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Employment and Unemployment

Employment and Unemployment

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Published by: 9290010274 on Jun 25, 2013
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Government of IndiaMinistry of Statistics and Programme ImplementationNational Sample Survey Office
Dated the 20
June 201330 Jyaistha, 1935 Saka
The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), Ministry of Statistics and ProgrammeImplementation has released the key indicators of Employment and Unemployment in India,from the data collected in its 68
round survey conducted during the period July 2011 - June2012. The NSS surveys on employment and unemployment are conducted quinquenniallystarting from 27
round (October 1972 - September 1973) and the last quinquennial surveywas conducted in NSS 66
round (July 2009- June 2010) for which, the results have already been released. The NSS 68
round was the ninth quinquennial round on the subject. Thedetailed results of surveys on employment and unemployment are usually brought out by the NSSO through a number of reports. In order to make available the salient results of thesurveys, well in advance of the release of its reports, for use in planning, policy formulation,decision support and as input for further statistical exercises, the NSSO has released the keyindicators.The indicators are based on the Central Sample of 1,01,724 households (59,700 inrural areas and 42,024 in urban areas) surveyed from 7,469 villages in rural areas and 5,268urban blocks spread over all the States and Union Territories except (i) interior villages of  Nagaland situated beyond five kilometres of the bus route and (ii) villages in Andaman and Nicobar Islands which remained inaccessible throughout the year.In defining the lead indicators of Labour force participation rate (LFPR i.e. ratio of labour force to population), Worker Population Ratio (WPR i.e. ratio of workforce to population), Proportion Unemployed (PU i.e. ratio of unemployed to population) andUnemployment Rate (UR i.e. ratio of unemployed to labour force) in NSS surveys, personsare classified into various activity categories on the basis of the activities pursued by themduring certain specified reference periods. Three reference periods used in NSS surveys are(i) one year (ii) one week and (iii) each day of the reference week. Based on these three periods, three different measures of activity status are arrived at. Activity status determinedon the basis of reference period of one year is known as the Usual Status (US) of a person,that determined on the basis of a reference period of one week is known as the CurrentWeekly Status (CWS) of the person and the activity status determined on the basis of theactivities pursued by a person on each day during the reference week is known as the CurrentDaily Status (CDS) of the person. In US approach, there are two indicators viz. one based on principal activity called Usual Principal Status (ps) and other based on both principal andsubsidiary activities taken together termed as Usual Status (ps+ss). The unit of measurements
2in case of US and CWS is persons and in case of CDS, it is person-days. The key indicatorson employment and unemployment based on 68
round along with the comparable indicatorsof 66
round and estimated persons/person-days (in million) in labour force, in workforceand unemployed corresponding to these two rounds are given in
Annexure -I
respectively.These indicators and also the other important statistics relating to distribution of workers according to employment status and industry and also on wage rates of regular wage/salaried employees and casual labourers from the survey are summarized as below:
Labour force participation rate (LFPR) in Usual Status (ps+ss)
About 40 per cent of population belonged to the labour force - 41 per cent in ruralareas and 37 per cent in urban areas.
LFPR for males was nearly 56 per cent and it was 23 per cent for females.
LFPR was about 55 per cent for rural males and about 56 per cent for urban males. Itwas about 25 per cent for rural females and about 16 per cent for urban females.
Worker Population Ratio (WPR) in usual status (ps+ss)
WPR was 39 per cent at the all-India level- 40 per cent in rural areas and 36 per centin urban areas.
WPR for males was nearly 54 per cent and it was 22 per cent for females.
WPR was nearly 54 per cent for rural males and 25 per cent for rural females. It wasnearly 55 per cent for urban males and 15 per cent urban females.
Unemployment rate (UR) in usual status (adjusted)
UR in the usual status (ps+ss) termed as UR in usual status (adjusted)
was nearly 2 per cent at the all-India level. It was about 2 per cent in rural areas and about 3 per cent in urban.
In the rural areas, UR for both males and females were almost at the same level(nearly 2 per cent) while in urban areas, UR for females was about 5 per cent ascompared to 3 per cent for males.
Growth in employment between 66
round and 68
According to the usual status (ps+ss), the workforce at the all-India level, was about 459.0millions (rural male: 231.9, rural female:104.5, urban male: 99.8 and urban female: 22.8) as on1st January 2010 (NSS 66
round) which increased to 472.9 millions (rural male: 234.6, ruralfemale:101.8, urban male:109.2 and urban female: 27.3) as on 1st January 2012 (NSS 68
 round), indicating a growth of about 13.9 millions of the workforce at the all-India level between 66
round and 68
Distribution of usual status (ps+ss) workers by employment status
In the total workforce of usual status (ps+ss) at the all-India level, the shares of self-employed, regular wage/salaried employees and casual labour were 52 per cent, 18 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively.
In the rural areas, the shares of self-employed, regular wage/salaried employees andcasual labour were 56 per cent, 9 per cent and 35 per cent, respectively.
In the urban areas, the shares of self-employed and regular wage/salaried employeeswere 42 per cent and 43 per cent, respectively and the rest (15 per cent) were casuallabours.
The shares of self-employment in total workforce were 55 per cent for rural males, 59 per cent for rural females, 42 per cent for urban males, 43 per cent for urban females.The corresponding shares of casual labour were 36 per cent, 35 per cent, 15 per centand 14 per cent for rural males, rural females, urban males and urban females,respectively.
Industry-wise distribution of usual status (ps+ss) workers
Among the workers in the usual status (ps+ss), about 49 per cent, 24 per cent and 27 per cent were engaged in agricultural sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector,respectively.
In rural areas, nearly 59 per cent of the usual status (ps+ss) male workers and nearly75 per cent of the female workers were engaged in the agricultural sector. Among themale workers, 22 per cent and 19 per cent were engaged in secondary and tertiarysectors, respectively. The corresponding proportions for female workers were 17 per cent and 8 per cent, respectively.
In urban areas, nearly 59 per cent of male workers and 55 per cent of the femaleworkers were engaged in the tertiary sector. The secondary sector employed nearly 35 per cent of the male and 34 per cent of the female workers. The share of urbanworkforce in agricultural sector was nearly 6 per cent for male workers and 11 per cent for female workers.
Wage Rates of Regular Wage/Salaried Employees and Casual Labourers (age 15-59years)
At the all-India level, average wages received by regular wage/salaried employeeswas Rs. 396 per day. This was Rs. 299 in the rural areas and Rs. 450 in the urbanareas.

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