Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
messenger-no30

messenger-no30

Ratings: (0)|Views: 2,368|Likes:

More info:

Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See More
See less

02/01/2013

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
No. 30 -
Decem ber 1982
TW ENTY
Y E A R S
E S O
O nth e 5 th o f O c to b e r 1 9 6 2 , th e E S O C o n v e n tio n w a s s ig n e d
in
P a r is b y
re p re s e n ta tiv e s
o f B e lg iu m , F r a n c e , th e
F e d e ra l

R e p u b lic o f G e r m a n y , th e N e th e r la n d s a n d S w e d e n . M o re th a n a y e a r la te r,o nth e 1 7 th o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 4 , th e C o n v e n tio n w e n t in to e ffe c t, fo llo w in g

p a r lia m e n ta r y ra tific a tio n
inth e re q u ire d

m a jo r ity o f c o u n trie s .In1 9 6 7 , D e n m a r k a ls o jo in e d .In th e e a r ly d a y s (p a rtly b e fo re th e fo rm a litie s w e re c o m p le te d ), s ite s u r\ue000 v e y s

w e re
m ade
w h ic h
le d
to
th e
c h o ic e
of La
S illa
a sth e
o b s e rv a to ry
lo c a tio n , a n d
w o rk
w as
s ta rte d
o n
th e
L a
S illa
in fra s tru c tu re
a n d
o n
th e
S c h m id t te le s c o p e
a n d
th e
3.6 m
te le s c o p e . S o m e o th e r te le s c o p e s w e re o rd e re d fro m in d u s try .
A fte r it w a s
r e a liz e d
th a t E S O
d id
not have
th e

n e c e s s a ry ( te c h n ic a l) m a n a g e m e n t c a p a b ilitie stob rin g a ll its p r o je c ts to a s u c c e s s fu l

c o m p le tio n ,
d is c u s s io n s
to o k
p la c e
w ith
C E R N
w h ic h le din1 9 7 0to th e fo u n d in g o f th e T ( e le s c o p e ) P (ro je c t)
D iv is io ninG e n e v a , p a r tly s ta ffe d w ith C E R N
p e r s o n n e l.A s a
re s u lt, th e 3 .6 m
te le s c o p e w a s c o m p le te d
in1 9 7 6 .

F u n d a m e n ta l d e c is io n s a b o u t th e fu tu re o f E S O w e re ta k e n a tth e e n d o f 1 9 7 5 : It w a s d e c id e dto c o n tin u e th e T P D iv is io n a t ro u g h ly

th e
sam e
s iz e
a n d
w ith
th e
ta s k
to
d e v e lo p
th e
in s tru m e n ta tio n .Ina d d itio n , th e S c ie n tific D iv is io n w a s c r e a te d
w h ic h
w o u ld
g iv e
th e
o r g a n iz a tio n
it s
s c ie n tific
id e n tity .
B y
1 9 8 0 , E S O m o v e dto G a rc h in g w h e re th e G e rm a n g o v e rn m e n t
p r o v id e d a n e w
b u ild in g .
E q u a lly im p o r ta n t c h a n g e s to o k p la c einC h ile . W h ile o r ig i\ue000
n a lly a c e n tr e h a d b e e n fo u n d e dinS a n tia g o , 6 0 0k m
fro m

th e O b s e rv a to ry ,itb e c a m e in c r e a s in g ly c le a r th a t itw a s d iffic u ltto g iv e L a S illa th e n e c e s s a r y p r io r ity fro m

s u c h a d is ta n c e .A s a
re s u lt,in
1 9 7 5 th e d e c is io n
w a s ta k e n
to
m o v e a ll s c ie n tific \ue000
te c h n ic a l fa c ilitie stoth e m o u n ta in .
Inth e
la s t fe w
y e a rs , a n e w
s tro n g
im p e tu s w a s g iv e n

to E S O . T w o n e w c o u n tr ie s , Ita ly a n d S w itz e r la n d , d e c id e dtojo in a n d

c o m p le te d
th e
ra tific a tio n
p ro c e d u re s
e a r lie r th is
y e a r.

P a rtly re la te dtoth is ,it w a s d e c id e d toa d d th e 2 .2 m te le s c o p e o f th e M a x - P la n c k - G e s e lls c h a fttoth eL a S illa te le s c o p e p a r k a n d

to
c o n s tru c t
a
3.5 m
N ew
T e c h n o lo g y

T e le s c o p e . M o re o v e r, th e E u ro p e a n S p a c e A g e n c y d e c id e dtop la c e th e E u ro p e a n

C o o rd in a tin g
F a c ility
fo r th e
S p a c e
T e le s c o p e
a t
E S O . T h e s e d e v e lo p m e n ts in d ic a te th a t E S O h a s b e e n a b le to
o b ta in
th e
c o n fid e n c e
o f
th e
E u ro p e a n
c o m m u n ity
a s
a n
e ffe c tiv e c o o p e r a tiv e o rg a n iz a tio n .
Itis
im p o rta n t th a t
E S O
h a s
show n
th a tit c a n
d e v e lo p
te le s c o p e s
a n d
in s tru m e n ta tio n
a n d
s tim u la te

s c ie n tific r e s e a r c h a t a le v e l c o m p a r a b le to th e b e s t a v a ila b le e ls e w h e r e . P e rh a p s , h o w e v e r , its m o s t s ig n ific a n t c o n tr ib u tio nisto E u ro \ue000 p e a n in te g ra tio n . O f c o u rs e , th e fa c t th a t p e rs o n s o f d iffe re n t n a tio n a litie s w o r k to g e th e rinr e la tiv e p e a c eis a llto th e g o o d . B u t th e ta s k o f E S O g o e s fa r b e y o n d th is : E S O h a s to m a k e its c o n tr ib u tio n to c re a tin g th e c o n fid e n c e th a t E u ro p e c a n s e t its ow n

a im s
in
s c ie n c e
a n d
te c h n o lo g y
a n d

a c c o m p lis h th e s e s u c c e s s fu lly . O n lyo nth e b a s is o f th is s e lf- c o n fid e n c e c a na n a d v a n c e d a n d in d e p e n d e n t E u r o p e b e b u ilt.

L .W o ltje r, D ir e c to r G e n e r a l
P ro fe s s o r M .K . V a in u
B a p p u
(1 9 2 7 -8 2 )
Itw a s w ith g r e a t s a d n e s s th a t w e r e c e iv e d th e n e w s o f th e

d e a th ,o n1 9 A u g u s t 1 9 8 2 , o f P ro fe s s o r M .K .V . B a p p u , P re s i\ue000 d e n t o f th e In te r n a tio n a l A s tr o n o m ic a l U n io n a n d D ire c to r o f th e In d ia n

In s titu te

o f A s tro p h y s ic s , B a n g a lo re , In d ia . P ro fe s s o r B a p p u w a s s p e n d in g a fe w m o n th s w ith E S OinM u n ic h , d o in g re s e a rc h w ith in s o la r a n d s te lla r s p e c tr o s c o p y a n da tth e s a m e tim e p re p a rin g fo r th eX V I1 1 thlA U

G e n e ra l A s s e m b ly . A h e a rt a ilm e n t n e c e s s ita te d a m a jo r s u r g ic a l in te r v e n tio n ,w hic h w a s a p p a r e n tly s u c c e s s fu l. H o w e y e r, p o s t- o p e r a tiv e c o m p lic a tio n s s e tin ,a n d

a fte r a h e ro ic s tru g g le , a s s is te d
b yth e

fo re m o s t m e d ic a l e x p e rtis e , P ro fe s s o r B a p p u e x p ire dinth e e a r ly e v e n \ue000 in g o f 1 9 A u g u s t.

F e w
a s tro n o m e rs
e v e r
w e re
a s
e s te e m e d
a n d
lik e d

a s P r o fe s s o r B a p p u . C o m b in in g a g r e a t s c ie n tific in s ig h tin m a n y a re a s o f a s tro n o m y a n da no u ts ta n d in g ta le n t fo r o r g a n iz a tio n , h e

w on
frie n d s
o n
a ll c o n tin e n ts , w h e r e v e rh e tra v e J le d . H is
v e ry h u m a n a p p ro a c h a n d c h a rm in g a p p e a ra n c e w ill a lw a y sb e
re m e m b e re d b y th o s e w h o h a d th e g o o d fo rtu n e o f m a k in g h is
a c q u a in ta n c e .
B y
h is
ow n
e x a m p le ,
h e
show ed
h o w
it
is
p o s s ib le
t o
lin k
a
th o ro u g h ,
a d v a n c e d
k n o w le d g e
of exact
s c ie n c e s w ith a p o e tic , n a tu r e - Io v in g m in d a n d th u s to a c h ie v e
a ra re ly s e e n
h a r m o n y b e tw e e n th e s e tw o a s p e c ts o f life .
A m a jo r re a s o n fo r th is w a s u n d o u b te d ly h is g r e a t fa m ilia rity
w ith
b o th
E a s t
a n d
W e s t.
B o rn
in
In d ia ,
P ro fe s s o r
B a p p u
s tu d ie d
in
th e
U S A
a n d
a fte r s e v e ra l,
b r illia n tly
s u c c e s s fu l
y e a rs
a t C a lte c h , h e
re tu rn e d
to
h is
n a tiv e
c o u n try , tu rn in g
dow n
o ffe rs fro m
o th e r p la c e s . O u rin g th e

next decades, he b u ilt u p th e s c ie n c e o f a s tr o n o m y a n d a s tr o p h y s ic sinIn d ia , a n d w ith o u t h is e ffo rts ,itw o u ld n o t h a v e re a c h e d th e in te r n a tio n a lly r e c o g n iz e d , h ig h le v e lith a s to d a y . W h ile m a k in g m a n y im p o r \ue000 ta n t

c o n trib u tio n s
w ith in
th e
fie ld s
o f
s te lla r
a n d
s o la r
a s tro n o m y
(e .g .
th e
" W ils o n - B a p p u "
e ffe c t),
h e
a ls o
fu lly
a p p r e c ia te d th e im p o r ta n c e o f o b ta in in g c o n tin u o u s s u p p o rt to
a s tro n o m y
b y
m a in ta in in g
c lo s e
c o n ta c ts
w ith
g o v e rn m e n t
o ffic ia ls a n d b y s u c c e s s fu lly im p r e s s in g u p o n a ll a u th o r itie s th e
c e n tra l ro le o f a s tro p h y s ic sin
m o d e r n s c ie n c e .
P ro fe s s o r
B a p p u
le a v e s
b e h in d
m any
id e a s
a n d
m uch
u n fin is h e d w o r k w h ic h w ill n o w b e ta k e n u p b y o th e rs . T h e r e is
n o
d o u b t
th a t
h is
in s p ir in g
e x a m p le
h a s
in flu e n c e d

m any p e o p le a n d w e c a n o n ly r e g r e t th a t h e d id n o t liv e to s e e a ll o f h is p r o je c ts c o m e to re a liz a tio n .

O u r s y m p a th y g o e s to M rs . Y e m u n a B a p p u w h o w a s a t h e r h u s b a n d 's s id e in M u n ic h . W e c a n d o little to c o n s o le h e rinh e r g r e a t s o rro w , b u t th e m e m o r y o f o u r b e lo v e d frie n d a n d h ig h ly v a lu e d

c o lle a g u e w ill r e m a in fo r e v e r ino u rh e a rts . P ro fe s s o r B a p p u 's fo r e s ig h t a n d th e fu ll im p lic a tio n s o f h is m a n y a c h ie v e \ue000 m e n ts s h a ll b e c o m e e v e n m o r e o b v io u s w ith tim e .

R ichardM . W est
A n o th e r G ra v ita tio n a l L e n s ?
J .-S o
e h e n , P e k in g O b s e rv a to ry a n dE S O , a n dP .A . S h a v e r, E S O
0 1 2 8 -5 3 1A .B
A
F ig . 2 :L o w - d is p e r s io n lO S s p e c trao fo 1 2 8 -5 3 1 A a n dB , o b ta in e d w ith
th e E S O
3 .6m
te le s c o p e .T h e r e s o lu tio nis
1 5AFW H M .
H a
H a
6 8 0 0
rO lli]
[O D I]
H \u00df
6
l
i
J
\u00df
~
W AVELENG TH
(A I
S e v e ra l e x tra g a la c tic H
11re g io n s h a v e b e e n m is in te rp re te d

a sa s o sa n d in c lu d e dina s o c a ta lo g u e s ( fo r e x a m p le , B 2 3 4 , B272, anda 0 2 4 2 -3 8 7inth e H e w itt a n d B u r b id g e c a ta lo g u e ). S u c h o b je c ts a re o fte n

r e fe r r e d to a s b lu e c o m p a c t g a la x ie s , a n d a re th o u g h t to b e p r o to g a la x ie s b e c a u s e o f th e lo w m e ta l a b u n d a n c e s .

T h e
b u rs t
o f
firs t-g e n e ra tio n
s ta r
fo rm a tio n
re s u lts in b o th a v e ry b lu e c o n tin u u m
a n d s tr o n g io n iz a tio n o f
th e
p a re n t
g a s e o u s
c lo u d s .
E x tra g a la c tlc
H
11
re g io n s
a re
th e re fo re
im p o rta n t\u00b7 in
u n d e rs ta n d in g
th e
e a rly
e v o lu tio n
o f
g a la x ie s , a n d th e c h e m ic a l a b u n d a n c e sinth e e a r ly u n iv e r s e
(p a rtic u la rly p rim o rd ia l h e liu m ).
T h e 0 1 2 8 -5 3 1 A ,B
e x tra g a la c tic H
11
re g io n s a re v e ry c io s e
to g e th e r in d e e d , b o thinp o s itio n ( 8 h -
1
k p c p ro je c te d s e p a ra tio n
fo rH o=
100h km
S -1
M pc-
1
) ,
a n din
re d s h ift( 6 V
=
4 0\u00b1
5 0
k m /s ).A re th e y re a lly is o la te d ,o r a re th e y p a rt o f o n e s y s te m ,
p e rh a p sa nu n d e r ly in g g a la x y ? If m o r e s u c h p a irs c a n b e fo u n d ,
it m a y b e p o s s ib le to e s tim a te th e ir m a s s e s fro m
th e re la tiv e

v e lo c itie s . A lth o u g h it is n o t a g r a v ita tio n a lle n s s y s te m , th e re \ue000 fo re , 0 1 2 8 -5 3 1 A ,B w ill b e o f s p e c ia l in te r e s t in e x p lo r in g a q u ite d iffe re n t ty p e o f p h e n o m e n o n .

U J
>
I \ue000
\u00ab
- 1
U J
I X
B
B
\
\
,
- - I
/
A \u00b7
A -
I - - - i
\u2022
I - - - i
F o llo w in g
th e
d is c o v e r y
o f
th e
a 0 9 5 7+ 5 6 1 A ,B
p a ir a n d
s u b s e q u e n t in te rp re ta tio n
a s
a
g r a v ita tio n a lly
le n s e d
a s o ,
s e v e r a l s e a r c h e s fo r s im ila r o b je c ts h a v e b e e n m a d e , b u t o n ly
tw o
c a s e s
have so
fa r b e e n
c o n firm e d .Inc o lla b o r a tio n
w ith
a s tro n o m e rs
in
E d in b u rg h , o n e
of us
(J .-S . C h e n ) s ta rte d
a
a s o
s u rv e y p ro g ra m m e tw o y e a rs a g a u s in g lo w -d is p e rs io n
o b je c tiv e - p r is m

p la te s ta k e n w ith th e U K S c h m id t te le s c o p e a t S id in g S p r in g O b s e r v a to r y . T h r e e fie ld s h a v e b e e n s y s te m a ti\ue000 c a lly

s e a rc h e d
a n d
a b o u t
5 0 0
a s o
c a n d id a te s

id e n tifie d . A m o n g th e s e o n ly o n e g r a v ita tio n a lle n s c a n d id a te w a s fo u n d . T h e

im a g e s (F ig .1 )a re c io s e to g e th e r (7 "), b rig h t (1 7 .5 mv) ,
s te lla r ,
a n d
b lu e ,
a n d
th e
o b je c tiv e - p r is m
s p e c tra
c o n ta in
s tro n g e m is s io n
lin e s a t v e r y s im ila r re d s h ifts .
> \ue000
I -
V )
F ig .1 :T h e0 1 2 8 - 5 3 1 A ,B p a ir, o n a IIla - J+ G G 3 8 5 d ire c t p la te (Ie ft),
~
a n d
a
lIIa -J
o b je c tiv e - p r is m
p la te
(rig h t),
b o th
ta k e n
w ith
th e
U K
~
S c h m id t te le s c o p e .T h e h o r iz o n ta l b a r is
1a r c m in .
S p e c tra o b ta in e d
re c e n tly w ith
th e
lO S
o n
th e
3.6 m
te le \ue000
s c o p e a t L a S illa , h o w e v e r , c o n c iu s iv e ly r e je c t th e g r a v ita tio n a l
le n s
h y p o th e s is . In d e e d , th e s e
o b je c ts
a re
not even
a s o s .
T h e y a re e x tra g a la c tic H
11re g io n s , a t re d s h ift z=
0 .0 8 8 5 . T h e
s tr o n g e m is s io n lin e s s e e n in th e o b je c tiv e - p r is m
s p e c tra a re
[O ll)A3 7 2 7 . T h e H \u00df ,[0 1 1 1 ]A t..4 9 5 9 ,5 0 0 7 , a n d o th e r s tro n g
lin e s s e e ninthe lO S
s p e c tra in F ig . 2 a re s h ifte d o u ts id e th e
w in d o w
o f th e
IlIa -J o b je c tiv e - p r is m
p la te .
0 1 2 8 -5 3 1 A ,B
2
A n
A b s o rp tio n
F e a tu re a n d
F ila m e n ta ry S tru c tu re s
inth e C e n tra l G a la x y o f th e C e n ta u ru s C lu s te r,
N G C
4 6 9 6
H .E .J 0 rg e n s e n a n d H .U .
N 0 rg a a rd -N ie ls e n , C o p e n h a g e n U n iv e rs ity O b s e rv a to ry
lt
h a s
b e e n
know n
fo r
a
lo n g
tim e
th a t c lu s te rs
o f
g a la x ie s
a re
o fte n
e x te n d e d
X -ra y
s o u re e s .
lt
is
n o w
g e n e r a lly
a c c e p te d
th a t
th e
X -ra y
e m is s io n
is
d u e
t o
th e rm a l b re m s s tra h lu n g
(fre e -fre e
ra d ia tio n ) fro m
a te n \ue000
u o u s(n e~
1 0 -3
cm -3) ,
h o t(T~
1 0B
K )in tra c lu s te r g a s .
F o r s e v e ra l c lu s te rs th e X -ra y g a s c o n s is ts o f b o th a h o t
a n d
a cool(T<
3
x
1 07K )
c o m p o n e n t.T h e
c o o l in tra \ue000
c lu s te r g a s m a y b e c o o lin g , r e s u ltin ginin s ta b ilitie s inth e
in flo w in g
g a s ,
g iv in g
th e
fila m e n ta ry
s tru c tu re
a s
o b \ue000
s e rv e d
a ro u n d
N G C
1 2 7 5 ,
th e
c e n tra l
g a la x y
o f
th e
P e rs e u s C lu s te r (F a b ia n
a n d
N u ls e n , 1 9 7 7 ,M o n . N o t.
R .
A s tr. S o c .,1 0 8 ,p . 4 7 9 ). T h e s y s te m

o f fila m e n tsin M 8 7in th e V ir g o C lu s te r is a ls o c o n s id e r e da s e v id e n c e o f m a tte r fa llin g in to th e g a la x y (F o rd a n d B u tc h e r , 1 9 7 9 ,A s tro p h y s .

J .S u p p .,4 1 ,p . 1 4 7 ).
S in c e
th e
C e n ta u ru s
C lu s te r
h a s
a
lo w
te m p e ra tu re
X -ra y c o m p o n e n t o fk T~
2 .4\u00b1.3k e V it c o u ld b e a n o th e r
c as eo f a c o o lin g c o r e w ith fila m e n ts ,a s p o in te d o u t b yA .
C .F a b ia n a n d N u ls e n .W e s h a ll h e r e r e p o r t v e ry p r e lim i\ue000
n a r ilyo n
som e
v e ry in te re s tin g
o p tic a l fe a tu re s
in
N G C
4 6 9 6 , th e c e n tra l g a la x yin th e C e n ta u ru s C lu s te r.
N G C
4 6 9 6 w a s o b s e rv e do n J u ly 6 -
7 ,1 9 8 2 , w ith th e
n e w
E S O
C C O
c a m e ra
d u rin g
its te s tin g
p h a s e
o n

th e O a n is h1 .5m te le s c o p e a tL a S illa b yH . P e d e rs e n . A b lu e (J o h n s o n

B )2 0
m in . e x p o s u r e a n d
a red
(b ro a d e r th a n
J o h n s o nR and
m a x im u m
a ro u n d 7 7 0 0A )1 0 m in . e x p o \ue000
s u re u n d e r g o o d s e e in g c o n d itio n s(
~
2 ") w e re o b ta in e d .
w e s t. ln d ic a tio n o f th is fe a tu re w a s fo u n d
b y S h o b b ro o k
(1 9 6 6 ,
M on.
N o t.
R .
A s tr. S o c .,
1 3 1 ,p . 3 5 1 ). T h e
h o rs e
s h o eisty p ic a lly r e d d e r th a n th e g a la x y b ytJ.(B -R ')~
1
)
1
1
2
c o rre s p o n d in g
ro u g h ly
t o
tJ .(B
-
V )
~
1
)
1
0
5
.
T h e
m ost
o b v io u s w a y to in te rp re t th is s tru c tu re is th a t th e re d d e n -
F ig . 2 :T h er e s id u a l r e d lig h t in N G C
4 6 9 6 .O r ie n ta lio n : S o u thu p ,
e a s t to th e le ft. A n g u la r s iz eo f th e fig u r e :4 0 "x 4 0 " .
2 5 0
-
-
-
I
I
I
1 5 0
2 0 0
P IX E L
N U M B E R
In
F ig .
1 ,w e
h a v e
g iv e n
th e
re d
a n d
th e
b lu e
p ro file s
th ro u g h th e c e n tra l re g io n o f th e g a la x y .W ehave norm al\ue000
iz e d
th e
tw o
e x p o s u re s
s o
th a t th e y
a g re e
in
th e
o u te r

p a r ts o f th e g a la x y . lt is c le a r ly s e e n th a t b lu e lig h t s e e m s to b e m is s in ginth e c e n tra l re g io n . P ro file s th ro u g h d iffe \ue000 re n t p a rts o f th e

c e n tra l re g io n
c o n firm
th is
c o n c lu s io n .
F ig .2 s h o w s th e
r e s id u a l " R e d " lig h t (th e
re d
e x p o s u re
m in u s
th e
n o r m a liz e d
b lu e
e x p o s u re ).
A
fa irly
re g u la r
s tru c tu re
ru n n in g
e a s t-w e s t 6 "
(
~
1
k p c )
s o u th
o f th e
n u c le u s
is
v e ry
e v id e n t a n d
o b v io u s ly
it e x te n d s
in
a
F ig .3 :T h e
H a
+[ N
1 1 ]e x p o s u reo f N G C
4 6 9 6 .S a m e o rie n ta tio n
" h o r s e s h o e " a r o u n d th e n u c le u s to th e w e s t a n d
n o rth -
a n d a n g u la r s iz ea sF ig .2 .
F ig .1 :T h ep r o file s th ro u g h th e
"h o rs e s h o e " s o u tho f th e c e n treo f
N G C4 6 9 6 .
-
-
b lu e e x p o s u r e ;- - - - r e d e x p o s u r e (u n it a lo n g th e
x -a x is :'4 7 ).
> \ue000
> -
V i
Z
L W
> -
~
3

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->