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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

S S E N G E R
L
S u
N o.3 1
-
M a rc h
1 9 8 3
l
L a te s t N e w s a b o u t th e E u ro p e a n C o o r d in a tin g F a c ility
fo r th e S p a c e T e le s c o p e
O n
th e
2 3 rd
o f F e b ru a ry , a
M e m o ra n d u m
o f A g re e m e n t

c o n c e r n in g th e E u r o p e a n C o o r d in a tin g F a c ility fo r th e S p a c e T e le s c o p e w a s s ig n e dinP a risb y th e D ire c to r G e n e ra l o f th e E u ro p e a n

Space Agency
(E S A ),M r.E . Q u is tg a a rd , a n d
th e
D ire c to r G e n e ra l o f th e E u ro p e a n S o u th e rn O b s e rv a to ry , P ro f.
L .W o ltje r. T h e
c e re m o n y to o k p la c e
in
th e
p re s e n c e o f th e
m e m b e rs o f th e
E S A C o u n c il.
T h e a im

o f th e a g re e m e n tisto d e fin e th e m o d a litie s o f th e c o o p e ra tio n b e tw e e n E S A a n d E S O fo r th e o p e ra tio n o f th e S T I E C F ,w hic h w illb e e s ta b lis h e d

a sa s e p a ra teu n ita t E S O
in
G a re h in g . T h e p rim e p u r p o s e o f th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e S T I
E C F
is
to
e n h a n c e
th e
c a p a b ilitie s
w ith in
E u ro p e
fo r
th e
s c ie n tific
u s e
o f
th e
S p a c e
T e le s c o p e
a n d
o f
th e
S p a c e
T e le s c o p e d a ta a rc h iv e .
T o a c h ie v e th is a im , th e S T /E C F s h a ll p r o v id e a c o n v e n ie n t
s o u rc e
o f d e ta ile d
k n o w le d g e
in
E u ro p e o f th e
S p a c e
T e le \ue000

s c o p e a n d its a s s o c ia te d in s tr u m e n ts , e n s u r e c o o rd in a tio n o f s o ftw a r e d e v e lo p m e n ts fo r S T w ith in E u ro p e a n d w ith th e S T S c ie n c e In s titu teinth e U .S ., a n d c o n tr ib u te to th e a rc h iv in g , c a ta lo g u in g a n d d is s e m in a tin g o f S T d a ta to E u r o p e a n s c ie n \ue000 tis ts . E S A a n d E S O

w ill e a c h p ro v id e s e v e n p e rs o n s to w a rd s th e s ta ffin g o f th e S T /E C F . E S O w ill h a v e th e p r im a r y re s p o n s i\ue000 b ility fo r th e

d a y -to -d a y fu n c tio n in g
o f th e

S T /E C F .Itise x \ue000 p e c te d th a t th e S T /E C F w ill b e g in fu n c tio n in gin a lim ite d w a y la te r th is y e a r.

F ib e r O p tic s a t E S O
P a r tI: C o u p lin g o f th e C E S w ith th e 3 .6 m T e le s c o p e U s in g a4 0 m
F ib e r L in k
D .Enard andG . Lund, ESO
D u rin g
a n
e x p e rim e n ta l ru n
m ade
in
N ovem ber
1 9 8 2 ,
tw o
e n tire ly
d iffe re n t a n d

in d e p e n d e n t fib e r o p tic s y s te m s w e re te s te da tth e3 .6m te le s e o p e .In th e p r e s e n t a r tic le , a d e s e r ip tio n is g iv e no f th e firs t, w h ic h

e o n s is te d
e s s e n tia llyo fa n
o p tie a I fib e r lin k
b e tw e e n th e3 .6mp r im e fo e u s a n d th e C E S in p u t s lit.
In th e n e x t is s u eo fth e M e s s e n g e r , th e m u ltip le \ue000
o b je e t fib e r-s p e e tro s e o p y s y s te m
w ill b e d e s e r ib e d .
T e c h n ic a l D e s c r ip tio n

T h e p u r p o s e o f th is p r o je c t w a sto d e te r m in e th e u s e fu ln e s s o f a lo n g s in g le fib e r lin k b e tw e e n th e 3 .6 m p r im e fo c u s a n d th e C E S

s p e c tro g ra p h
u s in g
a s u ita b le a d a p ta tio n
o f th e
o u tp u t
b e a m
d iv e r g e n c e to g e th e r w itha nim a g e s lic e r .
T h e e s s e n tia l c o m p o n e n ts d e v e lo p e d fo r th is p r o je c t w e re :
th e
fib e r
lin k
w ith
it s
e n d
c o n n e c to rs ,
th e

m e c h a n ic a l a n d o p tic a l g u id in g e le m e n ts , p r o v is io n fo r illu m in a tin g th e fib e r w ith c a lib r a tio n la m p s , a n d th e o u tp u t b e a m

o p tic s c o u p le d w itha n im a g e s lic e r.A b rie f d e s c r ip tio n o f th e a b o v e c o m p o n e n tsis p r o v id e din th e fo llo w in g p a r a g r a p h s :

CDb e o m
fr o m
p n m o r y m l" O f
F ig .3 :S e h e m a tie v ie w
o fth e a d a p to r - g u id in g u n it. T h is a s s e m b lyis
in s ta lle d a t th e p r im e fo e u so f th e3 .6 m te le s e o p e . E s s e n tia l e le m e n ts
n o td e s e r ib e d
in
th e
fig u re
a re :
1 .
E S O
e o n n e e to r a n d
d ia p h ra g m
a s s e m b ly (F ig .2 ); 2.C alib ra tio n p r is m - Ie n s a s s e m b ly ;3 . H ig h - g a in T V
e a m e ra .
tio n
la m p s m a yb e
s w itc h e d
o n
fo r d e te rm in in g
th e
s p e c tra l
c a lib r a tio n
a n d
fla t-fie ld
re s p o n s e
o f th e
s p e c tro g ra p h . T h e
la m p b e a m s a re fo c u s s e d o n to th e fib e r e n d v ia th e p ris m
le n s
a rra n g e m e n t.
Ino r d e r to c e n te r th e s ta r a c c u r a te ly o n to th e fib e r, th e p ris m \ue000
m irro r a s s e m b ly
is
sw ung
o u t o f th e
te le s c o p e
b e a m , th u s
a llo w in g
re fle c te d
lig h t fro m
th e
fib e r d ia p h r a g m
to
b e
re \ue000
im a g e d w ith a m a g n ific a tio n fa c to r -

3 (v ia le n s trip le t2 , m irro r 2 a n d m irro r3 )o n to th e T V c a m e r a .In th is m o d e , s in c e th e fib e r d ia p h r a g mis a lu m in iz e d e x c e p t fo r a h o le a lig n e d w ith th e fib e r

F ig .2 :S e h e m a tie v ie wo f th e fib e r in p u t- in e lin e d d ia p h r a g m a s s e m b ly .
T h is d e s ig n e n a b le s th e fo e u s s e d s t a r im a g e to fa ll,v iaah o le in th e
m irro re d
d ia p h ra g m ,
o n to
th e
in p u te n d
o fth e
fib e r.
A nye o ro n a l
r e s id u a lo fth e
im a g e
is
v ie w e da t th e
e d g e so f th e
h o le
v ia
a

T V e a m e ra . T h e n u m b e re d e o m p o n e n ts a re :1 .O p tie a l fib e r;2 . Im m e r s io n liq u id ;3 .A lu m in iz e d s u r fa e e ;4 . N o n - A lu m in iz e d h o le ;5 . S ilie a e o v e r p la te .

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Typical OW absorpfion
p e a k
11
+ --1
H -
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S P E C T R A N
F IB E R
(1 0 0
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T
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Q .U A R T Z&S IL IC EF IB E RIB 5 J L m
C O R E )
11
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F IB E R
(1 2 5
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o
1 .F ib e r L in k
T h re e d iffe re n t o p tic a l fib e rs (e a c h
r o u g h ly 3 8 m
lo n g a n d

h o u s e din a p ro te c tiv e c a b le ) w e re p re p a re d fo r th is e x p e rim e n \ue000 ta lru n .T h e y w e r e d is tin g u is h e d m a in lyb y th e ir c o re d ia m e te r s (8 5I-l,

1 0 0I-l
a n d
1 2 5I-l)
a n d
to
a
c e rta in
e x te n t
b y
th e ir
la b o ra to ry m e a s u re d
s p e c tra l tra n s m is s io n
(F ig .1 ) a n d
th e ir
o u tp u t b e a m
d iv e rg e n c e . 8 0 th e n d s o f e a c h fib e r w e re m o u n \ue000
te d
in
a
s p e c ia lly
d e v e lo p e d
E S O
c o n n e c to r.
A s
show n
in
F ig .2 , t h e
fib e r in p u t e n d
w as
c o v e re d
b y
a n
in c lin e d
d ia \ue000
p h ra g m
w h o s e re a r s u rfa c e a c ts a s a m irro r e x c e p t fo r a h o le
s lig h tly
la rg e r
th a n
th e
fib e r
c o re .
A n
o il
im m e r s io n

w as e m p lo y e d to e n s u re s a tis fa c to r y o p tic a l m a tc h in g b e tw e e n th e fib e r a n d d ia p h r a g m .

A tth e o u tp u t e n d o f th e lin k a s im ila r c o n n e c to r w a s u s e d to
a c c u r a te ly a lig n th e fib e r w ith
a beam
fo c u s s in g
s y s te m .A n
im m e r s io n
o il w a s
u s e d
b e tw e e n
fib e r a n d
le n s
fo r c o rre c t
o p tic a l m a tc h in g .
4 0 0
5 0 0
6 0 0
7 0 0
B O O
9 0 0
1 0 0 0
A(n m )
F ig .1 :S p e e tr a l e ffic ie n e yo f th e
th re e
4 0 m e tr e fib e r o p tie s e a b le s .
C o n s id e r a b le a tte n u a tio na tb lu e
w a v e le n g th sis e v id e n t in a ll th re e
fib e rs ,
a lth o u g h
a
u s e fu l s p e e tra l ra n g e
fro m
5 0 0 0
A
to
1{ Im
is

a v a ila "b le . ( M o s t e o m m e re ia l fib e rs a r e o p tim iz e da t 0 .8 5{ Imo r1 .3l.lI1 7 fo r te le e o m m u n ie a tio n s a p p lie a tio n s ).A ll m e a s u r e m e n ts w e re m a d e a t f/2 .8 .

2 0
4 0
1 0 0
B O
2 .
A c q u is itio n , G u id in g a n d th e
P rim e
F o c u s A d a p to r

W h e n c o r r e c tly a lig n e din th e p r im a r y fo c a l p la n e , th e im a g e o f th e s ta r o f in te r e s t is fo c u s s e d o n to th e fib e r in p u t e n d ,a s illu s tr a te din

F ig .2 . T h e p r in c ip le o f th e p rim e fo c u s a d a p to r, d e s ig n e d fo r e a s e o f a c q u is itio n a n d g u id in g , is illu s tr a te din F ig .3 ; fo r th e

p u rp o s e
o f in itia l a c q u is itio n
th e
m e c h a n ic a l
s u p p o r t, h o ld in g
to g e th e r th e
p ris m -Ie n s a s s e m b ly (u s e d
fo r

c a lib r a tio n ) a n d th e a c q u is itio n m irro r,iss w u n gin fro n t o f th e in c id e n t b e a m p e r m ittin g th e s ta r o f in te r e s ttob efo u n d w ith in a fie ld o f r o u g h ly6 'x

6 '. A t th e s a m e tim e e ith e r o f th e c a lib r a -
:z :
o
6 0
V 1
V 1
: L
V 1
:z :
< :
C l::
I -
2
A ll m e e tin g s w ill ta k e p la c ea t E S O
inG a r c h in g u n le s s s ta te d
o th e rw is e .
T e n ta tiv e T im e -ta b le0 1 C o u n c il S e s s io n s
a n d C o m m itte e M e e tin g sin1 9 8 3
3 .A s tr o n o m ic a l R e s u lts
O u rin g
th e
la s t te s t n ig h t, th e
r e la tiv e ly fa in t L M C
s ta r
H O2 6 9 7 0 0 w a s o b s e r v e d (F ig . 5 ). T h is s ta r h a s a m a g n itu d e
o f 1 0 .5 4 , a n d w a s o b s e r v e d w ith th e 8 5[.Imfib e rto g e th e rw ith a
C o m m itte e0 1 C o u n c il (C h ile )
F in a n c e C o m m itte e
U s e rs C o m m itte e
S c ie n tilica n dT e c h n ic a l C o m m itte e (C a r\ue000
g a s e , C o rs ic a )
C o u n c il (O b s e rv a to ire d e H a u te \ue000
P ro v e n c e )

O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e S c ie n tilic a n d T e c h n ic a l C o m m itte e F in a n c e C o m m itte e

C o m m itte e0 1C o u n c il
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
C o u n c il
June 6
J u n e8 -9
Novem ber 8

N ovem ber9 -1 0
N ovem ber1 1
N ovem ber2 9 -3 0
D ecem ber1 -2

A p ril6 -8 M ay 3--4 May 5

M ay2 0
2 .Im a g e S lic e r P e rfo rm a n c e

T h e e ffic ie n c y o f th e im a g e s lic e r w a s m e a s u r e d b y c o m \ue000 p a r in g its th r o u g h p u t w ith th a t o b ta in e d w ith a c o n v e n tio n a l s lit o f th e s a m e w id th . T h e g a in w a sinth is c a s e fo u n d tob e a b o u t

2 ,w h e r e a s a fa c to r o f 3 to 4 (d e p e n d in go n fib e r d ia m e te r a n d

s e e in g ) w a s a c h ie v e d w ith n o im a g e s lic e r b y o p e n in g th e s p e c tr o g r a p h s lit s u ffic ie n tly to a c c o m m o d a te th e p ro je c te d im a g e o f th e fib e r o u tp u t. T h is re s u lt s tr e s s e s th e e x tr e m e d e p e n d e n c e o f th e o v e r a ll s y s te m e ffic ie n c y u p o n s e e in g a n d im a g e s lic e r e ffic ie n c y .

1 .F ib e r E ffic ie n c y

E ffic ie n c y c o m p a r is o n s u s in g d iffe r e n t c o m b in a tio n s o f fib e r a n d s lit (o r im a g e s lic e r) w e r e h a n d ic a p p e d b y th e e x tr e m e s e n s itiv ity o f th e s y s te m

to s e e in g . T h isisu n fo rtu n a te ly a p a r a m e te r w h ic h , b y its o w n n a tu r e , e v o lv e s q u ite ra p id ly a n d u n p r e d ic ta b ly .

F ro m th e te s ts p e rfo rm e d o v e r 3 n ig h ts it s e e m s th a t 2 o f th e fib e rs (Q u a rtz a n d S ilic e 8 5f.lmd ia m e te r a n d G a lite 1 2 5[.Im ) g a v e c o m p a r a b le re s u lts w h e r e a s th e 1 0 0[.Im fib e r, w h ic hin th e la b o ra to ry e x h ib ite d c o n s id e ra b le a p e rtu re d e g ra d a tio n , w a s fo u n d tob ein fe rio r. T h e s im ila r ityin re s u lts o b ta in e d w ith th e 8 5[.Imand 125 [.Imfib e r s c a n b e e x p la in e d b y th e fa c t th a t a lth o u g h th e fo r m e r h a s a s m a lle r c o lle c tin g a re a , th is d ra w \ue000 b a c k is c o m p e n s a te d fo r b y a s u p e r io r m a tc h in g o f o u tp u t im a g e to e n tr a n c e s lit s iz e .

F ig . 1 c le a rly illu s tr a te s th a t th e p r e s e n t fib e rs c a n n o t b e u s e d e ffic ie n tlyinth e b lu e o v e r r e la tiv e ly lo n g d is ta n c e s a n d fo r th is re a s o n n o a tte m p t w a s m a d etow o rkin th is s p e c tra l re g io n . M o s t o f th e o b s e rv a tio n s w e re m a d e a t w a v e le n g th s g re a te r th a n 5 6 0 0\u00c4 .T h e a d a p te r a n d g u id in g u n it d e v e lo p e d fo r th e p rim e fo c u s w e re fo u n d to b e to ta lly s a tis fa c to ry : s ta r a c q u is i\ue000 tio n a n d g u id in g w ith th e T V c a m e r a w a s e x tr e m e ly e a s y a n d th e c a lib r a tio n s o b ta in e d th r o u g h th e fib e rs le d to in te g ra tio n tim e s e q u iv a le n t to th o s e n e c e s s a r y w ith th e s p e c tr o g r a p h c a lib r a tio n s y s te m . A lth o u g hn oa d e q u a te c o m p a ris o n h a s y e t b e e n p e rfo rm e d ,itise x p e c te d th a t c a lib r a tio n s a c h ie v e d v iaa n o p tic a l fib e r s h o u ld g iv e im p r o v e d o v e r a ll a c c u r a c y .

3 .O u tp u t b e a m
o p tic s

T h e f/3 p rim e fo c u s in p u tb ea m p ro fileis tra n s fe rre d th ro u g h th e fib e r a lm o s t u n d is tu r b e d , w ith o n ly a fe w p e r c e n to fth e in p u t e n e r g y b e in g s c a tte r e d b e y o n d th e n o m in a l f/3 b e a m (F ig .4 ).

A c e m e n te d trip le t o b je c tiv e p r o d u c e s a 1 0 x
m a g n ifie d
im a g e o f th e fib e r o u tp u t e n d
a t th e
e n tra n c e

s lit o f th e s p e c tro g ra p h , th u s re d u c in g th e b e a m a p e rtu re to f/3 0 w h ic his th e n c o m p a tib le w ith th e s p e c tr o g r a p h o p tic s .

If a c e rta in d e g r a d a tio ninre s o lu tio n c a n b e to le ra te d , th e n o r m a l C E S in p u t s lit c a n b e u s e d a t a w id e s e ttin gs oth a t m o s t o f th e lig h t e n te r s th e in s tr u m e n t. If th e c o n d itio n o f m a x im a l r e s o lu tio nisd e te r m in a n t fo r a p a r tic u la r o b s e rv a tio n , th is s lit can be replaced bya nim a g e s lic e r . T h e im a g e s lic e r u s e d d u rin g th e te s t p e rio d w a s d e s ig n e d b yH .R ic h a rd s o n

(E . R ic h a rd s o n , " Im a g e S lic e rs fo r Im a g e -T u b e S p e c tro g ra p h s ", E S O /C E R N C o n fe re n c eo nA u x ilia ry In s tru m e n ta tio n fo r L a rg e T e le s c o p e s , M a y2 -5 ,1 9 7 2 ,p . 2 7 5 ), a n dis e s s e n tia llya n im a g e a n a m a r p h o s e r c o m p r is in ga n in p u t c y lin d r ic a l le n s ,a n in p u t s lit, tw o s p lit o ffs e t s p h e r ic a l m ir r o r s a n da n o u tp u t s lit. If c o n s id e re da sa b la c k b o x , th e s lic e r c a n b e th o u g h t o f a s a llo w in g o n e d ir e c t s lic e o f th e im a g e th r o u g h th e e x it s lit, a n d p la c in g a b o v e a n d b e lo w th is s lic e o n e ( o r m o re ) s lic e ( s ) ta k e n fro m e a c h o f th e tw o re m a in in g (a n d o th e rw is e lo s t) c re s c e n t\ue000 s h a p e d

e d g e s o f th e
im a g e . H ig h e r o r d e r s lic e s a re

a ls o present but are not m ade use ofinth is d e s ig n b e c a u s e o f th e lim ite d d io d e le n g th o f th e r e tic o n . T h is s y s te m , if w e il a d ju s te d , p ro v id e s a th e o re tic a l g a in o f a ro u n d 2 .5 fo ra ne x it s lit w id tho f 2 3 0[.I a n d a u n ifo r m ly illu m in a te d fib e r e n d 8 5[.Iin d ia m e te r . S u c h a c o n fig u r a tio n is o f c o u r s e o n ly u s e fu lifth e d e te c to r p ix e ls a re s u ffic ie n tly d im e n s io n e d (a s is th e c a s e w ith th e C E S re tic o n fo r u p to 3 s lic e s ) to m a k e u s e o f th e e lo n g a te d e n tr a n c e s lit s p e c tr u m .

T e s t R e s u lts
T h e
3 c a b le d
fib e rs
p re p a re d
fo r th is

e x p e rim e n t w e re in s ta lle do nth e te le s c o p ein le s s th a n a d a y . T h e y w e r e fe d d o w n th ro u g h th e p rim e fo c u s v ia th e S e rru rie r s tru c tu re a n d o n e o f th e c o u d a tu b e s in to th e c o u d a ro o m .

F ig .4 :O u tp u t b e a m p r o fileo f th e fib e r. T h is p r o file w a s o b ta in e d w ith
th e c o m p le te fib e r lin ka n dab r ig h t s ta r. A re tic o n w a s s e t a t ac e rta in
d is ta n c e fro m
th e fib e re n da n du s e dto r e c o r d th e a n g u la r d is trib u tio n
o flig h ta t th e fib e r o u tp u t. C a lc u la tio n s s h o w th a t m o r e th a n9 5%o f th e
e n e r g y in th is b e a m
i sa d m itte d in to a n f/3 o p tic a l s y s te m .

c o re , th e c o rre c tly g u id e d s ta r is o b s e rv e da s a " b la c k h o le " s u rro u n d e d b y a b rig h t c o ro n a w h o s e e x te n t d e p e n d s u p o n th e T V c a m e r a g a in a n d th e a c tu a l s e e in g c o n d itio n s . A t a la te r d a te ,a na u to g u id in g s y s te m c o u ld b e u s e d d ir e c tly w ith th is T V im a g e .

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