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messenger-no15

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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02/01/2013

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
N o .1 5 -D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 8
T e n
N ig h ts a t th e " V e r y L a r g e T e le s c o p e " (V LT )!
E v e r s in c e th e E S O
C o n fe re n c e o n

F u tu re T e le s c a p e s in D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 7 , a s tro n o m e rs h a v e b e e n ta lk in g a bo u tfu tu reVery Large Telescopes.B ut w h a t w o u ld th e y a c tu a llyd a w ith th e m ? W e th e re fo re a s k e d s a m e o fth e a s tro n o m e rs in th e E S O c o u n trie s to a n s w e r th es im p le (? ) q u e s tio n :W h a tw o u ldy o u o b s e rv ei fy o u

h a d te n n ig h ts o na 25 m e treV L T ?W e b r in g th e ir re p lie s in th is a n d th efo llo w in g is s u eo f th e M e s s e n g e r.
o
[
J
~
\u2022
0
. .
\u2022 \u2022
0
o
U n c o v e r in gth e s e c re tso f th e U n i v e rs e w itha2 5 m
V L T .D r a w nb y J e a n - C la u d e P e c k e r w h o te ilsa b o u t h isp re fe rre do b s e r v in gp ro \ue000
gram m e
w ith
afu tu reg ia n t te le s c o p e . O th e rc o n trib u to rs in
th is
M essengeris s u e a r e Im m oA p p e n z e lle r ,P o u l-E rik N is s e n ,A n to in e
L a b e y rie ,L u b o sK o h o u te ka n d J e a n -P ie rre S w in g s . M o rew illfo llo w
in
th en e x tis s u e .
C lo u d sin th e H a lo
J .-C . P e c k e r
W e il, w h a t e a n b ed o n e w ith te n n ig h ts o na fu tu re
2 5 m e tre te le s e o p e (th e
V LT )?

T h efir s t to s e n d in h is a rtie le w a s P ro fe s s o r J e a n -C la u d e P e e k e r fro m C o lle g e d e F ra n e ea n dIn s titu t d 'A s tr o p h y s iq u e in P a ris .H efe e ls th a tm osto f th e tim es h o u ld b e u s e d t o

s tu d yth e s ta rsa n d
th e
g a s in
th e
h a lo
o fth e
M i/k y
W ay.J o in
h im
o n
th e
m a g ie e a rp e t .. .b u t
r e m e m b e r to
fa s te n
th e s e a tb e lts !
" E x p e rie n c e , till n o w , g iv e su s h o p eth a t h u m a n re s o u rc e \ue000
fu /n e s sa n dim a g in a tio n ,c o m b in e d
w ith
e n o u g h p h o to n s ,
w illfin ds o /u tio n s. . . "
J .-L . G re e n s te in.
. . .Y e s !. . .B utw h a t is
m o re
d iffic u ltis
t o
fin dp ro b le m s !
E v o k in gth e fa iry -ta le so f th e O rie n t, a s d id J e s s e G r e e n s te in
(E S O
C o n fe re n c e
o n
O p tic a l
T e le s c o p e s
o f
th e

F u tu re , D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 7 ),Ife e Ith a tm y T e n N ig h tsa t th e V L T h a v e , lik e th e T h o u s a n d a n d O n e N ig h tso fS c h e h e ra z a d e , acom \ue000 p le te ly im a g in a r y c h a ra c te r! W h e n th eV L T g o e sin to o p e ra \ue000 tio n ,Ia m

s u r eth a t m yd o c to r w illn o ta llo w m et o w a lkw ith \ue000
o u t
c ru tc h e s. . .
T h e
m a g ic
c a rp e tth a t
b rin g s
m e
th e re
tra v e lsm oreintim e th a n a c ro s s th e o c e a n s ,w h ic hisn o t b a d
a t a ll b e c a u s e th e a d a p ta tio n
w ill b e ra th e r d iffic u lt.

Ih a v e th e re fo re b e e nfo rc e dt oth in k alo t b e fo re e s ta b lis h \ue000 ing my"d re a m "p ro g ra m m e . A te le s c o p e w ith ad ia m e te ro f 2 5 mim p lie s a g re a tlyim p ro v e dlig h t-g a th e rin g c a p a c ity a n d am uchb e tte r re s o lu tio n .la d m itth a t th ete m p ta tio n to try to o b s e rv e"th elim itso f th e U n iv e r s e "is v e ry la rg e , a n d a ls ot o c o u n tth e fa in te s t o b je c tss o m e w h e re in th e s k y :b u t th e a t\ue000 m o s p h e reiss till th e re ; a n dI p re fe r to a w a it a s a te llite"o u to f th ee c lip tic " ,w h ic his e q u ip p e dw ith a te le s c o p eo f re a s o n \ue000 a b le s iz e , in

o rd e rt o
re a llyg e t rid
o fth eb a c k g ro u n d
lig h t
fro m
th ed u s t a n d th e in te rp la n e ta ry g a s( z o d ia c a llig h t) ,o r
a t le a s t m o s to f it.
Ith in ki tw o u ldb e in te r e s tin g to u s e th e V L Tt oim p ro v e th e
k n o w le d g eo fth e e n e r g yd is tr ib u tio n o n s te lla r s u rfa c e s .B ut
Ia m
a fra idth a t th e V LT in th e e n d w illn o t b e b e tte r th a n a n
a rra yo fc le v e r ly a r r a n g e d s m a lle r te le s c o p e s .
O nth e c o n tra ry , th efo llo w in ga rg u m e n t a p p e a rs re a s o n \ue000
a b le :a tth e
sam e
s p e c tra / re s o lu tio n ,
th e
s p a c e

v o /u m e w h ic h c a n b e e x p /o r e db yth eV LTis e le v e n tim e s /a rg e r th a n w hatc a n

b es tu d ie d
w ith
th e
P a /o m a r 2 0 0 " te /e s c o p e
(re \ue000
m em berth a tth e
re la tio n
b e tw e e nlim itin g
m a g n itu d ea n d
in s tru m e n td ia m e te risg iv e n b ym o=
-2 .5log 0
+c o n s ta n t
b e c a u s e th elim itis g iv e n b y th es ig n a l- to - n o is e ra tio , c f. th e
a rtic leb yW .A .B a u m
i nA s tr o n o m ic a / T e c h n iq u e s , S ta rsa n d
S te lla r S y s te m s ,
11,1 9 6 2 ,p .5 , ff.). Itis th e s tu d yo f th e s p e c tr a
o fs ta rs a n d g a la x ie sw h ic h h a s , in g e n e ra l,le tt m e h u n g r y .
Som em a jo rp ro b le m sin p re s e n t-d a ya s tro n o m y a re s tillu n \ue000
s o lv e d
b e c a u s e
o fth e
la c ko f s ta tis tic a l s ig n ific a n c e . T h e
e x a m p le s a re o b v io u s : o n e
c a n
c o u n to n
o n e
h a n d
(o r a t
le a s t o n afe w h a n d s ) th e s ta rsfo rw h ic h th e c h e m ic a lcom \ue000
p o s itio n
has been
d e te rm in e dfro m

s p e c tra l lin e m e a s u re \ue000 m e n ts ; e v e nm orera re a re th e n o rm a l s ta rsfo rw h ic h th e lin e p r o file s h a v e b e e n

w e il m e a s u r e d ; a n d Ik n o w
o n lyo f o n e
s ta r, th e
S u n ,fo rw h ic h
th e
lin e
p ro file s
h a v e
w e ll-d e te r\ue000
m in e d
a s y m m e trie s
(w ith
th e
e x c e p tio n
o f
som e
m on\ue000
s tro s itie s , h o w e v e r in te r e s tin gth e y m a y b e , lik efo r in s ta n c e
P
C y g n i) .
F o rh o w
m any
g a la x ie s
d o
w e
r e a lly
k n o w
th e
2
c h e m ic a lc o m p o s itio n
in
1 9 7 8 ?
A t th e
m ost a dozen. W e
s h a ll g e t a t le a s t ah u n d re d
w ith
th e V LT .
F o rh o w
m any
q u a s a rsd ow ek n o w th e s p e c tr u m in g re a t d e ta il?Im p ro v in g
th e
num berby afa c to ro f 10
w illa llo w
u st o
a v o id
r is k y
s p e c u la tio n s .
T h isfa c to ro f1 0 c a n ,a t th e s a m e d is p e r s io n , b e a g a in in
th etim e - r e s o lv in gp o w e r. T h e v a ria b le s ta rso f ty p e\u00d6 S c u o r
\u00dfC M a ; th e e ru p tiv e s ta rso f ty p e T T a uo r U V C e t a re re a lly
n o tv e ry w e ilknow n. . . W h a t a h a rv e s t w ew o u ldg e tfro m

a tim ere s o l u tio no f th eo rd e ro f o n e s e c o n d in th e s tu d y o f,fo r in s ta n c e , th e c h a n g e so f th e C a

11(K )o rth eH a lin e p r o file !
S ta tio n a ryo rp r o g r e s s iv e w a v e s , v a r io u s o s c illa tio n s , m a s s
o u tflo w. . .th e s e imp o rta n t e v o l u tio n a ry p ro c e s s e sw i11 u n \ue000
d o u b te d lycom ew ith in
re a c h .
H o w e v e r,a t th isp o in t in m yth o u g h t c h a in th ec h o ic e b e \ue000
c o m e s p a in fu l! S u r e ly th e V L T is s itu a te d a t a p e r fe c t s ite. . .I
th e re fo re
r e a lly h a v e te n
fu ll n ig h ts a t m yd is p o s a l- a n d
I
h a v e
o f
c o u rs e
c h o s e n
th e
d a rk ,
n e w -m o o n
p e rio d !
M o re o v e r,fro m
th e V L T
m o u n ta inIc a n e a s ily o b s e r v e th e
g a la c ticc e n t red u rin g
m y n ig h ts .
Itisc o n s e q u e n tlyo u r G a la x y ,th e
M ilk y W ay,th a tis th e
s u b je c to fm y p ro g ra m m e ."O u r" E a rth :th e
fir s t c e le s tia l
b o d yt os tu d y -th e
g e o p h y s ic is ts h a v e ta k e n
c a r eo f th a t.
"O u r"
S un
(o r ra th e r"o u r"
s o la r s y s te m ):
L o n g
liv e
th e

s p a c e p ro b e s ! (B u t th e reisa ls o a le s s o n tow h ic hI re tu rn a f\ue000 te rm y te n th n ig h t). S o n o w ,"O u rG a /a x y "-a n d w e re s e rv e , fo r

th e
fu tu re ,
"o u r"
lo c a l
g ro u p ,
"o u r"
s u p e r-g a la x y ,
"o u r". . .Is to p h e rew ith o u tp r e ju d ic e to th e e x tra p o la tio n
o f
th is
h ie r a r c h ic a l
p la y in g
w ith
R u s s ia n
d o lls !
(C f.
th e
fro n t-p a g efig u re , fre e ly a fte rG .d e V a u c o u le u rs , 1 9 7 0 ).
T h e C e n tre o f th e G a la x y
T h e G a la x y , lik e th e S u n a n d
lik e a c lu s t e ro f g a la x ie s , is a
c o n d e n s a tio no f m a tte r im m e r s e d ina d ilu te m e d iu m .A sfo r
th e S u n ,i tis th e tra n s itio n a l re g io n b e tw e e n c o n d e n s a tio n
a n d
d ilu tio n
(th e
a tm o s p h e re --in
a
v e ry
g e n e ra l
s e n s e )
w h ic ht oa la rg e e x te n t d e te r m in e s th e p h y s ic s . A n d itis th e
p h y s ic so fth e G a la x y tow h ic hI h a v e d e c id e dt o d e v o te m y
n ig h ts -to
its p h y s ic s a n d
its e v o lu tio n .
O b je c tiv e - p r is m
s p e c trao fs ta rsin a fa ir ly la r g e fie ld
to \ue000
w a rd sth ec e n tr eo f th e G a la x yc o u ld b e o b ta in e d
in
o rd e r
t o
d e te r m in e th e ra d ia l v e lo c itie so f s ta rs v e ry c lo s e to th e
n u c le u s
( a
d iffic u lt
o p e ra tio n
in
1 9 7 8 ? ).
T h e
m a g n itu d e
w h ic h
isp re s e n tly re a c h e d
w ith th e F e h re n b a c h o b je c tiv e \ue000
p ris m
m e th o d
isa b o u t1 3m-1 4m
w ith
a 60 cm
o b je c tiv e : a
g a ino f6
m

m a y th e re fo re b e p o s s ib le ;b u t th e o v e rla p p i n go f th e s p e c tr a w ill b e a p r o b le m .Isi t p o s s ib le to c o m p e n s a te th e n e c e s s a ry in c re a s einth e p la te s c a le in th e fo c a l p la n e

b y as u ffic ie n te x p o s u retim et o re a c h a re a s o n a b lenum ber
o fs ta rs c io s e to
th eg a la c tic c e n tre ?
W ill itn o t b e
n e c e s \ue000
s a ryt o re s tric t th e s tu d y to th e n e a r in fra re d re g io n
(1
~
l
m
)
?
A nd
w ill the
te c h n iq u e sfo r m e a s u r in g
ra d ia l v e lo c itie s b e
s u ffic ie n tly
a c c u ra te ?
M aybe. . .
T o o
m any
u n c e rta in tie s
a b o u t
th e
p o s s ib ilitie s
o f
e le c tr o n ic
p h o to n
c o u n tin g
in
th is re g io n
o fth e s p e c tru m
d o
n o ta llo w
m e,n o w
in 1 9 7 8 ,
t ok n o wi fI s h a ll b e a b le to u s e th e V L Tin s u c h am ode in th e
year 2000.
A c c re tio no fm a s sb y a ne v o lv e d g a la x ya n d m a s s lo s sb yay o u n g
g a la x yw ith
a n a c tiv e n u c le u s .
J .-C . P e c k e r, 1 9 7 2 ,A s tro n .a n dA s tro p h .,18, 253.
J .-C . P e c k e r, 1 9 7 4 ,A s tro n .a n dA s tro p h .,3 5 ,7 .
J .-C .
P e c k e r,
1 9 7 8 ,
A s tro n o m ic a l
P a p e rs
d e d ic a te d
t o
B e n g t
S tr\u00f6 m g re n , E d s,A .R e iz a n d
T .A n d e rs e n ,C o p e n h a g e n
U n iv .
O b s . P u b i.,p .2 8 5 .
J .-C . P e c k e r, J .-P . V ig ie r, 1 9 7 6 ,A s tro fiz ik a , 1 2 ,3 1 5 .
G .d eV a u c o u le u rs , 1 9 7 0 ,S c /e n c e , 1 6 7 ,1 2 0 3 .
R e fe re n c e s
T h e V L T P ro g ra m m e
D id
I use
m y ten
n ig h ts ?
Ath o u s a n d
a n d
o n e
m orelik e ly !
S o
th e re fo re
a
lim ite d
p ro g ra m m e :o n e
n ig h tw ith
v e ry
h ig h lyr e s o lv e d

H ap ro file so f th eb rig h te s t s ta rs inth e s k y ; o n en ig h to n T T a u ri(w h ic h h a s m a n y s is te rs );th re en ig h ts t oe x p lo r e , a s afu n c tio no fg a la c tic la titu d e ,b rig h t g a la x ie s ino rd e rtod e te c t in te r s te lla r lin e sfro m

th e g a s inth eh a loo f
o u rG a la x y ; th re en ig h ts o ns im ila r re s e a rc h inth ed ir e c tio n
o fth e
O o rtc lo u d s ,th e
p o s itio n so fw h ic h
a re
w e ilknow n
fro m
2 1
c m

o b s e r v a tio n s ; a n d fin a llytw on ig h tsw iths p e c tra o fv a rio u ss ta rs a th ig h g a la c tic la titu d e s a td is ta n c e so f 2 0t o 6 0 ,0 0 0

p cfro m
th eS u n .
A nd
th a tisth e
e n d
o fth e
o b s e r v in g

ru n. . .B utw ill w e h a v e th e n e c e s s a ryc o m p u te rst os u p p o rtth ise x p lo r a tio n ? A n d s h a ll w eh a v e -w ithth e p r e s e n ts itu a tio n

in
E u ro p e a n
a s tro n o m y -as u ffic ie n tfo rc eo fy o u n ga s tro n o m e rsfo rth e
re d u c tio n s ?Itisn o te n o u g ht o g e tth e s p e c tra a n dt o a s kth e
q u e s tio n s :
tim e
a n d
e q u ip m e n t
a re
n e c e s s a ry
t o
g e t
th ro u g h .T h ec a s eo fth eS un is ,u n fo rtu n a te ly , t y p ic a l inth is
a n d
m a n yo th e r re s p e c ts : th e re
a rea n c ie n t o b s e rv a tio n s ,
even verya n c ie n to n e s ,w h ic h
h a v e n e v e r r e c e iv e d
a s a tis \ue000
fa c to ry
in te rp re ta tio n !
T h e
e le v e n - y e a r
c y c le ,
fo r
in \ue000
s ta n c e. . .
A n d ,
b e s id e s ,
w hat
a
flo o d
o f
h ig h - p r e c is io n ,
m o d e rno b s e rv a tio n sw h ic hc o u ldu n d o u b te d lyr e s u lt in a n
im p r o v e d
k n o w le d g e
o f th e
p h y s ic so f th e S u n ,b u tw h ic h
o v e rw h e lm sth ec o m p u te rsand even th ep h y s ic is ts(m a g n e \ue000
t i cs tru c tu re s
in
s o la re ru p tio n s ,o s c illa tio n sin
th e
s u p e r\ue000
g ra n u la rity ).
Ino th e rw o rd s , I a m

a fr a idth a t it w ills o m e tim e s b e n e c e s \ue000 s a ryt op o s tp o n eth ein te rp re ta tio no fc e rta inn e w d a tafro m th eV LT andt olim itth eim m e d ia tee ffo rt t o th ee x p la n a tio n

o fo u ts ta n d in g
d is c o v e r ie s .
As in
n u m e ro u so th e rc h a p te rsina s tro n o m y ,th e

u s eo f th eV LT w illth e re fo reg iv e ris e tom uch b itte r n e s s !T h a to f th eo b s e rv e r,w hoa fte rh a v in gm ade a s te pfo rw a rd , s o o n e n c o u n te rsn e w

b o rd e rs .T h a to fth eth e o re tic ia n
(b u th a s
th e
d is tin c tio n
r e a lly
a
m e a n in g ?
W e
a re
a llm oreo r le s s
b o th )w ho
w illfin d
h im s e lfu n a b let oc a rryth ro u g h
unam \ue000
b ig u o u s lyth ea n a ly s iso f a v e r yh ig hd is p e r s io ns p e c tru m
o r

w h o , ino rd e r tos tu d yw hat h e b e lie v e s isth em ostim p o r\ue000 ta n t, h a st op o s tp o n es o m e th in g e ls e ,w h ic h am ore d e ta ile d s tu d ys u b s e q u e n tlyreveals asb e in g even

m oreim p o rta n t.
L ik e w is e ,th e u s eo fth eV L T w ill a ls o g iv e r is e to m a n yin \ue000
te re s tin gs u rp ris e s . As p e c tru m
o fag a la x yo b ta in e dfo rth e
s tu d yo fg a la c ticin te r s te lla rlin e s m a y re v e a ln e wp ro p e rtie s
o fth isg a la x y. . .L o o k in gfo rm u s h ro o m sinth e fo re s t, o n e
d is c o v e rs a tre a s u re !
I fth em a g icc a rp e to fm ya s tro n o m e r's d re a m
h a sc a rrie d
m e tas u c had is ta n te x tra p o la tio n ,th etim e h a sn o wc o m e to

a s kfo r a b s o lu tio n ! It isth e r u leo fth e g a m e .B utth es tu d yo f th ee v o lu tio no fo u rG a la x y isc e r ta in lyw o rth am om ento f jo y o u sd is tr a c tio n. . .

m als ta rs -th o s e
w h ic h
s e rv e
t o
c a lib r a te
s te lla r c la s s ifi\ue000
c a tio n
schem es. The
b e s tp o s s ib letim e
r e s o lu tio n
s h o u ld
o b v io u s lyb eo b ta in e d
a tth e g iv e n s p e c tra l re s o lu tio n a n d
som elo n gtim e -s e q u e n c e sw ill b e o b s e r v e d .
--
P E R T E
D E
" 'I\S S E \
P f\R
U N E '
C S f\L .f'lI,c IE "
J f!U I'J E
/
T h e G a la c tic H a lo
B uti fIc a n n o t b es u ret od e te rm in ea c c u ra te ly th ek in e m a \ue000
tic sa tth ec e n treo f th eG a la x y I c a n a t le a s ts tu d yth a to f th e
h a lo .
Ith e re fo red e v o tem yp ro g ra m m et o th e v e ryfu n d a m e n ta l
s tu d yo fth em a s s g a in sa n d lo s s e so f th e
G a la x y(s e eth e
fig u reo nth is p a g e )a fte r id e a s b y P e c k e r(1 9 7 2 ,1 9 7 4 ,1 9 7 8 )
a n d
P e c k e ra n dV ig ie r (1 9 7 6 )).
T h efirs t,o b v io u s 'q u e s tio n :t os tu d yth eO o rtc lo u d s a n d
th e
D ie te r
rin g -n e u tra l
h y d ro g e n
w h ic h
h a s
a p p a re n tly
b e e n
c o lle c te d
b y
th e
g a la c tic
e q u a to r.
T h is
n e u tra l
h y \ue000
d ro g e n( w hic h h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d inth e2 1
c m

lin e )o u g h tt o b ec o n n e c te dw ith o th e r , v is ib lec o m p o n e n ts(d u s te m ittin g inth e in fra re d ,c a lc iu m

a b s o rb in ginth e K - lin e , H
11re g io n s
a n d
e m is s io n
in
H a ). T h e s e
re g io n s
m ustb e
in v e s tig a te d

w ithg re a tc a re ; inp a r tic u la rth e g a la x ie sw h ic h a r e s e e nb e \ue000 h in dth ec lo u d ss h o u ldb e o b s e r v e ds p e c tr o s c o p ic a lly ino r\ue000 d e rt o

d e te c ta b s o rp tio n
s tru c tu re s .

T h es a m ep ro g ra m m es h o u ld a ls o b e c a rrie do u tto w a rd s th eg a la c ticp o le s .. .O n eo f th e s e w ill b e o b s e r v a b lefro m th eV L Tm o u n ta in .S p e c tras h o u ld

b eo b ta in e do f g a la x ie s
n e a rg a la c ticlo n g itu d e s0\u00b0and atla titu d e sra n g in gfro m
0 \u00b0
t o9 0 \u00b0w ithth e a im
o fo b s e r v in gth efin es tru c tu re o fth ein \ue000
te rs te lla ra b s o rp tio n(c e rta in lyH und
K ,m aybe 4430,o b v i\ue000
o u s lyth e
C N -b a n d s , a n d
i fp o s s ib le(!) H a,w h ic h
m ustb e
s h ifte ds u ffic ie n tlyin w a v e le n g thfro m
th eH aof th es tu d ie d
g a la x ie st obecom e o b s e r v a b le ) .
If a ll g o e s w e il, th e s es p e c trac o u lda ls o g iv eth ev a r ia tio n
in
c h e m ic a l
c o m p o s itio n
H :N :C
: Ca
in
th e
h a lo
o fth e
G a la x y .T o
th is
m ustbe added
th es p e c tra

o fs u p e rg ia n ts a n dh a lo s ta rs ,in c lu d in gs p e c trao f c lu s te r s ta rs a tth eh ig h \ue000 e s tp o s s ib le r e s o lu tio n . It is a ls o n e c e s s a ryt o

in c r e a s eth e
num bero fknow n
ra d ia l v e lo c itie sfo rh a lo s ta rs ino rd e rt o
p e rfe c t
th e
k in e m a tic
d e s c r ip tio n
o f
th e s e
h ig h
g a la c tic
la titu d er e g io n s .
T h es tu d yo fm a s s g a in s a n d lo s s e s le a d st o ath ird ty p e o f
s p e c tro g ra p h ic
in v e s tig a tio n s .
F o r
a ll
s u ffic ie n tly
b rig h t
s ta rs ,s p e c tra w itha r e s o lu tio no fa ro u n d0 .0 1
Aw illp e rm it
th e
d e te rm in a tio n
o fth e
m ass
lo s s
(s te a d y
o re ru p tiv e ). I
th in ko fs ta r s lik e T T a u , U V C e t,T O ri, U X A u r,S S C y g ,fo r
w h ic hth em a g n itu d e svary betw een8 -9 and 13,fro m
m ax\ue000
im u m
tom in im u m ,o r e v e nfro m
5t o 1 3 (R S O p h ), a n dn o r-
-----
3

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