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messenger-no20

messenger-no20

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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02/01/2013

N o . 2 G -M a rc h 1 9 8 0
Ita ly a n d S w itz e r la n dt o B e c o m e M e m b e r s o fE S O
/
N
3 0 "
W h ile o b s e rv e rs h a v eo b ta in e d s p e c trao fm o re th a n
1 ,4 0 0
q u a s a rs
s in c e
th e y
w e re
d is c o v e r e d
in
1 9 6 3 ,
fe w e r th a n o n ep e rc e n t h a v e b e e ns tu d ie db yd ire c t
im a g in g
te c h n iq u e s
a t
s ig n ific a n tly
fa in t
s u rfa c e
b r ig h tn e s s le v e lsa n dh ig ha n g u la r r e s o lu tio n
t o
d e \ue000
te c ta n y th in gm o re th a nab rig h tp o in t- lik e s o u rc e . L a
Q u a s a r s R e s o lv e d
P .A .W e h in g e r,
T .G e h re n
a n d
S .W y c k o ff

O n 2 6M a rc hth e E S OC o u n c il,m e e tin g in G e n e v a in s p e c ia l s e s s io n ,u n a n im o u s lya c c e p te d Ita ly a n dS w itz e r\ue000 la n d a sn e wM em ber S ta te s inth eO r g a n iz a tio n .T h ism e m b e r s h ipc o u ldbecom ee ffe c tiv e e a r ly in 1 9 8 1 ,i fth e re q u ire d

p a rlia m e n ta ry
ra tific a tio n
p ro c e d u re
i n
th e
tw o
c o u n trie s
w illh a v e
b e e n
s u c c e s s fu lly
c o m p le te d .
A c c o r d in g
t o
th e
E S O
C o n v e n tio n ,
n e w
M em ber

S ta te s h a v et o p a y a s p e c ia lc o n trib u tio nc o rre s p o n d - in gt oth e ir s h a r e inth ein v e s tm e n ts m a d e inth e p a s t. In

fix in g
th e
am ounto fth is
c o n trib u tio n ,
th e
E S O

C o u n c ila ls od e c id e dth a ti tw ill b e u s e dt oe x p a n dth e o b s e r v in gfa c ilitie sa t L a S illa .A t p r e s e n t, th e s efa c ili\ue000 tie s a re a lr e a d y h e a v ilyo v e rs u b s c rib e d , a n dth isc o u ld o n lybecom em ores ow ith

a2 5 -p e r-c e n tin c re a s e i n
th e
u s e rc o m m u n ity .It is e n v is a g e d
t o
b u ild
a 3 .5 -m
te le s c o p ew ithath inlig h t- w e ig h tm irro r,w h ic hc o u ld
b ec o m p le te dw ith in
fiv e y e a rsa fte r fin a lp r o je c t a p \ue000
p r o v a l.
T h is
te le s c o p e --th e
N TT
(N e w
T e c h n o lo g y
T e le s c o p e ) - w illg iv e am uch

n e e d e d in c r e a s e inth e a v a ila b le la r g ete le s c o p eo b s e rv in g tim e . A ls o ,i t w ill b ev a lu a b lei no b ta in in gth ete c h n o lo g ic a lk n o w le d g e n e e d e d

fo rth e
d e v e lo p m e n to fth e
la rg ete le s c o p e s
o fth efu tu re , lik eth e V LT .
W ithth ee n tryo fIta lya n dS w itz e r la n d , E S O
w ill be

m orea b let ofu lfilo n eo f itsp r in c ip a l ta s k s ,t ofo s te r c o o p e ra tio nina s tro n o m y in E u r o p e . W ew e lc o m eo u r c o lle a g u e sfro m

th e s etw oc o u n trie s a n dlo o kfo rw a rd
w ith
a n tic ip a tio nt oth e irfu llp a r tic ip a tio n
i n
a ll E S O
a c tiv itie s .
L .W o ltje r
D ire c to r-G e n e ra l
F ig .1 :T h eq u a s a r3 e 2 0 6( z
=
0 .2 0 0 ),a t c e n tre . E S O 3 .6 -m
p rim e
fo e u sp la te
(K o d a k
IIla -F
+
S c h o ttO G
5 7 0 ). N o te
e lu s te r in g
o f
fa in t(2 0 -2 2m a g ) o b je e ts
w ith in
-4 0
a re s e co f th e
0 5 0 .
~
S illa 's v e r y d a r k s k y , e x c e lle n t s e e in g ,p lu s th e s u p e r b
o p tic s
o fth e 3 .6 -m
te le s c o p e
h a v e
b e e n
c o m b in e d
w ith
d ig ita l a n a ly s is
o fs k y - lim ite d
p h o to g ra p h s
to
p ro d u c etw o - d im e n s io n a l in te n s ityc o n to u r m a p sa n d
im a g e p r o file so f q u a s a rs .T h e
c o n to u rm a p s re v e a l
e x te n d e d s tru c tu re o na s c a leo f5 -1 0a re s e cfo r8 0
p e rc e n to fas a m p Ie o f2 0lo w
re d s h ift( z
=
0 .1 - 0 .5 )
q u a s a rs . Ina s ig n ific a n tnum bero fc a s e s th e d a ta a ls o
s h o wth e p r e s e n c eo f g a la x ie s n e a r th e Q S O 's , s o m e
o fw h ic h h a v e m e a s u r e d r e d s h ifts n e a r ly e q u a l to th e
Q SO
re d s h ifts . T h isp ro g ra m m eis th ejo in t e ffo rto f
D rs.
P e te r
W e h in g e r
a n d
Thom as
G e h re n
o f
th e
M a x -P la n c k In s titu tefo rA s tro n o m yin H e id e lb e r ga n d
P ro fe s s o r S u s a n
W y c k o ffo f A r iz o n a S ta te U n iv e r s ity
in T e m p e , A r iz o n a .
A lth o u g h
e x te n s iv e
s p e e tro s e o p ie
a n d
p h o to m e trie
o b \ue000
s e rv a tio n s
h a v e
b e e n
o b ta in e d
o f
som e
1 ,4 0 0
know n

q u a s a rs ,o n ly a v e ry lim ite dnum bero fa s o 's h a v e b e e n o b \ue000 s e rv e dth ro u g hd e e p la r g e - s e a le d ir e e t im a g in g (i.e .p h o to \ue000 g ra p h ya n d /o ro th e rtw o -d im e n s io n a l d e te e to rs ). Ino rd e rt o u n d e r s ta n d th e n a tu reo f q u a s a rs a n dth e ir p o s s ib le re la tio n t oS e y fe rt a n d N -ty p e g a la x ie s , t ow h ic h th e y a re o fte n e o m \ue000 p a re d , w e h a v e u n d e rta k e n ap ro g ra m m eo fd ire e tim a g in g w ith th e E S O 3 .6 -m te le s e o p e . T h e d ir e e tim a g in g d a ta s e rv e

a s
e s s e n tia l g u id e s
fo rfo llo w -u p
s p e e tro s e o p ie
o b s e rv a -
tio n st od e te rm in e th e n a tu reo f th er e s o lv e d s tru e tu re a n do f
th e e lu s te rin go ffa in t (2 0 -2 2 m a g ) d iffu s e o b je e ts n e a r th e
a s o 's .
Tw oq u a s a rs a l re a d y a n a ly s e d b o thth ro u g h d ir e e t im a g \ue000
in g
a n d
s p e e tro s e o p y
a re :
M a rk a ria n
2 0 5
(A .S to c k to n ,
S .W y e k o ff a n d
P .A .W ehinger, 1979,A p.J .,2 3 1 ,6 7 3 ) at a
re d s h ift, z=
0 .0 7 0 , a n d th e r a d io q u a s a r 3 C 2 0 6(S . W y e k o ff,
P .A .W e h in g e r,H . S p in ra d a n dA . B o k s e n b e rg , 1 9 8 0 ,A p.J .
(in p re s s )), a t z=

0 .2 0 0 . T h e s e o b je e tsh a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d w ithth e M a u n a K e a 2 .3 -m te le s e o p e a n d th e E S O 3 .6 -m te le \ue000 s e o p e ,

r e s p e e tiv e ly . T h e
e o m b in e d
im a g in g
a n d
s p e e tro \ue000
s e o p ie d a tafro m
M a u n a K eas h o wth a tM ark 205( z=
0 .0 7 0 )
isa t its e o s m o lo g ie a l d is ta n e e , u n r e la te dt o th efo re g ro u n d
s p ir a l g a la x y , N G C 4 3 1 9( z=
0 .0 0 6 ). S p e e tr a o f a n o p tie a lly
r e s o lv e d
e x te n s io n , 4 a re s e cn o rth -e a s to f th ea s o ,s h o w
a na b s o rp tio n -lin e

r e d s h ift e q u a lt o th e e m is s io n - lin e re d \ue000 s h ifto fth ea s o . In fa c t, it h a s b e e nshow nth a tM ark 2 0 5 is s im p ly th elu m in o u sn u e le u so f o n eo f a p a iro f g a la x ie s( z= 0 .0 7 ) w h ic h lie n e a r ly in th e s a m elin e -o f-s ig h t a s t h e s p ir a l g a la x y N G C 4 3 1 9 .

Inthe ease of3 C
2 0 6( =
P K S 0 8 3 7 -1 2 0 ), w e firs t s e e u re d
e le e tro n o g ra p h s
a t
M auna
K ea
o f
th is
lu m in o u s
q u a s a r
w h ie h
show ed
a n
e x te n d e d
e llip tie a l e n v e lo p e

1 8 a re s e c d ia m e te r (a lo n g th em a jo ra x is ) a n d c lu s te r in go f a t le a s t a d o z e n

o b je e ts
(o f
2 0 -2 2
m ag)
c lo s e
t o
th e

q u a s a r (P .A .W e h in g e ra n dS . W y e k o ff, 1 9 7 8 ,M .N .R .A .S .,1 8 4 ,3 3 5 ). T h e n w e o b ta in e d d e e p e r a n d s o m e w h a t im p r o v e d re s o lu \ue000 tio n

p h o to g ra p h so f3 C
2 0 6w ith
th e
E S O
3 .6 -m

te le s e o p e a t th ep rim efo e u s . T h e s e IIla -F p la te s ( s e n s itiz e d b y b a k in g i n

fo rm in g
g a s )
w e re
e a lib ra te d
a n d
s u b s e q u e n tly
w e re
F ig .2 :T h e q u a s a rP K S0812 + 020( z
=
0 .4 0 2 ),a t e e n tre . E S O 3 .B -mp rim e fo e u s p la te . N o te fa in t o b je e tsn o rtha n ds o u tho f0 5 0w ith in
-2 0a res e eo f0 5 0 .
2
'
~
s c a n n e d
w ith
th e
PO S
m ic ro d e n s ito m e te ra t M P IA
in
H e i\ue000

d e i b e rg w h e re s o ftw a re h a s b e e n d e v e lo p e dt oa n a ly s e th e im a g e s . (C f.P .A .W e h in g e r,T . G e h re n a n dS . W y c k o ff, 1 9 8 0 , P ro c .o fE S O

W o rk s h o p
o n
Tw o

D im e n s io n a lP h o to m e try (e d . b yP . C ra n e a n dK . K j\u00e4 r), in p re s s .) 3 C 2 0 6 a n d P K S 0 8 1 2 + 0 2 0( aO SO

w ith
2
=
0 .4 0 2 ),show n in fig u r e s1 -4 ,e x h ib it
s ig n ific a n tc lu s te r in g
o fd iffu s e o b je c ts n e a r
(::'53 0 -4 0a rc
s e c ) t h e O S O 's . T h e s e
c lu s te r o b je c ts

h a v e a p p a r e n t in te \ue000 g ra te d m a g n itu d e s o f-2 0 -2 3a t 6 0 0 0A ,ju s t b e lo w th e p la te lim ito fth e P a lo m a r S k y S u rv e y .In fa c t, ty p ic a l c lu s te r g a \ue000 la x ie s a t

2
=
0 .2
a n d 0 .4w o u ld
b e e x p e c te dt o
h a v e
in te \ue000
g ra te d
m a g n itu d e s
w ith in
th is
ra n g e ,
if th e y
a re
g a la x ie s
a tth e ir c o s m o lo g ic a l re d s h ifts .
T h e
PO S
d ig ita l
s c a n s
o ffie ld
s ta rs
d e fin e
th e

p o in t\ue000 s p r e a d - fu n c tio n (P S F ),fo r a g iv e n p la te ,t o a s u r fa c eb rig h t\ue000 n e s slim ito f1 -2 p e r c e n to f th e re dn ig h t s k y(-2 6 -2 6 .5 m a g s e c -2

) .T h e P S Ffo r e a c h p la te h a s b e e n c o m p a r e d w ith th e
im a g e p r o file (m a gs e c -
2

v e rs u s ra d ia l d is ta n c e in a rc s e c )o f e a c h q u a s a r (s e efig u re5 ). O u to f a s a m p ieo f 1 6 q u a s a rs ,1 2 e x h ib it

e x te n d e d
im a g e
p ro file s
w h ic h
a re
s ig n ific a n tly
b ro a d e r th a n
th e s te lla r im a g e
p ro file s
(a s d e fin e d
by the
P S F ).
A
p o in t-b y -p o in t
s u b tra c tio n
o fth e
P S F
fro m
th e
q u a s a r im a g e p r o file re v e a ls a p r o filew itha s u rfa c eb rig h t\ue000
n e s so f~
2
2
-
2
4
m ags e c -
2
a n d a s lo p eo f_ r-
2
( H u b b le la w )
a s
e x p e c te d
fo re llip tic a l g a la x ie s . T h e
q u a s a rs
o b s e rv e d
th u s fa r w e re s e le c te d fro m
th e O p tic a l O u a s a r C a ta lo g
b y
G .R .B u rb id g e ,
A .H .C ro w n e
a n d
H .E .S m ith ,
1 9 7 7 ,A p.
J .S u p p t.,33, 113.In
a d d itio n , a ll th e
O S O 's
w e
h a v e
o b \ue000
s e rv e d
at ESO
th u sfa r a re
ra d io -Io u d . A d d itio n a l o b s e rv a \ue000
tio n s
a re
p la n n e d
t o
c o m p a re
ra d io -Io u d
a n d

ra d io -q u ie t q u a s a rs ,t os e ew hat d iffe re n c e s c a n b e d e te c te d in th e u n \ue000 d e r ly in g g a la x ie s , i.e .w h ic ha re e llip tic a l g a la x ie s a n d w h ic h a re s p ira ls . S in c e S e y fe r t g a la x ie s a re in g e n e r a l r a d io - q u ie t a n d a re s p ir a ls (c f.T .Adam s, 1977,A p .J . S u p p t., 33,1 9 , and

P .A .W e h in g e ra n dS . W y c k o ff, 1 9 7 7 ,M .N .R A S ., 1 8 1 ,2 1 1 ),
o n e
m ig h te x p e c t ra d io -q u ie t q u a s a rst o
b e
s e a te d
i n
th e
n u c le io fs p ir a l g a la x ie s .
A p p a re n t in te g ra te d m a g n itu d e s c a n b e o b ta in e dfo r th e
u n d e r ly in g g a la x ie s e x tr a c te dfro m
th eO SO
im a g e p r o file s .
T h e s e m a g n itu d e s , w h e nc o m b in e dw ithth e ir re d s h ifts , a n d
a s s u m in g a H u b b le c o n s ta n t,H o=
5 0k ms e c -
1
M pc-
1
,y ie ld s
a b s o lu te
m a g n itu d e s
o fth e
u n d e r ly in g
g a la x ie so f-2 1
t o
-2 4 ,ty p ic a lly1 -3
m a g fa in te r th a n
th eq u a s a rs . S in c e th e
C hangein "M essenger"
E d ito r s h ip
P le a s e b ein fo rm e dth a t I h a v e r e s ig n e d in D e c e m b e r
1 9 7 9a sE d ito ro fth e
E S O
M e s s e n g e r. T h eD i re c to r\ue000
G e n e ra l h a s a c c e p te d
m y
r e s ig n a tio n
a n d
w ill p r e s \ue000
e n tlya p p o in ta n o th e r p e rs o n
in thisfu n c tio n .
I s h o u ld lik et oth a n k a llth o s ew ho h a v ec o n trib u te d
t o
th e
M essengerd u rin g
th e
p a s t y e a rs . W ith
th e ir

g e n e r o u s h e lp it h a s b e e n p o s s ib let o r a p id ly p u b lis h n e win fo rm a tio na n dt o s tim u la te w id e s p re a d in te re s t i n

a s tro n o m y
in
g e n e ra l a n d
in
E S O
i n
p a rtic u la r. I
h o p e th e y w illc o n tin u e
t o
w rite

a r tic le s , n o te s , e tc . a n d u rg e th e mt os u p p o rtth e n e we d ito r a s a c tiv e ly a s p o s s ib le .

R ic h a r dM . W est
u n d e r ly in g
g a la x ie s a re d iffu s e ,w h ilethe O SO 's are
p o in t
s o u rc e s , th e g a la x ie s h a v e b e e nd iffic u ltt o d e te c t.
S p e c tro s c o p ic
o b s e rv a tio n s
o fth e
u n d e r ly in g

g a la x ie s a ro u n d q u a s a rs ,a sw e il a sa s s o c ia te d c lu s te r g a la x ie s , a re b e in g o b ta in e dw ithth e E S O 3 .6 -m a n d th e A n g lo -A u s tra lia n O b s e rv a to ry 3 .9 -m te le s c o p e s . T h e o b s e rv a tio n se m p lo yfa s t C a s s e g ra in s p e c tro g ra p h s a n d B o k s e n b e rg 's Im a g e P h o to n C o u n tin gS y s te m

(IP C S ). F o r 3 C 2 0 6 , o n e c lu s te r g a la x y h a s b e e n o b s e rv e d(-2 0m a g ,1 2 a rc s e c n o rth -e a s to fth eO SO ) to h a v ea n a b s o r p tio n - lin e re d s h ift,

2
=
0 .2 0 2 8\u00b1
0 .0 0 1 5 , in
c lo s e
a g re e m e n t
w ith
th e
e m is s io n - li n e
re d s h ift
o f
th e
q u a s a r( 2
=
0 .2 0 0 ). A s p e c tr u m
o fth e u n d e rly in g s tru c tu re ,
3 -6arc sec w esto f thea so , show s ana b s o rp tio n -lin e fea\ue000
tu reo fC a llH and K a n d alo w e x c ita tio n e m is s io n - lin e s p e c \ue000
tru m
a t th e s a m e
re d s h ifta s th ea so , a s w e ila s a re d d e r
c o n tin u u m
th a nth a t in th ea so .

T h e m e a s u re d s u rfa c e b rig h tn e s s , s lo p eo fth e im a g ep ro \ue000 file s ,a n g u la r d ia m e te r s v e rs u s r e d s h ift, a n d e m is s io n - a n d a b s o rp tio n -lin ere d s h ifts a re le a d in gt o a c o n s is te n t p ic tu r e o fq u a s a r s b e in g th e n u c le io f d is ta n t a c tiv e g a la x ie s , s o m e

o fw h ic h
a re lo c a te d in c lu s te r so r g r o u p so f g a la x ie s . O b \ue000
s e rv a tio n so fth e ty p e
w e
have described
h e re
n e e dt o b e
c a rrie d
o u tfo rb o th
ra d io
O S O 's a n d
o p tic a l (ra d io -q u ie t)
O S O 's , a n d a ls ofo rq u a s a rsw ith d iffe re n t re d s h iftsfo u n d in
PK 5
0 8 3 7
-1 2 0
F ig .4 :POSlo g a r ith m icin te n s ityc o n to u r m ap0 1 PKS 0812+020.
O th e rd e ta ils s a m ea s in
fig u re
3 .
F ig .3 :P O Slo g a r ith m icin te n s ityc o n to u r m a po f3 e 2 0 6 . S c a lei s
in d ic a te da trig h t. S u rfa c eb rig h tn e s sc o n to u rs a re g iv e n a tle tt( in
p e rc e n to fr e dn ig h t s k y ).
o
-1 0 "
0
~
0
~
o
0
0
0
0 0c !fJ
0
\u2022
( 9
"
l>
o .()
~
n
~
0
r !
PK 5
0 8 1 2
.0 2 0
0
~
0
D
(
)
,
~
g
S
> 1 0 "
.a Q )
0
e
,
'"
o
. \ 0
1 0
2 2
4 8
\0 7
2 3 8
3 7 3
5 3 0
-1 0 "
6 3 1
0 0 0
\u00b0 0
6
0
1 3
2 7
0
5 7
1 2 2
0
2 5 8
0
5 4 7
~
8 5 9
\2 1 9
~
1 4 5 3
I
0
0
o
0
c J
(J
0
3

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