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Gas Turbines for Electrical Power Production

Gas Turbines for Electrical Power Production

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Published by sperthawin2787630
Gas turbines for electrical power production.doc
Gas turbines for electrical power production.doc

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Published by: sperthawin2787630 on May 06, 2009
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Gas turbines for electrical power production
GE H series power generation gas turbine. This 480-megawatt unit has a rated thermal efficiency of 60% in combined cycle configurations.Industrial gas turbines range in size from truck-mounted mobile plants to enormous, complex systems.They can be particularly efficient — up to 60% — when waste heat from the gas turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator to power a conventional steam turbine in a combined cycleconfiguration. They can also be run in a cogeneration configuration: the exhaust is used for space or water heating, or drives an absorption chiller for cooling or refrigeration. A cogeneration configurationcan be over 90% efficient. The power turbines in the largest industrial gas turbines operate at 3,000 or 3,600 rpm to match the AC power grid frequency and to avoid the need for a reduction gearbox. Suchengines require a dedicated enclosure.Simple cycle gas turbines in the power industry require smaller capital investment than either coal or nuclear power plants and can be scaled to generate small or large amounts of power. Also, the actualconstruction process can take as little as several weeks to a few months, compared to years for baseload power plants. Their other main advantage is the ability to be turned on and off within minutes,supplying power during peak demand. Since they are less efficient than combined cycle plants, they areusually used as peaking power plants, which operate anywhere from several hours per day to a coupledozen hours per year, depending on the electricity demand and the generating capacity of the region. Inareas with a shortage of base load and load following power plant capacity, a gas turbine power plantmay regularly operate during most hours of the day and even into the evening. A typical large simplecycle gas turbine may produce 100 to 300 megawatts of power and have 35 to 40% thermal efficiency.The most efficient turbines have reached 46% efficiency. [1] Turboshaft enginesTurboshaft engines areoften used to drive compression trains (for example in gas pumping stations or natural gas liquefaction plants)and are used to power almost all modern helicopters. The first shaft bears the compressor andthe high speed turbine (often referred to as “Gas Generator” or "N1"), while the second shaft bears thelow speed turbine (or “Power Turbine” or "N2"). This arrangement is used to increase speed and power output flexibility. Radial Gas Turbines1963, Norway, Jan Mowill initiated the development atKongsberg Våpenfabrikk. The turbine had a unique, all radial configuration, originally rated at 1200kW. The turbine proved very successful and was generally sold in electric generating packages. Themajor markets for the units were in the maritime, offshore oil and gas and communications industries.During the following years, more than a thousand units were delivered world wide. KongsbergVåpenfabrikk was privatised, split up and sold off in the late nineteen eighties and development of theoriginal turbine business was discontinued under the new ownership. As a result, Jan and HirokoMowill founded OPRA in Hengelo in 1991.
Consequently the first 1.6 MW OP16 was designed as a single shaft, all-radial machine. NOx emissionswere developed to a very low level for both diesel fuel and natural gas. This was achieved with aunique, patented fuel / air pre mixer in connection with an annular combustor.The current production model, OP16-3 features both single and dual fuel operation as well as lowemissions on natural gas. For improved maintenance and servicability, a four can combustion systemswas favoured rather than the annular combustor used on the prototype.For a single stage radial turbine the pressure ratio of 6.7: 1 is relatively high, which entails a highturbine impeller tip speed of 700 m/s (equal to the velocity of a rifle bullet).Since this is nearly the same as the velocity of the gas entering the impeller tip from the nozzle guidevanes, an ”impact” between the hot gas and the turbine impeller is avoided.It could be said that this phenomenon constitutes “dynamic” cooling gaining about 100 degrees Celsiuscompared to a temperature increase in an axial turbine. OPRAs radial turbine is able to take this hightip speed due to it’s “Eiffel Tower” shape with a strong base and a thinner blade tip region with lowstresses. Having low stresses in the hot tip region and higher stresses in the cold,“fat” hub region makesOPRA work with nature rather than against it.The OPRA radial turbine stage has an advanced aerodynamic design with an efficiency of 90% fromthe inlet of the guide vanes to the exhaust diffuser exit.The efficient centrifugal compressor has a very good 'match' with the turbine as their optimal running
speeds are similar.Since both compressor and turbine are close coupled via a Hirth - type teeth connection, an overhungrotor suspension is possible. This system provides balance integrity despite the differential thermalexpansions between the compressor and turbine.A ball bearing is placed in the front of the rotor support housing taking the combined thrust- and radialload. The rear, tilting pad bearing takes the main radial load. The cantilever, or overhung suspension of the rotor places the bearings in the cold section of the engine, avoiding oil supply to hot bearings. Thissystem has considerable positive impact on engine reliability and maintenance.A flexible coupling connects the turbine to the two stage planetary gearbox, reducing the turbine speedfrom 26000 to 1500 or 1800 rpm depending on generator speed requirementsThe OP16-3 has an ISO rating of 1.9 MW. The engine efficiency of nominally 27% is at the highestlevel in the below 2 MW power range. Past competitors (no longer active) in this range have been atthe 23 – 25 % level.Utilising proven radial gas turbine technology, the OP16 gas turbine is a compact, efficient and reliableindustrial gas turbine designed for supplying power generation applications to both the Oil and Gas andIndustrial markets.The OP16 generator sets can be provided in a variety of configurations to meet customer specificrequirements. The engineering design, component selection and maintenance accessibility of thegenerator sets enhance high reliability and long product life. The generator sets can be provided withlow emission and dual / multifuel capabilities.The generator sets can be installed as single or multiple units effectively covering installationrequirements from 2 MW to 10 MW. Scale jet enginesAlso known as:Miniature Gas TurbinesMicro-jetsMany model engineers relish the challenge of re-creating the grand engineering feats of today as tinyworking models. Naturally, the idea of re-creating a powerful engine such as the jet, fascinatedhobbyists since the very first full size engines were powered up by Hans von Ohain and Frank Whittle

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