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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

N o .1 8 -S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 9
R a d ia l V e lo c itie s o f V is u a l B in a r ie s
E .L .van DesseI
Ina d d itio nt oth ein itia lc h e m ic a lc o m p o s itio n , th e
m ass
o fa
s ta r
i s
a
fu n d a m e n ta lp a ra m e te r;
i t
d e te rm in e s
th e
l i f e
o f
th e
s ta r
fro m
i t s
b irth ,
th ro u g hi t slo n go rs h o rtp e rio do flu m in o u sg lo ry
a n dt oi t sin e v ita b lee n da sacom pact o b je c t.A nd
y e t,fe w
s ta rs h a v ea c tu a llyh a dth e irm assa c c u -
ra te ly
m e a s u re d .
T h e
p ro g ra m m e
th a t
h a s
re -
c e n tlyb e e nu n d e rta k e nb yD r.E d w in
van DesseI
o fth e
R oyalO b s e rv a to ryi n
B r u s s e ls ,
B e lg iu m ,
i s
th e re fo re
o fp a r tic u la rim p o rta n c e .B yo b ta in -
in g
p re c is e
m e a s u re m e n ts
o fra d ia l
v e lo c itie s
o f
s ta rs
i n
d o u b le
o r
m u ltip le
s y s te m s ,
D r.
v a n
D esseI
e x p e c ts
s o o n
t o
a d d
new ,
w e ll-
d e te rm in e d
s te lla rm asses
t o
th e
p re s e n t,a llt o
s h o rtlis t.
O b s e r v in g
v is u a l
b in a r ie s
i s
o n e
o f
th e
o ld e s t
a rts
i n
a s tro n o m y .
R a th e r
e x te n s iv e
se rie s
o f
o b s e rv a tio n s
o f
d o u b les ta rs h a v e b e e np u b lis h e d ,e . g . b yF .G .W . S tru v e
(1 8 3 7 :S te lla ru m
d u p lic u m
e tm u ltip lic iu m
M e n s u ra eM i\ue000
c ro m e tria e ,
m e a s u re s
m ade
a t O o rp a t;fro m
1 8 3 9o n
h e
o b s e rv e d
i n
P u lk o v o
w ith
a
1 5 - in c h
re fra c to r,
th e n
th e
la rg e s tin th e w o rld ), b yM \u00e4 d le r (a ls o a t O o rp a t,E s tla n d \ue000
n o w
T a rtu )o rb yS c h ia p a r e lli (1 8 8 5 , M ila n ) . In

h isp riv a te o b s e rv a to ryn e a rM ila n , la te ro n in G a lla ra te , B a r o nE rc o le O em bow skia c c u m u la te do v e r2 0 ,0 0 0 m e a s u re s ,p u b lis h e d i n

c o lle c te d
fo rm
a fte rh is
d e a th
(1 8 8 1 ).Q u ite
a c c u ra te
m e a s u re m e n ts
w e re
p e rfo rm e d
w ith
o fte n
v e ry
m odest
in s tru m e n ta tio n .
W ith
th e
o b s e rv a tio n
o fa
d o u b le
s ta rw e
re fe r to
th e
m e a s u re m e n to fth ep o s itio n o fth es e c o n d a rys ta rr e la tiv e
t oth e

p rim a ry .T h es ta n d a rde q u ip m e n t h a s a lw a y s b e e n afila rm ic ro m e te ra tta c h e dt oalo n g -fo c u s re fra c to r. T h e tra d itio nis s till b e in gk e p t u p ,e . g . in N ic e ( C o u te a u , M u lle r , w ith

tw o
re fra c to rs
o f
74 cm
u n d
50 cm
a p e rtu re -th e
74 cm
h a s
a
fo c a l
le n g th
o f18 m ),W a s h in g to n
(W o rle y ,
W a lk e r-6 5c m
re fra c to r),
S p ro u l(H e in tz -6 0cm ). Pairs
s e p a ra te d b y a sl i t t l ea s 0 :'1 0 h a v e b e e n m e a s u r e d .

T h e lO Sc a ta lo g u eo fv is u a ld o u b les ta rsc o n ta in e d s o m e 6 4 ,0 0 0 s ta rsw heni tw a s e d ite d in 1 9 6 3 b y J e ffe r s a n d v a n den Bos;th ed is c o v e r yo fv is u a l p a ir sg o e s s te a d ily o n .F o r o n lya b o u t800, how ever,e n o u g ho b s e rv a tio n s have been c o lle c te dt od e te rm in eo rb ita le le m e n ts .

A s is w e ilknow n,v is u a lb in a r ie s a reth eo n ly m e a n so f
o b ta in in g
s te lla rm asses,th ro u g h
K e p le r 'sth ird
la w . T h e
m asso fas ta rb e in go n e o fits b a s ic p a r a m e te r s , it isc le a r
th a twew o u ldlik et o have asm anyo fth e m
d e te rm in e da s
a c c u ra te lya s
p o s s ib le .U n fo rtu n a te ly ,th efo rm u law h ic h
g iv e s th eto ta ls te lla r m a s s
M ,+
M2
=
a3/J t3 p
2
( M
m a s s ins o la r u n its ,as e p a ra tio n in a r c s e c ,J tp a r a lla x in
a rc s e c ,
Po rb ita lp e rio d
i n
y e a rs ) re lie s
h e a v ilyu p o n th e
p a r a lla x .T h e
o b s e rv a tio n a lp a r a lla xv a lu e s a r e a s a
ru le
a ffe c te d
b yto o
la rg e
e rro rst o
g iv e as u ffic ie n tly p r e c is e
m assd e te rm in a tio n .T h eq u o tie n t a
3/ p 2

is in g e n e r a lm uch b e tte rd e te rm in e d ,e v e ni f th eo b s e rv a tio n sd on o tc o v e r a n e n tire

p e rio d
(s e e
e .g .
O o m m a n g e t,
1 9 7 1 :
A s tro p h y s .
S p a e e S e i.1 1 ,1 3 7 ). Inm ost c a s e so n e re s o rtst os ta tis tic a l
a id :th e s y s te m
is m a d et oc o n fo rm
t oth em a s s -Iu m in o s ity
re la tio n ;
th e
c o rre s p o n d in g
p a r a lla x
v a lu e
i s
c a lle d
th e
d y n a m ic a lp a r a lla x .In d iv id u a l m a s s e s
M , and
M2
c a n
b e
s u ffic ie n tlyw e ile s ta b lis h e d ,o n c eth eto ta l m a s s isknow n,
fro m
th e
m a g n itu d ed iffe re n c eb e tw e e n th ec o m p o n e n ts .
T h e re

is a w a yt oo b ta inth ec o m p le te s e to fin fo rm a tio n in d e p e n d e n tlyo fs ta tis tic a l m e a n s ,n a m e ly b yc o m b in in g v is u a l a n ds p e c tro s c o p ic d a ta .

. . .a n d R e la te d P ro b le m s
F ig .1 :T h era d ia lv e lo c ityd iffe re n c eb e tw e e n th etw oc o m p o n e n ts
o fth e v is u a lb in a ryA D S7 6 6 2 ,w h ic h h a sa no rb ita lp e rio do f6 4 .7
y e a r sa n da ne c c e n tr ic ityo f 0 .9 4 9 (F in s e n , 1 9 7 7 ).
th ro u g hac r itic a l p h a s ew ith p e a k ra d ia lv e lo c ityd iffe r\ue000

e n c e , a s w e il a ss h o rt-p e rio dp a irsw ithm a rk e d r a d ia l v e lo \ue000 c ityv a ria tio n . T h e s e s ta rs a re o b s e rv e d a t are c ip ro c a ld is \ue000 p e rs io n

o f
1 2\u00c4 /m m ,
w h ic h
is
e x tre m e ly
w e il
s u ite d
fo ra c c u r a c ya n dnum bero fm e a s u ra b le lin e s .
T h ea c tu a lp ro g ra m m e

isn o ta im e d a t alo n g -d u ra tio n o b s e rv a tio n .I fit w e re ,o n ew o u ld b e a b let oc o m b in e ra d ia l v e lo c itya n dv is u a lm e a s u re m e n ts a n dc o m p u tec o m b in e d s p e c tro s c o p ic -v is u a le le m e n ts .T h ec o m p u ta tio n a lte c h \ue000 n iq u e sa re a v a ila b le(e . g . M o r b e y , 1 9 7 5 :

P .
A .
S .
P .
8 7 ,
6 8 9 ),b u tth eo b s e rv a tio n a lm a te r ia l is s tillla c k in g .

T h e reareo th e r purposes,th o u g h ,th a t m ay be servedo n as h o rte r tim e s c a le . O n ec o n c e rn s th eid e n tific a tio no f th e n o d e :th ev is u a lo rb ita le le m e n ts y ie ld th en o d en

\u00b1
1 8 0 \u00b0 .
G iv e nth a tth ec o m p o n e n ts a reid e n tifie dp ro p e rly , a fe w
ra d ia lv e lo c ity
o b s e rv a tio n s
s p a c e d
s u ffic ie n tly
i ntim e
(ando n e can useo ld e rm e a s u re m e n tsfo rth isp u rp o s e )
m a y re s o lv e th ea m b ig u ity inth e p la n eo f th eo rb it a n d
a llo w
u st o
d e c id e
w h e th e rth e
n o d e
i sa s c e n d in g
o r
d e s c e n d in g .
T h is
q u e s tio n
m ay
b e
o fim p o rta n c e
fo r
s ta tis tic a lp ro b le m s ino u r g a la x y .
A n o th e ris s u ec o n c e rn sth ea m b ig u ityth a ts o m e tim e s
a ris e s
fro m
v is u a l
m e a s u re m e n ts .
W heneverth e
tw o
c o m p o n e n ts
a re

o fn e a rly e q u a lm a g n itu d e , th e v is u a l o b s e rv e ris fa c e dw ith a nin d e te r m in a tio no fq u a d ra n t a n d th isfre q u e n tlyle a d st otw op o s s ib leo rb its . A ne x a m p leo f s u c ha case andth ec o rre s p o n d in g radialv e lo c ity curves a re

g iv e n
i n
fig u re2 .
I t
i s
c le a r
th a t
ra d ia l

v e lo c ity o b s e rv a tio n so u g h tt ob e a b le t od e c id eb e tw e e nth etw o o rb its .

F in a lly ,th e re is a nim p o rta n ts u b g ro u pam ong t h e v is u a l b in a r ie s(o fw h ic hw es tillc o n s id e ro n lyth o s ew ithk n o w n o rb ita le le m e n ts ) :th o s ew h ic h a re infa c tt r i p ieo rq u a d ru \ue000 p ie . Ino th e rw o rd s , v is u a l p a ir s inw h ic ho n ecom ponent

/
I j
/
/
~
-
. / "
~
/ '
/
/
I
1 98 0
1 9 9 0
-2 0
o
-4 0
-1 0
-3 0
+ 2 0
A llth is
is
com m on
k n o w le d g e ,b u tth e re
have been
s u r p r is in g ly
fe w
e ffo rts
s o
fa rt o
m ake
s p e c tro s c o p ic
o b s e rv a tio n s
o fv is u a l
b in a r ie s
a n d
t o
a c q u ire

ra d ia l v e lo c itie so fth e mw ithth ea im o fd e te rm in in gtlie irm ass. T h em a inr e a s o n isp ro b a b lyth a ti t is ara th e ru n g ra te fu l ta s k ,

b e c a u s e
o fth e
s lo w n e s s
o fo rb ita lm o tio n

a n d c o n s e q u e n tlyth elo n gd u ra tio no fs u c hap ro g ra m m e . W e m aym e n tio nV ic to ria ,K itt P e a k a n d , re c e n tly ,C a m b rid g e ( E n g la n d ) a sth em ost a c tiv eo b s e rv a to rie s inth e fie ld .

T h e P ro g ra m m e : M a s s D e te rm in a tio n .. .
A
p ro g ra m m e
o f
ra d ia l
v e lo c ity
o b s e rv a tio n

o fv is u a l b in a r ie sw a s s ta rte d b y th ea u th o r in 1 9 7 7 a t E S O .F o r p ra c tic a l

re a s o n s
i tw o u ld
n o tb e
d e s ir a b le
t o

la u n c h ap ro g ra m m eth a tre q u ire so b s e rv a tio n so v e ro n eo rm ore d e c a d e s ;b u tw e s h a llt r yt os h o w inth efo llo w in gth a t a ls o o nas h o rte rtim e s c a le (inth eo rd e ro f afe w y e a rstim ea t a ra teo f 1o r 2o b s e rv in gc a m p a ig n sp e r y e a r) v e ry u s e fu l re s u lts m a y a lre a d y b ee x p e c te d .

T h eid e a l c a s e is ab in a ryfo rw h ic hth es p e ttru ms h o w s lin e so fb o thc o m p o n e n ts . E v e nm ore id e a l isth e c a s e w h e reth es ta rcan betre a te d as ad o u b le - lin e d binary. T h e re a reb u tfe we x a m p le s -e .g .\u00d6 E q uo r aA u r (C a p e l\ue000

la - a c tu a llyara th e r s p e c ia l c a s e , b e c a u s ei to u g h tt o b e
c a lle d a nin te rfe ro m e tricb in a ryra th e rth a na v is u a l o n e ).
H o w e v e r,fo rth ep u rp o s eo fm assd e te rm in a tio no n ed o e s

n o tr e a lly n e e dt oc o v e rth efu ll r a d ia lv e lo c ity v a r ia tio n . If th ev is u a lo rb it isk n o w n ,o n e r a d ia lv e lo c ity v a lu ea t th e sam ein s ta n tfo rb o thc o m p o n e n ts(o rth era d ia lv e lo c ity d iffe re n c e )s u ffic e sinp r in c ip let o h a v e a nin d e p e n d e n t d e te rm in a tio no fth ep a r a lla xa n d th eto ta lm a s s -b u ti t

p a y s , n a tu r a lly ,t oh a v em orem e a s u re m e n tso fth e k in d ;
th e
m assra tiob e tw e e nth ec o m p o n e n ts can
b efo u n d
in d e p e n d e n tlyfro ma llo th e rd a tai fth ev e lo c ityc u rv e s a re
w e ile n o u g he s ta b lis h e dt od e riv e th ea m p litu d e s K1 a n d K2.
W ith
th e
152 cm
te le s c o p e
i n
c o u d e

a tare c ip ro c a l d is p e r s io no fa b o u t3\u00c4 /m m , s ta rsdow nt o6 th -7 thm a g n i\ue000 tu d ec a n b e o b s e r v e d in a r e a s o n a b le tim e .T h is g iv e s u s s o m e th in g

lik e
1 0d o u b le
s ta rsth a to u g h tt o
have, at
p re s e n t, ala rg ee n o u g h
ra d ia lv e lo c ityd iffe re n c et o b e
d o u b le - Iin e d(D o m m a n g e tand Nys, 1967:C a ta lo g u ed 'E -
pM m erides,C om m .O b s . R o y . B e lg . N o . B 1 5 ;th en e w
e d itio nise x p e c te d in 1 9 7 9 ) . S o m ec a u tio n isin d ic a te d ,

b e c a u s eth ep re d ic te ds e p a ra tio n in r a d ia lv e lo c ity is b a s e d o nth e v is u a lo rb it; a n do fc o u rs eth e lin e s h a v et o b es h a rp e n o u g h .

T h e re a req u ite anum bero f v is u a lb in a r ie sth a td u rin g
th e iro rb ita lm o tio np re s e n ta la rg e ra d ia lv e lo c ityd iffe r\ue000
e n c e
(D o m m a n g e t
a n d
N ys:
8%
h a s
a n
a m p litu d e
K >2 0km /s). F irs to f a llth e s ta rsw ith
r e la tiv e lys h o rt
p e rio d :ty p ic a lv a lu e s : Pfro m

4t o 10 years,m a x im u m v e lo c ityd iffe re n c efro m15t o 40 km /soA n o th e r reason m ay b eth e

la rg e
e c c e n tric ity :o rb itsw ith
e= 0.9 arem ore
com m on
th a n

is u s u a lly b e lie v e d .Som e s ta r s h a v e a n u n e v e n tfu lra d ia lv e lo c ityv a r ia tio nd u rin gd e c a d e s a n d th e ng oth ro u g ha ra p id p h a s e n e a rp e ria s tro n . A ne x a m p le iss h o w n i nfig ur e1 .

I fth em a g n itu d ed iffe re n c eL ,m
b e tw e e nth ecom po\ue000
n e n tsisto o la r g e , s a y~
0
~
8
,th eb in a ryw illb es in g le - Iin e d .
O n eth e n c a n s tillo b ta inth ea b s o lu ted im e n s io n so f th e
s y s te m ,c o m b in in g
th e
v is u a le le m e n tsw ith
th e
ra d ia l
v e lo c ity
m easures,b u tth e
ra tio
M2/ M
1
w illh a v et o
b e
d e riv e d
fro m
L ,m
a n dth e
ra d ia lv e lo c ityv a r ia tio n
o n e
o b s e rv e sw ill b ep ro p o rtio n a lt o M2/ ( M
1
+M2)-i.e .,w ill b e
s m a lla n dh e n c es u b je c tt ora th e rla rg e re la tiv e e rro rs . O u r
o b s e rv in g
p ro g ra m m e
c o n ta in s
s e v e ra l s y s te m s
g o in g
2
N
F ig .2 :T h e
c a s e
o f8 1 9 0 9(H R
1 0 8 ).V and e n8 0 S
c a lc u la te dtw o
e q u a lly
p o s s ib le
o rb its ,
th e
firs t
w ith
a p e rio d
o f5 .6 2 5y e a rs
(e c c e n tric ity0 .6 0 ), th es e c o n dw itha p e r io do f1 1 .2 5 y e a r s (e=
0 ).
8 0 thc o m p o n e n tsa reo fm a g n itu d e7 .2 .Thetw oo rb its as seeno n
th e
s k ya re
show n
i n
th e
u p p e rp a rto fth e
fig u re .
A
g ro u p
o f
o b s e rv a tio n sisin d ic a te ds c h e m a tic a llyb y aq u a d ra n g le ; b e c a u s e
o fth e
in d e te rm in a tio n
o fq u a d ra n t(w hic h
s ta ri s
th ep rim a ry ? )
th e y a re
\u00b1
1 8 0 \u00b0. T h e r e l a t i v era d ia lv e lo c ity c u r v e sa reshow ni n
th elo w e rp a rto f th e fig u re .
5 6 .M .
D E N N E F E L D
a n d
G .T A M M A N N :
8 irth ra te
a n d
M ass
F u n c tio n in th e M a g e lla n ic C lo u d s . M a y 1 9 7 9 ,A s tro n o m y a n d
A s tro p h y s ic s .
5 7 .O .M .K U R T A N ID Z E a n dR . M .W E S T : N e w C a rb o n S ta rs in
Cygnus. M ay 1979,A s tro n o m ya n dA s tro p h y s ic s .
5 8 .E .G .T A N Z I,M . T A R E N G H I,A . T R E V E S ,M .C .W . S A N D F O R D ,
A .J .W IL L IS a n dR . W IL S O N : U ltr a v io le t O b s e r v a tio n s o f A M
H e r c u lis . J u n e 1 9 7 9 ,A s tro n o m ya n dA s tro p h y s ic s .
5 9 .H .G .W A L T E R a n dR .M . W E S T : P re c is e O p tic a l P o s itio n so f
R a d io
S o u rc e s
in
th e
S o u th e rn
H e m is p h e re . J u n e
1 9 7 9 ,
A s tro n o m ya n dA s tro p h y s ic s .

6 0 .E . 8 . H O L M 8 E R G ,A . L A U 8 E R T S , H .-E . S C H U S T E R a n dR .M . W E S T . T h e E S O /U p p s a la S u rv e yo f th e E S O ( 8 ) A tla so f th e S o u th e rnS k y -V II.J u n e1 9 7 9 ,A s tro n o m ya n dA s tro p h y s ic s

S u p p le m e n tS e rie s .
6 1 .I.
S E M E N IU K :
P h o to m e try
o fV
4 3 6
C e n ta u rid u rin g
th e
S u p e ro u tb u rs t
in
M ay
1 9 7 8 .
J u ly
1 9 7 9 ,
A s tro n o m y
a n d
A s tro p h y s ic s .

6 2 .N .V O G T ,W . K R Z E M IN S K I a n dC . S T E R K E N : P e r io d ic a n d S e c u la rV a ria tio n s in th eL ig h tc u rv e o f D w a rf N o v a e x H y d ra e . J u ly 1 9 7 9 .A s tro n o m ya n dA s tro p h y s ic s .

6 3 .N .V O G T a n dJ . 8 R E Y S A C H E R : T h e D w a rf N o v a B V C e n ta u ri,
aS p e c tro s c o p icB in a ry .S u b m itte d toA s tro p h y s ic a lJ o u rn a l.
6 4 .P H . V E R O N ,P .O . L 1 N D 8 L A D ,E . Z U ID E R W IJ K , M .-P . V E R O N ,
G .A D A M : O n th e N a tu reo f th e s o -c a lle d N a rro wU ne X -ra y
G a la x ie s . S u b m itte d toA s tro n o m ya n dA s tro p h y s ic s .

6 5 .M . T A R E N G H I,W .G . T IF F T ,G . C H IN C A R IN I,H .J . R O O D ,L .A . T H O M P S O N : T h e H e re u le s S u p e r c lu s te rI.8 a s ic d a ta . S u b \ue000 m itted toA s tro p h y s ic a lJ o u rn a l(D e c . 1 5 , 1 9 7 9 ).

6 6 .M .T A R E N G H I,G . C H IN C A R IN I,H .J . R O O D ,L .A . T H O M P S O N :
T h e H e re u le sS u p e rc lu s te r11.A n a ly s is .S u b m itte dt o
A s tro -
p h y s ic a lJ o u rn a l.
6 7 .G .A .T A M M A N N ,A . Y A H IL a n dA . S A N D A G E : T h e V e lo c ity
F ie ld o fB rig h tN e a r b y G a la x ie s
11.L u m in o s ityfu n c tio n sfo r
v a r io u s H u b b le ty p e s a n dlu m in o s ity c la s s e s . T h ep e c u lia r
m o tio no f th e lo c a lg ro u p re la tiv e to th e V ir g o c lu s te r . A u g u s t
1 9 7 9 ,A s tro p h y s ic a l J o u r n a l.
L is t o f P re p rin ts
P u b lis h e d a t E S O
S c ie n tific G ro u p
J u n e -A u g u s t1 9 7 9

T h e r e a req u ite anum bero f s y s te m sw ithb ro a d lin e sth a t a re s u s p e c te do fc o n ta in in g as p e c tro s c o p ic b in a ry ,b u t th ela r g es c a tte r in r a d ia l v e lo c ity v a lu e sw ill in m a n y c a s e s s im p lyb ed u et oth e in e v ita b lein a c c u ra c yo fth e m e a s u r e \ue000 m e n ts . A fe wo fth em osts tr ik in gcases have been addedt o th ep ro g ra m m eino rd e rt o b r in g ,h o p e fu lly , s o m e c la r ity .

A ll in a ll, th ep ro g ra m m ec o n ta in sa ra th e r la rg e v a rie tyo f in te re s tin gv is u a l b in a r y s y s te m s . T h e s e le c tio n a ls o h a st o c o u n tw ithth eim m in e n tp u ttin gt ou s eo f C o r a v e l, i.e .

ra d ia l v e lo c ity m e a s u re m e n ts b y m e a n so fa m a s k . T h is m e th o dis fa s te r,b u t th e re a re c e rta inlim itst o it (s p e c tra l ty p e ,a n g u la rs e p a ra tio no fth ec o m p o n e n ts ). O nth eo th e r h a n d ,th e m a te ria lo f b in a r ie sfo rw h ic h v is u a l d a ta c a n b e c o m b in e dw ithra d ia l v e lo c itie s m a y w e il in c r e a s e r a p id ly d u rin gth ec o m in gy e a rs . N e w , c lo s e p a irs a re d is c o v e r e d th ro u g ho c c u lta tio nobservations and can be measured w ithth es p e c k le te c h n iq u e . S p e c k le o b s e r v a tio n s c a n a ls o d e a lw ithb in a rie sth a t w e reh ith e rtoo n lys p e c tro s c o p ic . W e m a y a t la s t b e a b le inth ec o m in g y e a r st o a r r iv e a t a s ta tis tic a llys ig n ific a n tnum bero fs ta rsw ith

p ro p e rly
d e te rm in e dm ass.

T h e p la te s a re m e a s u re dw ithth eG ra n tm a c h in eo f E S O , G e n e v a . It is a p le a s u r et oc o m p lim e n tJ o rg eM e ln ic ka n d K la u s B a n s ew ithth ere d u c tio nfa c ilitie s th e y h a v e s e t u p .

1 9 9 0
- - - -,.-9 '---
E
1Q 80
o rb it
1
H il7 0
o rb it
2
o rb o th
a re
th e m s e lv e s
s p e c tro s c o p ic

b in a r ie s . T h e s e s y s te m s a re in te re s tin g , b e c a u s eth es ta tis tic so fth e iro c \ue000 c u rre n c ea n dth e ird im e n s io n s (m a s s a n d s iz e ) g iv e u s in fo rm a tio n

a b o u t
th e
fo rm a tio n
o fs ta rs
a n d
s te lla r

s y s te m s . Ino rd e rt oo b ta in a ra d ia l v e lo c ity c u r v efo rth e v is u a l p a ir , o n e h a st od e te rm in eth eo rb ita l e le m e n ts ,o r a t le a s tv a ,o fth es p e c tro s c o p ic b in a ry a t v a rio u s e p o c h s . In g e n e ra l,th es y s te m s a retru lyh ie ra rc h ic

(P v is.\u00bb
P s p e c tr,),

a sisp re d ic te d b y s ta b ility c o n s id e r a tio n s . T h e re a re a fe w s y s te m s ,th o u g h ,th a ts h o wlin e so fth e th r e ec o m p o n e n ts a n dfo rw h ic h th e h ie r a r c h y is le s sp ro n o u n c e d . T h e Iin e s in s u c h a c a s e a r ein te r m in g le din ac o m p lic a te d w a y . W e h a v e a tta c k e d

tw o
o fth o s e ,w h ic h
a lre a d y
h a v e
b e e n
d e s c r ib e d b y E v a n s (s e e a ls o B a tte n : B in a r y a n dm u ltip le
s y s te m so f s ta rs ), a t a re c ip ro c a ld is p e r s io no f 3\u00c4 /m m .
3

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