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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

N o. 17 -J u n e 1979
S h e lls A ro u n d S o u th e rn N o v a e
H .W .D u e rb e c ka n d
W .C .S e itte r
A lth o u g hle s ss p e c ta c u la rth a nth e irb igb ro th e rs ,
th es u p e rn o v a e , th en o v a ea reb yn om eans le s s
i nte re s tin g .
T h e y
a re
a ls o
m uch
m ore
fre q u e n t
a n ds e v e ra la reknow n
i n
th es o u th e rn s k y .A fte r
th e
in itia le x p lo s io n ,as h e lle x p a n d sa ro u n dth e
n o v aa n dm aybecom e
v is ib lea fte r a w h ile . D rs .
H ilm a rD u e rb e c k
a n d
W a ltra u tS e itte rfro m
th e
H o h e r-L is tO b s e rv a to ry ,n e a r B o n n ,F R G ,re c e n tly
o b s e rv e d
th re e
s o u th e rn
n o v a e .
T h e
e x c e lle n t
r e s o lu tio no fth e3 .6mp h o to sm akesi tp o s s ib let o
s e ed e ta ilsi n
th e
v e ryfa in tn o v as h e llsth a t h a v e
n e v e rb e e np e rc e iv e db e fo re .
T h e
s o u th e rn
s k y
c o m p ris e s
o n e
o f
th e
m ost
fa n c ifu l
s u p e rn o v a
re m n a n ts -th e
e x te n d e d
s p id e r
w eb
o f
th e
G um
n e b u la . Ith a rb o u rs a ls osom e le s ss p e c ta c u la r, tin y ,
a s tr o n o m ic a lly
s h o r tliv e d
phenom ena:
th e
re m n a n ts
o f

n e a rnovae x p lo s io n s . They can be observedfo ro n ly afe w d e c a d e sa fte ro u tb u rs t, b e fo re th e yth ino u t a n dm e rg e in to th e

in te r s te lla rm e d iu m .D ue
t o
th e irs m a ll s iz e
a n d
lo w
s u rfa c eb rig h tn e s s , th e yre q u ire la rg e te le s c o p e s , s u c h a s
h a v e
re c e n tly
becom e
a v a ila b le
i n
th e
s o u th e rn
h e m i\ue000
s p h e re . F o rtu n a te ly ,som eo b s e r v in gtim e w a sg ra n te dt o
u s b e fo reth ea b o v e -m e n tio n e dd is a p p e a r a n c e s !
R R
P ic to r is
Tw o
b r illia n t
n o v a e
s h o n e
in
th e
s o u th e rn
s k y
i n
th is
c e n tu ry .T h efirs t o n e ,R R
P ie , w a sd is c o v e r e d o n
M ay2 5 ,
1 9 2 5 , a n d re a c h e d its p e a km a g n itu d eo f1
~
2
o nJ u n e9 . It
re m a in e d
v is ib le
t o
th e
u n a id e d
e y e
fo r
a b o u ta
y e a r.
S p e n c e r
J o n e s
p u b lis h e d
i n
1 9 3 1
a
b u lk y
v o lu m e
o f
s p e c tro s c o p ic
a n d
v is u a lo b s e rv a tio n s m a d e a tth e C a p e
O b s e rv a to ry .A n o th e rs o u th e rn
o b s e rv e r,J .H a rtm a n n
i n
B u e n o s
A ire s ,
o b s e rv e d
th e
n o v a
s p e c tr o s c o p ic a lly
a n d
w ro teth e
m ostc o n c is ea s tro n o m ic a l p a p e re v e rp u b lis h \ue000
e d ,
a
te le g ra m
s e n J
t o
th e
A s tro n o m is c h e
N a c h ric h te n :
"N o v ap ro b le m
s o lv e d ;s ta rb lo w s u p ,b u rs ts ." A n d in d e e d ,
w hen
d o u b le -s ta ro b s e rv e rse x a m in e d
th e
p o s tn o v atw o
F ig .1 :Then e b u la rs h e lla ro u n d T P yx (1 9 6 6 ).F ro m ap rim e fo e u s
0 9 8p la teb e h in daR G 6 3 0 filte r,e x p o s u re7 0 m in .
F ig .2 :T h en e b u la rs h e lla ro u n d R R P ie (1 9 2 5 ).F ro ma 3 .6mp rim e
fo e u s 0 9 8p la teb e h in da R G 6 3 0 filte r,e x p o s u re 9 0 m in .
y e a r s la te r, it w a sem bedded in a n e b u la ,w ithtw od is tin c t
c o n c e n tra tio n sm o v in g
i n
o p p o s ited ir e c tio n s .W eq u o te :
" 1 9 2 8 .2 8 4 . N e b u la
s lig h tlye lo n g a te d
i n
2 5 0
o
\u00b1 .D oesn o t
m e re ly
lo o k
d o u b le ;
lo o k s
g r a n u la r
a n d
s e p a ra te d
b y
p a tie n t
w a tc h in g .
A C
2 5 3 \u00b0\u00b1 ,
A B
1 2 4 \u00b0\u00b1 ,
A D 3 5 3 \u00b0\u00b1 .
x
8 1 0 .
In
m y
o p in io n ,
A ,
B ,
C
c e rta in ,
D
som ew hat
d o u b tfu l. . ."(S p e n c e rJ o n e s 1 9 3 1 ).
H ave
a
lo o k
a t th e
a p p e a ra n c e
o fR R
P ic o n
a9 0
r n
re d
e x p o s u re ,
ta k e n
a t
th e
p rim e
fo c u s
o f
th e
E S O
3.6 m

te le s c o p e(fig .2 ).T h ep o s tn o v a is surro u n d e d by as tru c tu \ue000 re dn e b u lo s ity . Ar i n g -I ik e fe a tu reencom passes th e c e n tra l s ta r,tw op a irso fc o n d e n s a tio n ss e e m to h a v e b e e n e je c te d w ith

h ig h e r(ta n g e n tia l)v e lo c itie s , a trig h t a n g le s
t o
th e
rin g
a n d
o p p o s ite
t o
e a c h
o th e r.
T h e y
c a n
e a s ily
b e
id e n tifie d
a sfra g m e n tsB a n d
C
o fth e

e a rlyd o u b le -s ta r o b s e rv e rs .A is ,o f c o u rs e ,th e c e n tra l s ta r, a n d Dp a rto f th e r in g - lik es tru c tu re .T h ec o m p u te r-e n h a n c e d ,b lu eim a g e is show n

infig u re3 .
R R
P ic r e s e m b le s th ew e ll- k n o w n
re m n a n to fN ovaD Q
H e r,w h ic h
a ls o
d is p la y sa n
"e q u a to ria lrin g "a n d
"p o la r
b lo b s " ,b u tit h a s am o rec o m p lic a te ds tru c tu re : t h ep o la r
b lo b s
a re
d o u b le
o r
e v e n
tri p ie ,
a n d
th e re
a re
tw o
e q u a to ria lr in g s ,in c lin e d
t o
e a c h
o th e r, a n d
e a c h
n e a rly
p e r p e n d ic u la rt oa n a x isjo in in gp ro m in e n tp o la rc o n d e n \ue000
s a tio n s . T h e
s im ila r itie s
b e tw e e n
D Q
H er and
R R
P ic are
s tr ik in g :
b o th
a re
s lo w
n o v a e ,
b o th
a re

s h o rt-p e rio d b in a r ie s(W a lk e r 1 9 5 4 ,V o g t 1 9 7 5 ),b o thn e b u la es h o w th e s a m e b a s ic g e o m e try .

A n
im p o rta n t,a n d
i n
p r in c ip le
s tra ig h tfo rw a rd ,u s e
o f
a
n o v a
re m n a n tp h o to g ra p h
is
th e
d e te rm in a tio n
o fth e
2
(
F ig .3 :T h en e b u la rs h e lla ro u n d R R P ie(1 9 2 5 ).F ro m a p rim e fo e u s
111a -Jp la teb e h in daB G3 8 5 filte r,e x p o s u re 6 0 m in .P lo tp re p a re d
fro m
P O Sd e n s ity s e a n s .
n e b u la rp a r a lla x :w ithth eknow ne x p a n s io nv e lo c ityo f th e
s h e ll
i n
k m
s
"
a s
o b s e rv e d
d u rin g
o u tb u rs t,
a n d
th e
d im e n s io n so fth es h e ll ina rcs e c o n d s a tsom e la te r tim e ,
th e
d is ta n c e
c a n
b e
d e te rm in e d
w ith o u t
a n y
fu rth e r
a s s u m p tio n s .B uta la s !R R P icshow ed m a n y r a d ia lv e lo c ity
s y s te m s in th e
c o u rs eo fit se v o lu tio n ,ra n g in gfro m
4 0t o
1 ,6 0 0 k m
s
" a n d th e s h e ll h a s m a n y d ia m e te rs :th a to f th e
rin g ,th a td e te rm in e d
b yth e b lo b s ,o r m e re ly , th ep ro je c \ue000
tio n
o f
th e
b lo b s
i n
th e
s p h e re ,
s in c e
th e
o p e n
rin g
s tru c tu re
in d ic a te s
th a tth e
p o la rb lo b s
a re
n o te je c te d
p e r p e n d ic u la rt o
th e
lin e
o fs ig h t. Ap re lim in a ry a n a ly s is
le a d st oad is ta n c eo f 4 0 0 p c .T h is is as lig h t r e v is io no f th e
p r e v io u s lya s s u m e d v a lu e .
C P P u p p is
T h e n o v aw ith th e fa s te s td e v e lo p m e n t,e x c e p t V 1 5 0 0 C y g
1 9 7 5 ,is
C P
P up
o f1942. O bserved
e x p a n s io n
v e lo c itie s
w e reo fth eo rd e r o f1 ,2 0 0 k m
s '.H ig h -re s o lu tio ns p e c tra
o b ta in e d
i n
th e
la te r
n e b u la r
s ta g e
b y
S a n fo rd
(1 9 4 5 )
show ed
H \u00df
a n d
[0 1 1 1 ]
4 3 6 4
b ro k e n
u p
in to
m ore
th a n
a dozene m is s io nc o m p o n e n ts .
Z w ic k y , in 1 9 5 5 ,o b ta in e d ap r a c tic a lly fe a tu r e le s sp h o to \ue000
g ra p ho fth e s h e llw ith th eP a lo m a r 5 m
re fle c to r. W h e n h e
p u b lis h e dth ep h o to g ra p h

in 1 9 6 2 , h e w r o t e : ". . . itw o u ld m e ritg re a te ra tte n tio nth a nit h a s b e e na c c o rd e dh ith e rto a n d

i t
i s
t o
b e
re c o m m e n d e d
fo r
m ore
o b s e rv a tio n s
p a rtic u la rlyt o
o b s e r v e r s in t h es o u th e rn
h e m is p h e re. . ."
H e re it is (fig . 4): Afrin g e dh a loo nth eb lu e p la te , a c h a ino f
b la c k
p e a rlso n
th e
re d
p la te : a
la te
c o n firm a tio n
o fth e
e a rlyfra g m e n te d
e m is s io n
lin e
p ro file ?
A g a in
itm ust b e
s a id
th a t
a
s tra ig h tfo rw a rd
a p p lic a tio n
o f
th e

n e b u la r e x p a n s io np a r a lla xisn o t p o s s ib le ,b u t if it isassum edth a t th em a jo rp o rtio no fth em a te ria l w a se je c te d in as lig h tly in c lin e d

rin g ,d a tafro m

th es p e c tro s c o p ics tu d ya n dth e d ir e c tp h o to g ra p hcan ber e c o n c ile d , The derivedd is ta n c e o f

1 ,5 0 0p c
is
i n
e x c e lle n t
a g re e m e n t
w ith
a n
e a r lie r
d e te rm in a tio n ,b a s e d
o ng a la c ticro ta tio n a n din te r s te lla r
lin e s ,
a n d
le a d st o
a
v e ry
h ig h
p e a k
b rig h tn e s s
o fM
=
-
1
1
~
5
.
C P
P u p
w as
v e ry
lik e lyth e
m ostlu m in o u s
n o v a
o b s e rv e du n tilnow .
T P y x id is
T h e
th ird
re m n a n t,th e
n e b u lo s ity
a ro u n d
th e
re c u rre n t
n o v a
T Pyx,
w as
in
sam e
re s p e c ts
a
s u rp ris e ,
R ecent
p h o to g ra p h so fth e
b rig h te s tre c u rre n tn o v a , T C rB , h a d
re v e a le d
o n ly
v e ryw eak
n e b u la rw h is p s(W illia m s1 9 7 7 ).
T h e v e rys tra n gn e b u lo s itya ro u n dT P y x isth u s u n u s u a l.

A g a in it isn o ttriv ia lt od e r iv eth en e b u la r p a r a lla x , R a d ia l v e lo c ityo b s e rv a tio n sa res c a rc efo r T P y x a n dw efin d th e a d d e dp ro b le m

o fh a v in gt od e c id ew h ic ho u tb u rs t c a u s e d
th er e m n a n t. W a s itp ro d u c e d in 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 4 4 , 1 9 2 0 , 1 9 0 2 ,o r
even 1890?
F o rtu n a te ly ,
C a tc h p o le
(1 9 6 9 )
p ro v id e s
u s
w ith
th e
k n o w le d g eo fa ra d ia lv e lo c ity s y s te m
o b s e rv e di n 1 9 6 6o f
v=
-9 0 0k m
s "in te rp re te d asb e in gd u et oth ep r in c ip a l
s p e c tru m .
W ith
th is ,
a
d is ta n c e
o f
600 pc
i s
d e d u c e d ,
c o rre s p o n d in gt oa b s o lu tem a g n itu d e sa tm a x im u m
o fM v
=
2
'
~
9
a n d
a tm in im u m
o fM v
=
+
4 ':"4 .U nderth e
a b o v e
a s s u m p tio n s ,
th e
re c u rre n t
n o v a
d o e s
n o t
f i t
in to
th e .
t3-a b s o lu te
m a g n itu d ea tm a x im u m -re la tio n .

It isp o s s ib let oc h e c ko n t h e 1 9 6 6o r ig ino fth e s h e ll.W ith th ed is ta n c ea n dth ea n g u la rd ia m e te rknow n, th ev o lu m e e n c lo s e d

b y
a
s p h e ric a l
n o v a
s h e ll
a n d
i t s
c o n te n t
o f
in te r s te lla r
m a tte r
c a n
b e
d e d u c e d .A s s u m in g
th a tth e
d e te c tio no fa s h e ll r e q u i re s itsd e n s ityt o b e1 0 -1 0 0tim e s
F ig ,4 :
T h e
n e b u la rs h e lla ro u n d
C P
P up
(1 9 4 2 ).
F ro m
ap rim e
fo e u s 0 9 8p la teb e h in da R G 6 3 0 filte r,e x p o s u re 6 0 m in .
N e w E S O S lid e S e ts
T w on e wE S O s lid es e ts w ill b e c o m e a v a ila b le d u r in g th e n e x t
m o n th s .
T h e
firs t o fth e s e
c o n s is ts
o f2 0
5x 5c m
c o lo u r s lid e s
s h o w in g
th e
E S O
in s ta lla tio n s
o n
L a

S illa . B u ild in g s , te le \ue000 s c o p e sa n dv ie w s o f th e s itea re in c lu d e d . A fu ll d e s c r ip tio nin s e v e ra l la n g u a g e s e x p la in s th e s lid e s .

T h es e c o n ds e t c o n ta in ssom e o fth eb e s t p h o to g ra p h s th a t
h a v e
b e e n
o b ta in e d
w ith
th e
3 .6m
p rim e
fo c u s
c a m e ra
(G a s c o ig n e
c o rre c to r).2 0b la c k - a n d - w h ite s lid e sh a v eb e e n
s e le c te d
fro m
m ore
th a n
1 ,0 0 0p h o to g r a p h s , N e b u la e , g a l\ue000
a x ie s , e tc . F u ll d e ta ilsina c c o m p a n y in g te x t.
T h e
p ric e
fo r o n e s lid e
s e tisG e rm a n
M arks 18,- (orth e
e q u iv a le n t) fo r E u ro p e ,a n d
U S $1 0 ,-b y s u r fa c e m a il toa ll
o th e r
c o u n trie s ,
o r
U S $1 2 .5 0
b y
a ir m a il
( to
b e
p a id
in
a d v a n c e ),
S e n dy o u r c h e q u e o r b a n k d r a ll to :
E u ro p e a n S o u th e rn O b s e rv a to ry
S c h le is s h e im e r S tra s s e1 7
0 -8 0 4 6 G a re h in gb e i M \u00fc n c h e n
(C o m m e rz b a n k , M \u00fc n c h e n , A c c o u n tN o,2 1 0 20 0 2 ).
S om ec o p ie s o fth e fir s tE S O s lid es e t w ith2 0 p h o to s fro mth e
1 m S c h m id t te le s c o p ea re s till a v a ila b le(s a m e p r ic ea s a b o v e ),
th e
in te r s te lla rd e n s ity ,w e
fin d
th a ta
1 9 4 4
s h e ll
m ust
c o n ta ina t le a s t 1 0
2 6
_ 1 0
2 9
9o fm a tte r a n d ,w ith as u s p e c te d
h ig h e re x p a n s io nv e lo c ityo f1 ,7 0 0 k m
s',e v e n 1 0
2 9
_ 1 0
3 0
g ,
w h ile
a
s h e lle je c te d
i n
1 9 6 6
h a s
a
lo w e rm ass
lim ito f
1 0
2 7
-1 0
2 6
g ,
T h e
fo rm e r
v a lu e s
s e e m
ra th e r
ta o
la rg e ,
e s p e c ia lly
in
v ie w
o f
e a r lie r
d e te rm in a tio n s
fo r
o th e r
re c u rre n tn o v a ew h ic h y ie ld 1 0
2 6

9o r le s s . Itm ust b ek e p t in m in d ,h o w e v e r,th a tth ea b o v ea rg u m e n tre q u ire ss p h e ric a l v o lu m e s .T h in

s h e llso rre m n a n tsw ith
s tra n gc o n d e n s a \ue000
t ia n s
c o m b in e
s m a lle re je c te d
m asses
w ith
la n g e rlife \ue000
tim e s ,
P e rh a p sth es tro n g e s ta rg u m e n tin fa v o u ro f a 1 9 6 6 s h e ll
is
th e
a b s e n c e
o fs tra n g
re m n a n ts
o fe a r lie ro u tb u rs ts ,
p o s s ib le
p ro o f
o f
a
s h o rt
life tim e ,
a s
w e il
a s
a
m ore
s p h e ric a ln a tu reo fre c u rre n tn o v a s h e lls .
W h ile
a ll
a rg u m e n ts
a re
w eak,
th e y
p ro v id e
u s
w ith
a
c o m fo rta b ly
c o m p le te
s e to f d a tafo r a 1 9 6 6o u tb u rs t.
W ith
th e
im p lie d
fa s td e v e lo p m e n to f th e
re m n a n tit is
e a s ily
p o s s ib le
t o
v e rify
o rt o
re je c t
o u rc o n c lu s io n
b y
s y s te m a tic a lly
fo llo w in g
th e
fu tu re
d e v e lo p m e n to fth e
re m n a n to fT Pyx,
T h e
p h o to g ra p h ic
in v e s tig a tio n s
re p o rte d
h e re
a re
c le a r ly
o n ly
th e
b e g in n in g
o f
a
c lo s e r
s tu d y
o f
n o v a
re m n a n ts
a n d
m ustb e
s u p p le m e n te d
b y

s p e c tro s c o p ic in v e s tig a tio n sw h ic hw illp e rm itac lo s e rlo o ka tth ep h y s ic s o fth e

n o v a
s h e lla n d
h o p e fu lly
s h e d
m ore
lig h to n
th e
n a tur eo fth e n o v a p ro c e s s .

W e a re p le a s e dt oth a n kth en ig h ta s s is ta n to f th eE S O 3 .6 m te le s c a p e , S r. Y a g n a m ,fo rm oste ffic ie n th a n d lin go f th ete le s c a p ea n dth ec o ffe em a c h in e ,a n d D ip l. p h y s . H .J , B e c k e r(B a n n )fo rh is r e a d in e s st op ro d u c eb e a u tifu lp lo ts fro m

POS scans,
R e fe re n c e s
C a tc h p o le ,R ,M "
1 9 6 9 ,M o n . N o t,1 4 2 ,1 1 9 ,
H a rtm a n n ,J "
1 9 2 5 ,A s tr. N a e h r.2 2 6 ,6 3 ,
S pencer Jones,H .,1 9 3 1 ,A n n . C a p e O b s .1 0 ,p a rt9 ,
S a n fo rd ,R .F "
1 9 4 5 ,A s tro p h y s , J ,1 0 2 , 3 5 7 ,
V o g t,N .1 9 7 5 ,A s tr,A s tro p h y s .4 1 ,1 5 ,
W a lk e r,M .F .,1 9 5 4 ,P u b l. A s tr, S o e . P a e ifie 6 6 ,2 3 0 .
W illia m s ,R .E .,1 9 7 7 ,V e r\u00f6 ff, S te rn w .B a m b e rg 9 ,N r.1 2 1 ,2 4 2 ,
Z w ic k y ,F "
1 9 6 5 ,K I.
V e r\u00f6 ff. S te rn w .B a m b e rg4 ,N r.4 0 ,1 6 9 .
3

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