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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
N o.2 9 -
S e p te m b e r1 9 8 2
T h e U s e rs C o m m itte e - W h e re th e G ra s s ro o ts T a lk
G .L y n g a ,
L u n d O b s e rv a to ry , C h a irm a no f th eU C
O n c e a y e a r, a s u n n y d a yinM ay, th e U s e rs C o m m itte e
m e e ts .
E a c h
n a tio n a l
re p re s e n ta tiv e
h a s
fra m
h is
c o l\ue000
le a g u e s a t h o m e
b r o u g h t a lo n g
lis t o f c o m p la in ts , s u g \ue000
g e s tio n s a n d e x p r e s s io n s o f g r a titu d e toE S O .
A num ber ofE S O
s ta ff m e m b e rs d e v o te th e d a y lis te n \ue000
in g
a n d
s u p p ly in g
in fo rm a tio n
to
th e m .
T h e
D ire c to r
G e n e ra l, th e D ir e c to rinC h ile , s o m e tim e s th e h e a d o f th e
T R S ,
th e
h e a d
o f
th e
v is itin g
a s tro n o m e rs
o ffic e
a n d
s e v e ra l
o f th e
le a d in g
a s tro n o m e rs
a n d
e n g in e e rs
a re
p re s e n t.

T h e a g e n d a s ta rts w itha re p o rtb y th e D ir e c to r G e n e ra l: S ta tu s o f m a jo r te le s c o p e p ro je c ts , fu tu re in s tru m e n ta tio n a n d s u c h m a tte rs . T h e n th e D ire c to rinC h ile a n d th e h e a d o f th e

T R S
d e s c r ib e th e
p r e s e n t c o n d itio n
o f th e
in s tru \ue000
m e n ts ,
th e
p ro b le m s
th a t
h a v e
a lre a d y
a p p e a re d
a n d
th o s e
to
b e
e x p e c te d .
T h e s e
ite m s
a re
th e n
o p e n
fo r
d is c u s s io n b y th eU C .
A fte r th is , th e
re p re s e n ta tiv e s
o f th e
v a r io u s
m em ber
c o u n tr ie s p re s e n t th e ir p o in ts o n d iffe r e n t d e ta ils o f th eL a
S illa
a c tiv itie s , a n d
a ls o
o n
th e
v is ito r s fa c ilitie s
a tG a r\ue000
c h in g .
S u b je c ts
d e b a te d
c o n c e rn
c a lib r a tio n
o f e q u ip \ue000
m e n t, in fo r m a tio n o r la c k o f in fo r m a tio n a b o u t o b s e r v in g
ro u tin e s ,
lo g is tic s , e tc . Itis
g ra tify in g
to
n o te
th e
g o o d
s p ir itin
w h ic h
r e a s o n a b le
c r itic is m
is
a c c e p te d
b y
th e
P ro fe s s o rM .K .V . B a p p u , 1 9 2 7 -1 9 8 2
Itisinth ed e e p e s t s o rro w th a tw eh a v eto a n n o u n c e th e
u n tim e lyd e a th0 1P ro f.M .K .V .B a p p u , D ir e c to r o lth eIn d ia n
In s titu te
0 1A s tro p h y s ic s , B a n g a lo re ,a n d P re s id e n t 0 1th e
In te rn a tio n a l
A s tro n o m ic a l
U n io n .
H e
p a s s e d
aw ay
in
M u n ie h ,o nA u g u s l1 9 ,1 9 8 2 , d u r in g a v is iltoE S O , fo llo w in g
c o m p lic a tio n s
a fte r m a jo r h e a rt s u rg e ry .A n
o b itu a ryw ill
lo llo w
inlh e n e x l is s u e
0 1th eM e s s e n g e r.
E S Os ta ff. O fte nE S O c a n m e e t th e d e m a n d s , a n da t o th e r
tim e s
a
c o m p r o m is e
c a n
b e
re a c h e d . If a
c e rta in
p o in t
c a n n o tb ere s o lv e d , itis th e ta s k o f th e n a tio n a l r e p r e s e n \ue000
ta tiv e
t o
re tu rn
th a t
in fo rm a tio n
to
th e
c o lle a g u e

w ho r a is e d th e p o in t.Ina ll c a s e s th e a ir in g o f o p in io n s is fe it to b eu s e fu l.

S o m e tim e s th e
a g e n d a
c o n ta in s
s p e c ia l p o in ts w h ic h
a re
o f im m e d ia te
concern. Last May
w e
d is c u s s e d
th e
im p o rta n c e
o f a s tr o n o m ic a l s ta ffo n
L a
S illa . U s e r s a n d
E S O
re p re s e n ta tiv e s a g re e d a b o u t th e e s s e n tia l fu n c tio n
th a tisfille d
b y s ta ff a s tro n o m e rs w h o , fo r th e

b e n e fit o f th e ir o w n re s e a rc h , ta k e p a rtinth e d e v e lo p m e n t o f s ta te \ue000 o f-th e -a rt e q u ip m e n t.Itw a s a ls o p o in te d o u t th a t th e s ta ff a s tro n o m e risina m u c h b e tte r p o s itio n th a n th e v is ito r to d e te c t th e m a lfu n c tio n in g o f in s tr u m e n ts o r te le s c o p e s .

T h e
U s e rs
C o m m itte e
is
n o t o n ly
a
s a fe ty
v a lv e

fo r d is g r u n tle d v is itin g a s tr o n o m e r s .Itisa ls o a fru itfu l c o lla \ue000 b o ra tiv e

e ffo rt w h e re
th e
E S O
s ta ff a n d
th e
o b s e rv e rs '
re p re s e n ta tiv e s m e e t, ta lk a n d
lis te n to o n e a n o th e r .
T h e M e ta l C o n te n t o f
M a g e lla n ic C lo u d C e p h e id s
J .
W .P e l,K a p te y n
A s tr o n o m ic a l In s titu te ,
G ro n in g e n , th e N e th e r la n d s
In tro d u c tio n
E v e r
s in c e
1 9 1 2 ,
w hen
M is s
L e a v itt
d is c o v e r e d
th e

fa m o u s p e r io d - Iu m in o s ity la w fo r C e p h e id sinth e M a g e l\ue000 la n ic C lo u d s , th e C lo u d s h a v e p la y e d a c e n tr a l r o leinth e s tu d y o f th e s e

im p o r ta n t a n d fa s c in a tin g
p u ls a tin g
s ta rs .
C o m p o s itio n
E ffe c tsin
C e p h e id s
th e c h e m ic a l c o m p o s itio n
o f M a g e lla n ic C lo u d C e p h e id s
h a s
becom e
a v a ila b le ,
a ls o
in d ic a tin g
a
d e fic ie n c y
in
h e a v y
e le m e n ts
a s
c o m p a re d
t o
C e p h e id s
in
th e
s o la r
n e ig h b o u r h o o d .Inth is p a p e r I w ill d is c u s s s o m e o f th e s e
n e w
r e s u lts , w h ic h
h a v e
b e e n
o b ta in e d
w ith
th e
D u tc h
te le s c o p eo n
L aS illa .
-
lo g T
F ig . 1 :S e n s itiv ityto h e liu m
(Y )a n d h e a v y - e le m e n t(Z ) a b u n d a n c e s
o fth e C e p h e id s trip in th e th e o r e tic a l H R -d ia g ra m . A r r o w s in d ic a te
s c h e m a tic a lly th e e ffe c tso f c h a n g e s in Y a n dZ o n th e b o u n d a r ie s
o fth e
s trip , a n d o n
th e
p o s itio n
o fe v o lu tio n a r y tra c k s a n d c o n \ue000

s ta n t- p e r io d fin e s .T h e b lu e e d g e s fo r p u ls a tio n in th e fu n d a m e n ta l a n d firs t h a r m o n ie m o d e s a re in d ic a te d b yF B E a n d1H B E , th e re d e d g eb yR E .

@@
- - +
R E
-
-
-
+ -
- -
I
I
I
e v o lu tio n
I
tra c k
I
(M = C o n s t.)
I
~
,
'
~
-
r
-
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
lH B E
F B E
r
lo gL

A tfirs t s ig h t it s e e m s s u r p r is in g th a t o n e s h o u ld w o rry a b o u t c h e m ic a l c o m p o s itio n w h e n d e a lin g w ith C e p h e id s . C e p h e id s ,a tle a s t th e

" c 1 a s s ic a l" o n e s th a tw e
a re
d is \ue000
c u s s in g
h e re , a re y o u n g
a n d
m a s s iv e
p o p u la tio n -I s ta rs
(1 0L
1 08
y e a rs , 4 -1 2
M0) .

a ll p a s s in g th r o u g h th e s a m e e v o lu tio n a ry p h a s e . a n d o n e e x p e c ts th a t th e ir c o m p o s i\ue000 tio n is n e v e r v e ry d iffe re n t fro m

th a t o f th e S u n . M o re o v e r,
th e y
a ll o b e y th e
sam e
p u ls a tio n
re la tio n , w h ic h
is v e ry
in s e n s itiv e to c o m p o s itio n . T h is r e la tio nisn o t th e o n ly la w
th a t g o v e rn s
C e p h e id s ,
h o w e v e r,
a n d
th e
c o m p o s itio n
e ffe c ts e n te r o th e rw is e .
T h e b a s ic p u ls a tio n
la w

g iv e s th e p e r io d o f a C e p h e id a sa fu n c tio n o f its m a s s a n d ra d iu s .It c a n a ls ob e w ritte n a s a fu n c tio n

o f m a s s , lu m in o s ity , a n d te m p e ra tu re . T h is
re la tio n
is
n e a rly
in d e p e n d e n t
o f
c o m p o s itio n ,
b u t
it
c o n ta in s th e m a s s , w h ic h

u s u a lly c a n n o t b e d e te r m in e d d ir e c tly .T oa rriv e a t th e m o re "o b s e rv a b le " P -L -C re la tio n , w eh a v e to d o tw o th in g s : fir s tly to e lim in a te th e m a s s b y

T h ere a s o n fo r th is is s im p le : th e M a g e lla n ic C lo u d s a re
r e la tiv e ly s m a llinc o m p a r is o n to th e ir d is ta n c e s fro m
u s o

W h e n lo o k in g a t o n e o f th e C lo u d s ,w e o b s e rv e th e re fo re s ta rs w h ic h a re a lla ta p p r o x im a te ly th e s a m e d is ta n c e . A s e c o n d

a d v a n ta g e
is
th a t th e
e x tin c tio n
b y
in te r s te lla r
d u s tinth e C lo u d s is m u c h le s s o f a p r o b le m
th a nin o u r
ow n
G a la x y , w h e r e
itisa m a jo r o b s ta c le fo r d e te rm in a \ue000
tio n s
o f
a b s o lu te
m a g n itu d e s ,
d is ta n c e s ,
a n d
in tr in s ic
c o lo u r s . F o rtu n a te ly C e p h e id s o c c u r fre q u e n tly , b o th
in

th e L a rg e C lo u d(L M C ) a n din th e S m a ll C lo u d (S M C ), a n d s in c e th e y a re s u p e r g ia n ts th e y a re s till re a s o n a b ly b rig h t, e v e n a t a d is ta n c e o f 5 0 o r 6 0 k ilo p a r s e c s . F o ra na n a ly s is o f th e

r e la tiv e
d iffe re n c e s
b e tw e e n
C e p h e id s
o f v a r io u s
p e r io d s th e C lo u d s a re th e re fo re u n iq u e ly s u ite d .
T h e
re la tio n
b e tw e e n
th e

m o s t im p o rta n t o b s e rv a b le p r o p e r tie s o f C e p h e id s is u s u a lly e x p r e s s e d b y a re fin e d v e rs io n o f M is s L e a v itt's la w , th e p e r io d - Iu m in o s ity - c o lo u r (P -L -C ) re la tio n .O nth e o n e h a n d , th is r e la tio n d e s c r ib e s th e

C e p h e id
re g io n
in
th e
H e rtz s p ru n g -R u s s e ll
(H R )
d ia g r a m : it g iv e s th e p e r io d fo r a C e p h e id o f g iv e n lu m in o \ue000
s ity
a n d
te m p e ra tu re
(c o lo u r).O n
th e

o t h e r h a n d , it is fu n d a m e n ta l fo r th e u s e o f C e p h e id sa sd is ta n c e in d ic a \ue000 to rs : fo r a C e p h e id o f a g iv e n p e rio d , c o lo u r, a n d a p p a re n t m a g n itu d e ,

it
g iv e s
th e
a b s o lu te
m a g n itu d e
a n d
th e
d is ta n c e .
S in c e
lo n g -p e rio d
C e p h e id s
a re
s u ffic ie n tly
b r ig h t to
b e
s e e n
in
g a la x ie s c o n s id e r a b ly m o re
d is ta n t
th a n
th e
M a g e lla n ic
C lo u d s ,
th e
P -L -C
re la tio n
is
a n

im p o r ta n t to o lin th e c a lib r a tio n o f e x tr a g a la c tic d is ta n c e s , a n d it is p a r tic u la r ly th is a p p lic a tio n th a t a c c o u n ts fo r th e fa m e o f th e re la tio n .

B e fo rew ec a n a p p ly it to d e r iv e d is ta n c e s , o r to s tu d y
th e
p h y s ic a l p ro p e rtie s
o f C e p h e id s , th e
P -L -C
re la tio n
h a s to
b e
e s ta b lis h e d
a c c u ra te lyin

th e fir s t p la c e . T h is tu r n s o u t to b e a d iffic u lt p ro b le m , a n d e v e n 7 0 y e a rs a fte r M is s L e a v itt's d is c o v e r y , th e w o r k o n im p r o v e m e n ts o f th e P - L - C re la tio n is s till c o n tin u in g . F ro m

o u r e a rlie r re m a rk s itisc le a r th a t th e s lo p e s o f th e r e la tio n s b e tw e e nP ,L a n d C a re m o s t d ir e c tly o b ta in e d b y o b s e rv in g C e p h e id sin th e LM C

a n d
S M C .W ith o u t in d e p e n d e n t in fo rm a tio n
o n
th e
d is ta n c e
t o
th e
C lo u d s ,
w e
c a n n o t d e te rm in e
a b s o lu te
m a g n itu d e s , h o w e v e r, a n d
th e
" z e ro p o in t" o f th e
P -L -C
re la tio n
h a s
t o
b e
fo u n d
b y
o th e r
m eans.
U s u a lly
th is
z e r o p o in tisd e riv e d fro m
a n u m b e r o f C e p h e id s w h ic h a re
m e m b e rs
o f g a la c tic
c lu s te rs ,
w h e re
d is ta n c e s
c a n
b e
d e te rm in e d
fro m
th e
c lu s te r
m a in - s e q u e n c e
s ta rs .
In
p r in c ip le
it
s h o u ld
b e
p o s s ib le
to
c a lib r a te
th e
P -L -C

re la tio n e n tir e ly b y m e a n s o f th e s e c lu s te rs , a n d to e s ta b \ue000 lis h a r e la tio n th a tisb a s e dp u r e ly o n g a la c tic C e p h e id s , b u t u n fo r tu n a te ly to o fe w C e p h e id sinc lu s te rs a re k n o w n , a n d

th e y c o v e r a to o
Iim ite d
p a rt o f th e
w h o le
ra n g e
o f
p e r io d s .
T h e re
w o u ld
b e
n o th in g
a g a in s t th e
c o m b in a tio n
o f
g a la c tic
a n d
L M C /S M C
C e p h e id
d a ta ,
o r
a g a in s t
th e
d e te rm in a tio n
o f
e x tra g a la c tic
d is ta n c e s
fro m
a
P -L -C

re la tio n w ith a " g a la c tic " z e ro p o in t, if o n lyw ec o u ld tru s t th a t C e p h e id s a re in d e e d th e s a m eina ll g a la x ie s . E s p e \ue000 c ia lly

fo r
th e
M a g e lla n ic
C lo u d
C e p h e id s
th e
s itu a tio n
a p p e a rs
t o
b e
m o re
c o m p lic a te d ,
h o w e v e r.
T h e re
is
c o n v in c in g
e v id e n c e fo r d iffe re n c e sin a v e ra g e c h e m ic a l
c o m p o s itio n
b e tw e e n
th e
M a g e lla n ic
C lo u d s
a n d
th e
G a la x y , b o th fo r th e in te r s te lla r m e d iu m
a n d fo r th e s ta rs
inth e s e s y s te m s . T h e s e d iffe re n c e s c a n b e c h a ra c te riz e d

a sa d e c r e a s in g a b u n d a n c e o f th e h e a v ie r e le m e n ts a lo n g th e s e q u e n c e G a la x y -L M C -S M C .Ittu rn s o u t th a t c o m p o \ue000 s itio n

d iffe re n c e s
c a n
h a v e
n o tic e a b le
e ffe c ts
o n
th e
P -L -C
re la tio n
a n d
o n
s e v e ra l
o th e r
p ro p e rtie s
of Ce\ue000
p h e id s . O n ly v e ry r e c e n tly th e fir s t d ir e c t in fo r m a tio n
o n
2
[B -l]
M e a s u re m e n ts n e a r m a x im u m
lig h t fo r
1 1
LM C
a n d
1 4
SM C
C e p h e id s
a re
g iv e n
in
F ig .2 b .S m a lle r s y m b o ls d e n o te
o b s e rv a \ue000
tio n s
fu rth e r
aw ay
fro m
th e
m a x im u m
p h a s e .
T h e
d a s h e d lin e
in d ic a te s
th e
b lu e
[B -L ]b o u n d a r y d e fin e db y m a x im ao f C e \ue000
p h e id sinth e s o la r n e ig h b o u r h o o d .
-
F ig .2 a
a n d
2 b :A b u n d a n c e
e ffe c ts
in
th e
[B -L ]
-
[L -U ]
tw o -c o lo u r
d ia g ra m .
T h e
s c a leisin lo g (in te n s ity ),s o0 .1 s c a le u n itis
0 .2 5
m ag.
F ig .
2 a
g iv e s
th e
e ffe c ts
o f
te m p e ra tu re ,
p re s s u re
(lo g
g )
a n d
h e a v y \ue000
e le m e n t
c o n te n t
Z ,
in
th e
te m p e ra tu re
ra n g e
6 0 0 0 -7 5 0 0 0
( s c h e m a tic a lly ) .
T h e s e
_
th e o re tic a l
c o lo u r s
a re
d e r iv e d
fro m
th e
m o d e l a tm o s p h e re s b yR .L .K u ru c z . F o ra
g iv e n
Z ,
th e
c o n s ta n t-te m p e ra tu re
a n d
c o n s ta n t-p re s s u re lin e s fo rm
as h a rp b o u n \ue000
d a ry
a t n e a rly
c o n s ta n t [B -L ].
A lo n g
th is
b o u n d a ry
[B -L ]
d e p e n d s
a lm o s t
p u re ly o n
Z .U n eA g iv e s th is b o u n d a r y f o r
th e s o la r v a lu eo fZ( Z=
0 .0 2 ). F o r lo w e rZ
th e[B -L ] b o u n d a r y m o v e s to w a rd s th e le tt
(Iin e sB a n d
C ).
-
I
I
o\u2022
I
\u2022
I
\u2022 \u2022 \u2022
Il
0
1 .\u2022
0
\u2022
..,
\u2022\u00b70 \u00b78
\u2022 \u2022. \u20221
0 0
,0 -
/0
\u2022
0
. .\u00b7 / 0
\u2022
d
.
~
.
'
8
c
\
-
b lu c
[B -l]
b o u n d o ry
~
I
fo rg o lo " ;cC c p h e ;d ,-
-
.8
n e o r
th e
S un
I
I
\u2022
\u2022
SM C
o
lM C
'1 1 -
0 1 -
'2 1 -
[l-U ]
[B -l]
tg io n ls )
log g=. 5
6 0 0 0 '
(d w o rfs)
C
B
\
~
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\I
\-1
I
I
/
I
Z =0 0 0 0 2
0 0 02
o
[l-U ]
m eans
o f
th e
m a s s -Iu m in o s ity
la w
fo r
C e p h e id s ,
a n d
s e c o n d ly to
re la te
th e
te m p e ra tu re
t o
som e
o b s e r v a b le
c o lo u rv iaa c o lo u r-te m p e ra tu re
re la tio n . T h e p r o b le m
is
th a t b o th
th e M - L a n d th e C - T r e la tio n
a re c o m p o s itio n \ue000
s e n s itiv e , th e fir s t o n e
b e c a u s e
s ta rs o f th e
sam e
m ass
b u t
w ith
d iffe re n t
c o m p o s itio n s
e v o lv e
d iffe re n tly ,
th e
s e c o n d o n e b e c a u s e , a t th e s a m e te m p e ra tu re , s ta rs w ith
d iffe re n t c h e m ic a l a b u n d a n c e s h a v e d iffe re n t s p e c tra .
T h e
p u ls a tio n
la w
a n d
th e
P -L -C
re la tio n
p r e d ic t th e
p e r io d o f a C e p h e id , b u t th e y d o n o t te ll u s w h y it p u ls a te s .
In
o r d e r to
k n o w
w h ic h
s u p e rg ia n ts
becom e
C e p h e id s ,
a n d h o w th e b o u n d a r ie s o f th e C e p h e id in s ta b ility - s tr ipin
th e H R -d ia g ra m

a re d e te r m in e d ,w e n e e d d e ta ile d k n o w l\ue000 e d g e a b o u t th e p h y s ic s o f C e p h e id s . A fte r th ir ty y e a rs o f e x te n s iv e th e o re tic a l w o r ko nth e e v o lu tio n a n d p u ls a tio n o f C e p h e id s , th e m a in fe a tu r e s o f C e p h e id b e h a v io u r a re n o w

r e a s o n a b ly
w e il
u n d e rs to o d .
A s
a
r e s u lt
o f
th is
th e o re tic a l e ffo rt a fe w
m o re
c o m p o s itio n - s e n s itiv e
fa c \ue000
to rs
h a v e
b e e n
d is c o v e r e d .
N o t o n ly
w ill
a
c h a n g e
in
c o m p o s itio n
r e s u ltin
a d iffe re n t M -L
la w
fo r C e p h e id s ,
w h ic h c a u s e s a s h ift o f th e lin e s o f c o n s ta n t p e r io dinth e
H R -d ia g ra m , b u t it tu rn s
o u t th a t a ls o
th e
b lu e
a n d
re d
b o u n d a r ie s
o f th e
C e p h e id
s trip
in
th e
H R -d ia g ra m
a re
c o m p o s itio n - s e n s itiv e ,a s
w e ila s
th e
w ay
in
w h ic h
th e

e v o lu tio n a r y tr a c k s p o p u la te th e s trip . T h e s e c o m p o s itio n e ffe c tso nth e w id th a n d p o s itio n o f th e C e p h e id s tr ip a re illu s tr a te d s c h e m a tic a llyinF ig .1 ;th e e ffe c ts inth e P -L -C re la tio n

a re s h o w ninF ig .3 ,b u t I w ill re tu rn to th is la te r.
N e w R e s u lts o nth eC o m p o s itio no f M a g e lla n ic
C lo u d C e p h e id s
U p
t o
re c e n tly
th e
e v id e n c e
fo r c h e m ic a l d iffe re n c e s
b e tw e e n
th e
G a la x y
a n d
th e
M a g e lla n ic
C lo u d s
cam e
a lm o s t e x c lu s iv e ly fro m
s tu d ie s o f th e in te r s te lla r m e d iu m .
V a rio u s
d iffe re n c e s
b e tw e e n
g a la c tic
a n d
L M C /S M C
C e p h e id s
h a d
b e e n
o b s e rv e d ,
a n d
m any
a u th o rs
h a d
in te rp re te d th e m
a sc o m p o s itio n e ffe c ts , b u t d ir e c t in fo r -
m a tio n
o n
a b u n d a n c e s
in
M a g e lla n ic
C lo u d
s ta rs
w as

h a r d ly a v a ila b le . T h is s itu a tio n h a s n o w b e e n im p r o v e d b y th e w o rk o fH .C .H a rris(A s tro n .J . 8 6 , 1 1 9 2 , 1 9 8 1 ), a n d b y th e r e s u lts o b ta in e da tL aS illa b yA .M .v a n G e n d e r e n ,J . L u b , a n d th e a u th o r (firs t re s u ltsinA s tro n . A s tro p h y s . 9 9 , L1 , 1 9 8 1 ). B o th

s tu d ie s u s e a p h o to m e trie te c h n iq u e
to
d e te r m in e th e m e ta l c o n te n t o f C e p h e id s .
H a rris o b s e rv e d
a la rg e
n u m b e r o f g a la c tic a n d
SM C
C e p h e id sinth e W a s h in g to n p h o to m e tr ie s y s te m . T h is is a
b ro a d b a n d
s y s te m

s p e c ific a lly d e s ig n e d to m e a s u re th e s tre n g th o f m e ta llin e sinth e b lu e a n d n e a r-u ltra v io le t p a rt o f

th e
s p e c tru m ,
a n d
it
p r o v id e s
tw o
m e ta l- s e n s itiv e
in d ic e s w h ic h
a re

in d e p e n d e n t o f in te r s te lla r e x tin c tio n . F o r th e4 5SM CC e p h e id sin h is p ro g ra m m e H a rris fin d s a m e a n m e ta l a b u n d a n c e w h ic h is a b o u t a fa c to r 3 .5 lo w e r th a n

fo r g a la c tic
C e p h e id s
n e a r th e
S u n .A n
im p o rta n t
a s p e c tinth e
s tu d y b y H a rris is th e p o s s ib ility to
d e te c t
g ra d ie n ts
in
m e ta l
c o n te n t a c ro s s
th e
G a la x y
a n d
th e
S M C .C e p h e id s a re p a r tic u la r ly s u ite d fo r th is s in c e th e y
a re
v is ib le
o v e r
la rg e
a n d
w e ll- k n o w n
d is ta n c e s ,
a n d
s in c e
th e ir
s p e c tra
c o n ta in
m any
m e ta l
lin e s .
F o r th is
p u rp o s e
H a rris o b s e rv e d

1 0 2 g a la c tic C e p h e id s , o v e r a la rg e ra n g eing a la c to c e n tr ic d is ta n c e s . T h e m e ta l c o n te n t o f th e s e s ta rs s h o w sa no u tw a rd g ra d ie n t o f-1 5%

k p c -I.
N os im ila r g r a d ie n tis fo u n d
inth eS M C .
L e tm e
t r y
to
d e s c r ib e
in
s om e
m o re
d e ta il th e
p ro \ue000
gram m e
o f
V B L U W
p h o to m e try
fo r
M a g e lla n ic
C lo u d
C e p h e id s b yA .M .v a nG e n d e r e n ,J . L u b , a n d m y s e lf. T h is
s ta rte d
a s
o n e
o f th e
firs t p ro g ra m m e s
w ith
th e
D u tc h
9 0
c m
te le s c o p e
a n d
th e
W a lr a v e n
V B L U W
p h o to m e te r
a fte r th e
m ove
to
L a
S illa ,a s
a
fo llo w -u p
o f th e
la rg e
V B L U W

p r o je c to n g a la c tic C e p h e id s a n dR R L y ra e s ta rs c a rrie d o u t p r e v io u s lyinS o u th A fric a .In fa c tV an G e n d e \ue000 re nh a d o b s e r v e ds om eSM C C e p h e id s w ith th e W a lra v e n p h o to m e te r a lre a d y , a n dh eh a d fo u n d in d ic a tio n s o f a lo w m e ta l c o n te n tinth e s e s ta rs , b u t th e S o u th A fric a n s u m \ue000 m e r w a s " b a d s e a s o n " , a n d th e p o o r s e e in ga tH a rte b e e s \ue000 p o o rtd a m

m a d e p h o to m e tryind e n s e fie ld s v e ry d iffic u lt.It
w as
d e c id e d
to
ta c k le
th e
p ro b le m
a g a in
fro m
L a
S illa ,
3

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