETHICSDESCRIBES the character of a moralagent as a driving force for ethicalbehavior.Focuses greater attention or moralmotivation and moral psychologySpur greater attention to personalrelationships

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