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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

N o.2 5 -S e p te m b e r1 9 8 1
A n
O b s e rv in g N ig h ta s S e e n fra m
th e O th e r S id e
0 .H o fs ta d t, E S O
Itisa m a jo r c h a lle n g e fo r th e te c h n ic a l s ta tt a t L a S illa to h a n d le
e x p e r im e n ta l a n d u n iq u e ty p e o f e q u ip m e n ts ra th e r th a n w e ll\ue000
te s te d
c o m m e r c ia l m a c h in e s . B u t it is
a n
art to
d e a l w ith
a
p a r tic u la r s p e c ie s w h ic h
isju s t a s
u n iq u e
a n d
v e ry
p e c u lia r
in d e e d : th e a s tro n o m e r.
T h e e v o lu tio n o f in s tr u m e n ta tio n te c h n o lo g y h a s b e e n m o s t
u n k in d
to
th e
o b s e N e r. N o w a d a y s

a ll s o rts o f s o p h is tic a te d g a d g e ts a re u s e d to c o lle c t h is p h o to n s . O c c a s io n a lly th e y ru in h is p ro g ra m m e . B u t m o s t d is tu rb in g o f a llisth e fa c t th a t a little m a n o f g r o w in g im p o r ta n c e is n o w ta k in g p a r tinth e o b s e N a \ue000 tio n

m e d ia : th e m a in te n a n c e m a n .

A t n ig h t w h e n th e in s tr u m e n t fa ils , h e llisb r e a k in g lo o s ea t th e te le s c o p e . A fe a r fu llittle m a n w ith a re d b o xis m a rc h in g in to th e d o m e . Im m e d ia te ly c o n fro n te d

w ith

a m a s s o f c o n tra d ic \ue000 tio n s , h e w ill h a v e to p a v e h is w a y to s o m e s o lid fa u lt e v id e n c e . H e

w ill
b e
a s s a u lte d
b y
a
s to rm
o f
h e a te d
q u e rie s
a n d
c o m p la in ts .
W hyish e c o m in g s o la te ? C o u ld n 't th isb e p r e v e n te d ? H o w
lo n g w ill it ta k e to fix th e p r o b le m ? W h a tisw ro n g a n y w a y ?
If o n lyh ek n e w ! T h e little m a nis b r a c in g h im s e lf.H e k n o w s
h e m u s t s ta y c a lm

a n d in s p ire c o n fid e n c e fo r th e a s tr o n o m e r d o e s n o t g iv e h im c r e d ita sa s u p r e m e a c t o f fa ith . A b o v e a llh e m u s t d e s p la y to o ls a n d a c tiv ity . N o tim e to th in k c a lm ly o r s tu d y th e p ro b le m

ina q u ie t p la c e . P h y s ic a l p r e s e n c eis e x p e c te d .
E ls e
h e
m ig h t h a v e
to
fa c e
in te rfe re n c e s ,
ta m p e rin g s ,
h o t
v o ic e s a n d e v e n d is o r d e r ly c o n d u c ts .
A lre a d y th e n e w s a re p e d d le d o v e r th e m o u n ta in a n d s e v e ra l
fo re ig n
fa c e s
a re
s n ittin g
a ro u n d ,
c o m m e n tin g
th e
e v e n t,
c o m m e n tin g th e s e N ic e , c o m m e n tin g th e o r g a n iz a tio n .
G r e g a r io u s c o m fo rt fo r th e v ic tim
w hile the little m aniss till
fid d lin g
w ith
th e
m a c h in e .In
fro n t flic k e rin g
lig h ts
re fu s e
to
re v e a l
th e ir
s e c re t.
B e h in d
a
te n s e
a n d
neN O U S
fa c e
is
fo r w a r d in g m o r e q u e r ie s . S lo w ly h e fe e ls o v e r c o m e b y b la s p h e \ue000
m o u s th o u g h ts .
A t la s th elo c a te s th e s p e c k o f d u s t a n d th e in s tru m e n t s ta rts
r a ttlin g a g a in .
T h e little m a n re tre a ts , r e lie v e d a n d lig h t h e a r te d. . .u n til h is
b e e p , b e e p is c a llin g a g a in .
" A t n ig h t, w h e n th e in s tr u m e n t ta ils. . ."
T h e
E u ro p e a n
C o o r d in a tin g
F a c ility
fo r th e S p a c e T e le s c o p e
O n 2 6 J u n e , E S O w a s c h o s e n b y E S A to b e th e h o s t in s titu te
fo r
th e
S p a c e
T e le s c o p e
E u ro p e a n
C o o rd in a tin g

F a c ility . T h e re w e re th re e o th e r c a n d id a te s : th e R o y a l O b s e N a to rya t E d in b u rg h ,

th e
In s titu te
of Space
A s tro p h y s ic s
a t
F ra s c a ti
(Ita ly ) a n d th e In s titu t d 'A s tr o p h y s iq u e a n d th e O b s e N a to ir e d e
P a risin
a jo in t p r o p o s a l.
T h e m a jo r ta s k s o f th e C o o r d in a tin g F a c ility w ill b e :
-
to p ro v id e in fo r m a tio n to p r o s p e c tiv e o b s e N e r s o f o b s e N in g
p ro g ra m m e s ;
-

to c o o r d in a te th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f d a ta a n a ly s is s o ftw a re a n d to c re a te a d d itio n a l s o ftw a reinr e s p o n s e to th e w is h e s o f th e E u ro p e a n S p a c e T e le s c o p e c o m m u n ity ;

-
to a r c h iv e a n d c a ta lo g u e a ll S p a c e T e le s c o p e o b s e N a tio n s
a n d to m a k e th e m
a v a ila b le to
E u ro p e a n S c ie n tis ts ;
-
to p r o v id e fa c ilitie s fo r th e r e d u c tio n o f th e S p a c e T e le s c o p e
d a ta b y E u ro p e a n o b s e N e rs .
P .V .
T h e H u b b le -S a n d a g e V a r ia b le H D E 2 6 9 0 0 6 :
A H o t S u p e r g ia n t w ith a C o o l E n v e lo p e
I.A p p e n z e lle r,0 . S ta h l a n dB .W o lf, L a n d e s s te m w a rte H e id e lb e rg
I.
M o tiv a tio n
a n d
O b s e rv a tio n s
2 .0r - - - : :- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
R 71
J o n .6 Ih .1 9 8 1
2 8 6 0 .0 8 5
~
-
-
-
;
V l
V l
E
E
..> <
..> <
- r
- r
- r
' "
-
-
;
;
~
I
R 71
I
in te rs t.
LM C
,V l
E
..> <
.....,
M g[(1 )2 8 5 2 .1 2 7
r
~
'V i
cC l.>
C
1 .0
I
in le rs t.
G o lo x y
0 .0f- - - - - - - - - - , - :. . . . -- - - - - - - - - - l
2845. 550
A _
2852. 817
A
F ig .2 :T h eMg I (1 )r e s o n a n c e lin ein th e m in im u m s ta te s p e c tr u m
o f
H D E2 6 9 0 0 6= R
7 1 .B e c a u s eo f th e h ig h p h o to s p h e r ic te m p e ra tu re ,
th e re
i sp r a c tic a lly n o p h o to s p h e r ic c o n trib u tio n
to th is fe a tu re .
T h e
a b s o rp tio n c o m p o n e n ta t v=
1 4 4k ms -'is p r o d u c e d b y th e e x p a n d in g
c ir c u m s te lla r e n v e lo p e , w h ile
th e o th e r tw o
c o m p o n e n ts a re d u e
to
in te r s te lla r g a sin
o u r M ilk y
W a y g a la x y a n din
th e
L M C . N o te
th e
d iffe re n t s tre n g tho fth e tw o in te r s te lla r c o m p o n e n ts .
T h e
c la s s
o f
b rig h t
b lu e
v a r ia b le
s ta rs ,
w h ic h
w e
c a ll

"H u b b le -S a n d a g e " o r" sD o r " v a r ia b le s , c o n ta in s s o m e o f th e m o s t lu m in o u s s ta r s k n o w ninth e u n iv e r s e . A t m a x im u m lig h t a t le a s t th e ir v is u a l b r ig h tn e s s

m a y s u rp a s s th a t o f a n y k n o w n n o n - v a r ia b le s ta r. B e c a u s e o f th e ir h ig h lu m in o s ity a n d s in c e th e s e s ta rs c a n b e d is tin g u is h e d fro m

fa in t g a la c tic fo re g ro u n d s ta r s b y th e ir p a r tic u la r lig h t c u rv e s , th e id e n tific a tio n o f s u c h o b je c ts

in
e x tra g a la c tic
s y s te m s
is
r e la tiv e ly
e a s y ,
a n d
a
c o n s id e r a b le
n u m b e r o f th e s e
s ta rs h a s b e e n
d is c o v e r e d
in
n e a rb y
g a la x ie s . S in c e
th e y
c a n
b e
d e te c te d
o v e rs o
la rg e
d is ta n c e s , H u b b le - S a n d a g e
v a r ia b le s c o u ld
in
p r in c ip le
p ro \ue000

v id e a u s e fu l to o linth e c a lib r a tio n o f th e e x tr a g a la c tic d is ta n c e s c a le a n dins tu d ie s o f th e p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n s ine x tra g a la c tic s y s te m s . H o w e v e r, b e fo re s u c h in v e s tig a tio n s c a nb ec o n s id \ue000 e re d , w e firs t h a v etole a rn m u c h m o re a b o u t th e n a tu re a n d s tru c tu re o f th e s e s ta rs . S in c e a ll th e s e o b je c ts a re b lu e a n d s in c e a s a ru le H u b b le -S a n d a g e v a ria b le s a re s u rro u n d e d b y d e n s e

e x p a n d in g
c ir c u m s te lla r
e n v e lo p e s ,

s p e c tro s c o p ic o b s e r v a tio n s a t u ltra v io le t w a v e le n g th s (w h e re th e m o s t c o m \ue000 m on

io n s
in
th e s e
e n v e lo p e s
h a v e

th e ir s tro n g e s t s p e c tra l lin e s ) a re p a r tic u la r ly im p o r ta n t fo r c la rify in g th e n a tu re o f th e s e s ta rs . T h e re fo re , w e u s e d th e In te rn a tio n a l U ltra v io le t E x p lo re r (IU E ) s a te llite to o b s e r v e s o m e o f th e s e o b je c ts .Ina d d itio n w e u s e d

th e
E S O
o b s e rv a to ry
a t
L a
S illa
to
s u p p le m e n t
th e
F ig . 1 :T h elo c a tio no f th e tw o k n o w n H u b b le - S a n d a g e v a r ia b le sin th e
L a rg e
M a g e lla n ic C lo u d .S
D ori sin
th e
b r ig h t n e b u lo s ity n e a r th e
c e n treo fth e im a g e , H D E2 6 9 0 0 6isin th e lo w e r r ig h t- h a n d( =

SW ) p a rt. 8 0 th s ta rs a re in d ic a te d b y a rro w s . (P h o to g ra p hb yR .K n ig g e ,1 0 in c h M e tc a ff R e fra c to r, B o y d e n O b s e rv a to ry ).

s a te llite
o b s e r v a tio n s w ith
g ro u n d -b a s e d
s p e c tro s c o p ic d a ta
o b ta in e d
a t th e
sam e
e p o c h
a s
th e
IU E
o b s e rv a tio n s .
A s
d e s c r ib e d
in
d e ta il b e lo w ,it w a s ju s t th is p o s s ib ility o f d o in g
(a lm o s t) s im u lta n e o u s o b s e r v a tio n s fro m
s p a c e a n d fro m
th e
g ro u n d th a t m a d e firm
c o n c lu s io n so na t le a s t s o m e a s p e c ts o f
th e s e s ta r s p o s s ib le .

A lth o u g h s e v e ra l S D o r - lik e v a r ia b le s a re k n o w nino u r M ilk y W a y g a la x y ( n o ta b ly th e p e c u lia r o b je c tl']C a r), lig h t e x tin c tio n b y in te r s te lla r d u s tinth e g a la c tic p la n e (w h ic h

isp a rtic u la rly

s tro n ginth e U V ) m a k e sU V s p e c tr o s c o p y o f th e s e g a la c tic o b \ue000 je c ts d iH ic u lt. F o r tu n a te ly ,ino u r n e ig h b o u r in g L a rg e M a g e lla n \ue000 ic C lo u d

(L M C ) g a la x y tw o

r e la tiv e ly b rig h t H u b b le - S a n d a g e v a r ia b le s a r e k n o w n , w h ic h a r e le s s a H e c te db yin te r s te lla r d u s t e x tin c tio n . O n e o f th e s e tw oisth e s ta rS O or w h ic h islo c a te d c io s e to th e c e n tr e

o f th e
LM C .S O orw a s th e
firs t H u b b le \ue000

S a n d a g e v a r ia b le to b e d is c o v e r e d (in 1 8 9 7 b y P ic k e rin g ), a n d itisfo r th is re a s o n th a t m a n y a u th o r s p r e fe rto c a ll th is c la s s o f v a ria b le s ta rs th e " S

D o ra d u s v a ria b le s ".S O ora ls o w a s th e
firs t s ta r o f th is
ty p e
to
b e
in v e s tig a te d
b y
u s
w ith
th e
IU E
s a te llite . H o w e v e r , s in c e
o u r re s u lts
o n
S O orh a v e
a lre a d y
b e e n
p u b lis h e d
(c f. W o lf, A p p e n z e lle r , a n d
C a s s a te lla
1 9 8 0 ,
A s tro n o m y a n d A s tro p h y s ic s ,8 8 , 1 5 ) th e y w ill n o t b e in c lu d e d
inth is s h o rt re p o rt. T h e s e c o n d k n o w n H u b b le -S a n d a g e v a ri\ue000
a b leinth e L M C
isth e s ta r H D E 2 6 9 0 0 6 o r "R
7 1". (T h e la lte r
a n d s h o rte r d e s ig n a tio nisits n u m b e rin th e R a d c liffe c a ta lo g u e
o f b r ig h t L M C
s ta rs .)
R
7 1
w as
id e n tifie d
a s
a n
S O o r-ty p e
v a r ia b le
by Thackerayin
1 9 7 4 .In c o n tra s tto 'S
Dor, R7 1
is
lo c a te da t a c o n s id e r a b le d is ta n c e fro m

th e c e n tre o f th e L M C (c f. F ig u r e1 ),b u t its ra d ia l v e lo c ity d e fin ite ly p r o v e s th a t R7 1is a m e m b e r o f th e

LM C .A s
n o te d
a lre a d y b y T h a c k e ra y , th e
2
p ro p e rtie s
0 1
S O or
a n d
R7 1
( in c lu d in g
th e ir
s p e c tra )
a re
s tr ik in g ly s im ila r ( il o b s e r v e d a t th e s a m e Iig h tc u rv e p h a s e !),
e x c e p tlo rth e
la c t th a t R7 1
h a s a h o tte r p h o to s p h e re . L ik e
o th e r
H u b b le - S a n d a g e
v a r ia b le s
R7 1
show s
a
lig h tc u r v e
w h ic h ( a lth o u g h b e in g c le a r ly n o t s tr ic tly p e r io d ic ) c o n s is ts0 1
e x te n d e d
m a x im u m
a n d
m in im u m
p h a s e s ,
la s tin g
ty p ic a lly
a b o u t
a
d e c a d e ,
s e p a ra te d
b y
r e la tiv e ly
s h o rt
tra n s itio n
p e r io d s . T h e la s t m a x im u m
p h a s e
0 1R7 1

o c c u rre d b e tw e e n a b o u t 1 9 7 0 a n d 1 9 7 7 , w h e n th e s ta r h a d a v is u a l m a g n itu d e0 1 about mv=

9 .9 . S in c e s o m e tim ein 1 9 7 8 (w h e n th e IU E s a te llite
w a s la u n c h e d ) R7 1
isa g a inin its m in im u m
s ta te , f1 u c tu a tin g
s lig h tly a r o u n d mv=
1 0 .9 . A lth o u g h th isis r a th e r la in tlo r h ig h \ue000
r e s o lu tio n
s p e c tr o s c o p y w ith th e
IU E
s a te llite (w h ic h a lte ra ll
h a s o n ly a 4 5 c m

te le s c o p e ) w e k n e w th a t th e s ta ris r e la tiv e ly h o t ( p h o to s p h e r ic s p e c tra l ty p e d u rin g th e m in im u m s ta te : B 2 .5 le p ) a n d w e th e r e lo r e e x p e c te d s u c h o b s e r v a tio n s to b e ju s t p o s s ib le . In d e e d , tw o v e r y lo n g

IU E
exposures, each

la s tin g m o re th a n s e v e n h o u rs , o b ta in e dinJ a n u a ry 1 9 8 1 , re s u lte d in tw o

w e ll- e x p o s e d
h ig h -re s o lu tio n
s p e c tro g ra m s ,
w h ic h
to \ue000
g e th e r c o v e r th e
w a v e le n g th
ra n g e
1 2 5 0
to
3 2 0 0
A .C oude
s p e c tro g ra m s
o b ta in e d
a t th e
E S O
1.5 m
te le s c o p e
a t th e

s a m e e p o c h c o v e r th e w a v e le n g th ra n g e 3 5 5 0to4 9 0 0A . F o r te c h n ic a l re a s o n sitw a s n o t p o s s ib le to ta k e s im u lta n e o u s ly s p e c tro g ra m sinth e re d s p e c tra l ra n g e . H o w e v e r, lo r c o m p le te \ue000 n e s s , o n e w e e k e a r lie r w e

h a d
o b ta in e d

s e v e ra l lo w -re s o lu \ue000 tio n im a g e -tu b e s p e c tro g ra m s0 1R7 1 c o v e r in g th e w a v e le n g th ra n g e 5 4 0 0 to 7 0 0 0A .T h e s e p la te s s h o w e d th a t a t le a s t th e b a s ic p ro p e rtie s0 1th e re d s p e c tru m

h a d r e m a in e d u n c h a n g e d s in c e o u r h ig h -re s o lu tio n s p e c tr o s c o p ic o b s e r v a tio n s0 1th eH " re g io n

c a rrie d
o u t 1 4 m o n th s e a r lie r a t th e
b e g in n in g
0 1th e
T e n ta tiv e T im e -ta b le o f C o u n c il S e s s io n s
a n d
C o m m itte e M e e tin g s
N ovem ber1 0
S c ie n tilic T e c h n ic a l C o m m ille e
N ovem ber1 1-
1 2
F in a n c eC o m m iU e e
N ovem ber1 3
C o m m ille e
0 1C o u n c il
N ov.3 0-
D ec.1 -
2
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m ille e
Decem ber 3 -
4
C o u n c il
A llm e e tin g sw ill ta k e p la c ea tE S O
inG a re h in g .
p r e s e n t m in im u m
0 1
R 71. The
s p e c tro s c o p ic

o b s e rv a tio n s w e re s u p p le m e n te d b y p h o to m e tric o b s e rv a tio n s w h ic h D r.S . W ra m d e m a rk k in d ly c a rrie d o u tlo ru s a t E S O .

11.
R e s u lts
T h e re
a re
tw o
m a in
re s u lts
0 1
o u r c o o rd in a te d
IU E
a n d
g ro u n d -b a s e d o b s e rv a tio n s0 1R 7 1 : F irs tly , o u r o b s e r v a tio n s
a llo w e d to d e r iv e th e c o n tin u u m
e n e r g y d is trib u tio n0 1R7 1
lo r

a ll w a v e le n g th s w h ic h c o n tr ib u te s ig n ilic a n tlytoth e to ta llu m i\ue000 n o s ity0 1th is s ta r. F ro m a n in te g r a tio n0 1 th e e n e r g y d is trib u tio n a n d

lro m
th e
know n
d is ta n c e
0 1
th e
LM C
w e
w e re
a b le
to
c a lc u la te
th e
(m in im u m
s ta te ) to ta l lu m in o s ity0 1 R7 1
w h ic h
w a s lo u n dtob ea b o u t 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 tim e s th e s o la r lu m in o s ity .In
a d d itio n , th e
s h a p e
0 1
th e
e n e rg y
d is tr ib u tio n
a llo w e d
u s
to
e s tim a te
th e
p h o to s p h e ric
e ffe c tiv e
te m p e ra tu re
(a b o u t
3 8 5 0
fe ll2 7 l(1 7 J(5 0
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