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Alevel - AS Geography World at Risk Revision

Alevel - AS Geography World at Risk Revision

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Published by Attiya
Revision for world at risk, unit 1 for AS geography
Revision for world at risk, unit 1 for AS geography

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Published by: Attiya on Jun 24, 2013
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10/24/2013

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 World at Risk
 
Global hazards
A hazard is an unexpected threat to humans and or their propertyA disaster is when a natural hazard has serious effects such as large loss of life or propertyA disaster consists of 2 components-
 
Hazardous geophysical event e.g. flood/earthquake/tsunami-
 
Vulnerable population: susceptible to humans and or economic loss because of where theylive
Natural Hazard: 
factors effecting strength or level of risk-
 
Past recurrence intervals-
 
Future probability-
 
Speed of onset (warning)-
 
Magnitude-
 
Duration-
 
Areal extent
 –
range of area effected
Vulnerable system: 
exposure, sensitivity, recurrence of:-
 
Population-
 
Economy-
 
Land use and development-
 
Infrastructure and critical facilities-
 
Cultural assets-
 
Natural resources-
 
Tectonic
 – 
to do with processes ac
ting to shape the earth’s crust
 -
 
Climatic
 – 
to do with processes affecting and causing worlds weather-
 
Geomorphological
 – 
to do with nature and history of land forms and the processes thatcreate them
 
Risk of disaster
Location
 – 
do they live on a fault line/near the coast/disaster hotspot: more likely risk of disaster
Gender
 – 
people are more likely to get hurt or injured if they are indoors. Women and children aremore likely to be indoors in some parts of the world
Quality of buildings
 – 
better the quality of buildings, the more likely it will survive the hazard
Income
 – 
wealthier people usually have better houses and can afford to live away from high riskareas
LEDC’s
 
 – 
Poor quality buildings, poor disaster management plans and poor prediction abilities
Disaster trends
-
 
Impacts of natural hazards vary considerably around the world-
 
Asia dominates as being the continent most affected by natural hazards-
 
Vulnerability is a big part of the study of natural hazards
Disaster equation
-
 
Used to measure hazard vulnerability-
 
Hazard vulnerability = capacity of a person to cope with, resist and recover from the impactof a natural hazard
Disaster risk (D) = Hazard (H) x Vulnerability (V)Capacity to cope (C)
Vulnerability based on 3 factors:1.
 
People HAVE to live in dangerous places
 –
 
can’t afford other places
 2.
 
Can’t afford to build well –
even if building regulations are enforced3.
 
Rapid urbanisation
 –
forced the poor into high risk areas of cities
Case study: California and Iran Earthquake
-
 
Central California and Bam (Iran) had earthquake with magnitude of 6.5 in 2003-
 
Number of people killed varied between the two.-
 
California no. killed 2-
 
Bam no. killed 26000-
 
Bam has poor quality housing so couldn’t stand the earth
quake
 –
75% of houses damaged-
 
Leaving 100,000 people homeless-
 
California MEDC and can afford good buildings-
 
No people left homeless-
 
Iran women and children more likely to be indoors

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