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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
No. 32 -
June 1983
C o m e ts -
D is ta n t a n d
N e a rb y
R .M .W e s t,E S O
C o m e t P /H a lle y O b s e r v e d a t E S O
W ith th e r e c o v e r y o f C o m e t H a lle y o n O c to b e r 1 6 , 1 9 8 2 , th e
in te re s tin
c o m e ts
h a s
r e c e iv e d
a
n e w

im p e tu s . E v e r y b o d y k n o w s th is fa m o u s c o m e t a n d w h e n th e p r e d ic te d o r b it fo r its C u rre n t re tu rn

w as
p u b lis h e d
in
1 9 7 7 , s e v e ra l a s tro n o m e rs
s ta rte d a s y s te m a tic s e a r c h to r e c o v e r th e o b je c l.

A p a r t fro m th e h o n o u r o f b e in g th e firs t to s e e P /H a ile y(P Iis u s e d fo rp e r io d ic c o m e ts w ith p e rio d s o f le s s th a n 2 0 0 y e a rs ), th e re

w as
a ls o
a
v e ry
p ra c tic a l
a s p e c l.
N o
le s s
th a n
fo u r

s p a c e c r a ft a re p la n n e d to in te r c e p t C o m e t H a lle yin1986, and itw a s o f o b v io u s n e c e s s ity to le a r n , a s e a r ly a s p o s s ib le , th e e x a c t o rb it o f th e c o m e t u p o n its re tu rn .

F o llo w in g th e r e c o v e r y 5 m
P a lo m a r o b s e rv a tio n s , te a m s o f
a s tro n o m e rs
a t th e
K itt P e a k
4 m
a n d
th e
C a n a d a -F ra n c e \ue000
H a w a ii
3.5 m
te le s c o p e s
w e re
im m e d ia te ly
s u c c e s s fu l
in
d e te c tin g

P /H a lle y . A t E S O , th e firs t (u n s u c c e s s fu l) a tte m p ts w e re a lre a d y m a d ein1 9 8 0 , w ith th e E S O 3 .6 m te le s c o p e o n .P h o to g ra p h ic p la te s a n d w ith

th e
O a n is h
1.5 m
te le s c o p e b y
,m e a n s
o f
th e
e le c tro n o g ra p h ic
M c M u lia n
c a m e ra .
T h e s e

a tte m p ts w e r e h e r o ic b u t s in c e a t th a t tim e , a s w e k n o w n o w , th e c o m e t's m a g n itu d e w a s c e r ta in ly m u c h fa in te r th a n 2 5 , th e y w e re d o o m e d fro m

th e b e g in n in g .
W ith th e in s ta lla tio n o f a C C O
c a m e r a a t th e O a n is h
1.5 m

te le s c o p e , it b e c a m e p o s s ib le , d u r in g th e p a s t y e a r,too b s e rv e e x tr e m e ly fa in t o b je c ts . It w a s , h o w e v e r , s till s o m e w h a t d o u b t\ue000 fu lw h e th e rit w o u ld

b e
p o s s ib le
to
o b s e rv e
P /H a ile y w h ic h
a c c o r d in g
t o
th e
A m e r ic a n
a n d
F re n c h
o b s e rv a tio n s
w o u ld
h a v e a m a g n itu d e o f a p p r o x im a te ly 2 4 .5 . T h e m a in p r o b le m
w a s th a t e x tre m e ly a c c u ra te tra c k in g
o f th e c o m e t w o u ld
b e
n e c e s s a r y to k e e p th e fe w
p h o to n s re c e iv e d fro m

itfa llin g o n th e s a m e p ix e ls o f th e C C O c a m e r a th r o u g h o u t th e e x p o s u r e . S in c eitw a s im p o s s ib le to " s e e " th e c o m e t,b lin d tra c k in g w a s n e c e s s a ry , th a tis

le ttin g
th e
te le s c o p e
fo llo w
th e
p re d ic te d
m o tio n o f th e c o m e t, b u t w ith o u t a n y p o s s ib ility o f c h e c k in g th a t
it a c tu a lly d o e s s o .
T h ro u g h
a c o m b in a tio n
o f v e ry g o o d
s e e in g , e x c e e d in g ly
a c c u ra te
tra c k in g
a n d
a d m itte d ly
a
b it o f g o o d
lu c k , H o lg e r
P e d e rs e n
w as
fin a lly
a b le
to
o b ta in
th e
firs t E S O

p ic tu re o f C o m e t H a lle y o n 1 0 O e c e m b e r 1 9 8 2 . N e a r th e c e n tr e o f a 4 5 \ue000 m in u te e x p o s u re th ro u g h

a b ro a d -b a n d filte r(3 7 0 0 -7 8 0 0A )
th e r e w a s a v e r y w e a k s p o t w h ic h c o u ld b a r e lyb e s e e n o n th e
F ig .1 :P IH a lle y a ss e e no n 4 5 -m in b ro a d -b a n d(3 7 0 0 -7 8 0 0A )fra m e ,
o b ta in e dw ithaG G Oo nth eO a n is h1 .5 m te le s c o p e , J a n u a r y1 4 ,1 9 8 3 .
1 p ix e l=
0 .4 7a rc s e c o n d s .
P ro f. O tto H e c k m a n n ,1 9 0 1-1 9 8 3
Itisw ith d e e p re g re t th a t w e h a v e to a n n o u n c e th e d e a th
o f P ro fe s s o r O tto H e c k m a n n
o n
1 4 M a y 1 9 8 3 . P ro fe s s o r
H e c k m a n n w a s O ire c to r G e n e ra l o f E S O fro m
1 9 6 2to1 9 6 9 .
A n o b itu a r y w ill fo llo w
inth e n e x t is s u e o f th eM e s s e n g e r.
c le a n e d a n d fie ld -c o rre c te d
p ic tu re .H e b ro u g h t th e fra m eto
E S O , G a rc h in g , w h e re
w e
w e re
a b le
to
m e a s u re
th e e x a c t
p o s itio n o f th e " s p o t " , a n d w e w e r e h a p p yto le a rn th a t, s in c e
th e
m e a s u re d
p o s itio n
c o in c id e d
e x a c tly w ith
th a t p re d ic te d
fro m
th e o r b ita l m o tio n , it w a s in d e e d P /H a lle y w h ic h c o u ldb e
s e e n
inth e fra m e .
H .P e d e rs e n w a s a g a in s u c c e s s fu lo n 1 4 J a n u a ry 1 9 8 3 w h e n
h eo b ta in e d th e p ic tu re s h o w n h e re . N o w th e re w a s n od o u b t
a b o u t th e
re a lity
o f th e
o b je c t a n d , a g a in , th e
p o s itio n
w as
c o rre c t. In d e e d , th e
re s id u a ls fro m
th e e x p e c te d
m o tio n

a re le s s th a n 1 a rc s e c o n d , a n d th e E S O o b s e r v a tio n s w e re a g o o d c o n tr ib u tio n to th e e x a c t d e te r m in a tio n o f th e o r b it a n d w e re th e re fo re o f s o m e h e lptoth e p la n n e d s p a c e c r a ft e x p e rim e n ts .

IsH a lle y A c tiv e ?
O nth e firs t p ic tu r e th e m e a s u r e d m a g n itu d e w a s 2 4 .5\u00b1 0 .3 .
Itis
in d e e d
im p r e s s iv e
th a t s u c h
a fa in t o b je c tc a n
n o w
b e
o b s e rv e d
w ith
a
1.5 m
te le s c o p e !
H o w e v e r,
th e
m e a s u re d
m a g n itu d e
o n
th e
J a n u a ry 1 4
p ic tu re
w as
2 3 .5
\u00b1
0 .2 , o r 1
m a g n itu d e
b rig h te r! E v e n
w ith
th e
e x p e c te d
u n c e rta in tie s
it
th u s
a p p e a rs th a t P /H a lle y u n d e rw e n ta d e fin ite
b rig h te n in g

d u r in g a fe w w e e k s . T h is c o u ldb ed u eto th eo n s e t o f n u c le a r a c tiv ity , th a tis v a p o r iz a tio n o f th e ic e sin th e c o m e t n u c le u so r, p e rh a p s , ro ta tio n o f th e n u c le u s .

N o b o d y k n o w s fo r s u r e w h a t th e n u c le u s o f th e c o m e t lo o k s lik e , a n d th e E S O o b s e r v a tio n s c a n n o t a lo n e g iv e a n y a n s w e r to th a t. S till, w ithth ea d d itio n o f fu rth e r o b s e rv a tio n sa t o th e r te le s c o p e s ,itm a y p e r h a p s b e c o m e p o s s ib le to le a rn a t w h ic h d is ta n c e th e a c tiv ity o f th e n u c le u s firs t s e tsin a n d a ls o w h e th e r th e

tin y
o b je c t (e s tim a te d
a t6k m
d ia m e te rb y
th e
F re n c h
g ro u p ) ro ta te s , o r n o t.
H .P e d e rs e n a n d I e x p e c tto c a rry th ro u g h a lo n g s e rie so f
o b s e rv a tio n s
o f P /H a lle y
d u rin g
it s
n e x t o p p o s itio n
in
e a rly

1 9 8 4 . W e h o p e , b y o b ta in in g s e v e ra l fra m e s e v e ry n ig h t d u rin g a p e r io d o f tw o w e e k s , to le a rn w h e th e r r e g u la r lig h t v a r ia tio n s a re p re s e n t a n dtom e a s u r e th e r o ta tio n p e r io d , if p o s s ib le .

In te r n a tio n a l H a lle y W a tc h
In
o rd e rto
c o o rd in a te
o b s e rv a tio n s
o f C o m e t H a lle y , th e
In te rn a tio n a l H a lle y
W a tc h
h a s
b e e n
s e tu p . T h is
g ro u p
o f

a s tro n o m e rs w ill ta k e c a re o f th e p la n n in g o f o b s e rv a tio n s a n d th e s u b s e q u e n t a r c h iv in g o f a ll d a ta o b ta in e d d u r in g th is C o m e t H a lle y a p p a ritio n , s o th a t fu tu re g e n e ra tio n s o f a s tro n o m e rs c a n

b e tte r p ro fit fro m
a llth e
e ffo rts . A n y b o d y
in te re s te d
in
p e rfo rm in g o b s e rv a tio n s o f P /H a lle y s h o u ld th e re fo re c o n ta c t
o n e o f th e le a d c e n te rs . H e w ill th e n r e c e iv e fu r th e r in fo rm a tio n .
P le a s e
w rite to:D r.R ay
L .N e w b u rn -
IH W
L e a d
C e n te r,
W e s te rn
H e m is p h e r e , J e t P r o p u ls io n
L a b o ra to ry , 4 8 0 0 O a k
G ro v e D riv e , P a s a d e n a , C A
9 1 1 0 3 , U S A ; o r P ro f.J .R ahe\ue000
IH W
L e a d
C e n te r, E a s te rn
H e m is p h e r e , A s tr o n o m ic a l In s ti\ue000
tu te , S te rn w a rts tra \u00df e7 , 0 - 8 6 0 0 B a m b e rg , F R G .
C o m e t 1 9 8 3 d P a s s e s th e E a rth
W h e n C o m e t H a lle y w a s fir s t o b s e r v e da t E S O , it w a s s tilla t
a d is ta n c e o f 1 0 .5A U
o r r o u g h ly 1 ,6 0 0 m illio nkm , o r b e y o n d
th e o rb it o f S a tu rn .
A t th e
o p p o s ite
ra n g e
o f d is ta n c e s ,
a
n e w ly
d is c o v e r e d
c o m e t, IR A S -A R A K I-A L C O C K
( 1 9 8 3 d ) , p a s s e d o n ly 4 .5 m il\ue000
lio nk m
fro m
th e e a rth o n1 1
M a y 1 9 8 3 . T h e E u ro p e a n S o u th \ue000
e rn
O b s e rv a to ry
w as
a ls o
in v o lv e d
in
o b s e rv a tio n s
o f th is
o b je c t, b u tina somewhat unusual way.
W h e n th e IR A S s a te llite d e te c te da n in fra re d s o u rc ein th e
s k y
to w a rd s
th e
e n d
o f A p r il 1 9 8 3 , it w a s
n o t im m e d ia te ly
2
F ig .2 :G o m e t IR A S -A R A K I-A L G O G K
(1 9 8 3 d )
o b s e rv e d
b y
M r.
P .
S t\u00e4 tlm a y e r a t H e rrs c h in g n e a r M u n ie h ,o n
M ay9 .8
1 9 8 3 ;e x p o s u re
tim e
1 2m in u te s o n
1 0 3 - a E e m u ls io n .
know n
w hat
k in d
o f o b je c t
itw as.
H o w e v e r,
tw o
a m a te u r
a s tro n o m e rs
in d e p e n d e n tly d is c o v e r e d
1983d, and
b y
c o n \ue000
n e c tin g th e p o s itio n s g iv e n b y IR A S , A ra k i (J a p a n ), a n d A lc o c k
(U K ),D r.B ria n M a r s d e n o f th e lA U
C e n tra l T e le g ra m

B u re a u w a s a b le to c a lc u la te a p r e lim in a r y o rb it.Itim m e d ia te ly b e c a m e c le a r th a t 1 9 8 3 d w o u ld p a s s v e ry c lo s etoth ee a rth a n d th a t th e o b je c t c o u ld b e c o m e o f e x c e p tio n a l in te re s t. A te le g ra m

w ent
o u t fro m
th e
B u re a u
s tre s s in g
th e
p a ra m o u n t im p o rta n c e
o f

o b ta in in g a c c u r a te p o s itio n sin o r d e rto im p r o v e th e p re c is io n o f th e o rb it, s o th a t o b s e r v a tio n s c o u ldb em a d e w ith la r g e ra d io a n d o p tic a l te le s c o p e sa tth e c lo s e s t p a s s a g e .

U p o n re a d in g th e te le g ra m
inth e E S O lib r a r ya t G a r c h in g , I
w o n d e re d w h e th e ritw o u ldb e p o s s ib leins om e w a yto o b ta in
o b s e rv a tio n s fro m
M u n ic h . N o t b e in g

a tL aS illa , I fe it th a tit w o u ldb e u s e fu lto s e e w h e th e r a n y m e a n s w e r e a v a ila b le , n e a r th e

E S O
h e a d q u a rte rs , o f o b ta in in g
th e s e

c r u c ia l p o s itio n a l m e a s u re m e n ts . I th e re fo re c o n ta c te dM r.P e te r S t\u00e4 ttm a y e r o f th e M u n ic h V o lk s s te rn w a rte w h o ru n sa na m a te u r o b s e rv a to ry

in
H e rrs c h in g
n e a r
th e
b e a u tifu l
A m m e rs e e ,
ju s t s o u th
o f
M u n ic h , a n d w a s h a p p y to
le a rn th a th ew a s w illin g
totr y to
m ake
p h o to g ra p h ic
e x p o s u re s
o f th e
o b je c t.
A lth o u g h
th e
w e a th e r w a s
n o t v e ry
c o o p e ra tiv e ,
M r.S t\u00e4 ttm a y e r m a d e
a
s e rie s o f s h o rt e x p o s u r e s d u rin g th e n ig h t b e tw e e n M a y 9 a n d
1 0 , w h e n th e c o m e t w a s m o v in g
r a p id ly a c ro s s th e s k ya ta
d is ta n c e o f o n ly 8 m illio nkm .W em e a s u re d th e3 5m m
T ri-X
fra m e sinth e s a m e w a ya s th e la rg e E S O
S c h m id t p la te sb y
m eans
o f
th e
O P T R O N IC S
m e a s u r in g
m a c h in e
a t
E S O ,
G a r c h in g , a n d a lth o u g h th e p la te s c a le w a s o n ly 3 .5 m ic r o n s
p e r a r c s e c o n d ( r o u g h ly 4 tim e s s m a lle r th a n th a t o f th e
E S O
S c h m id t) , it w a s
p o s s ib le
to
o b ta in
a n

a c c u ra c y o f a p p ro x i\ue000 m a te ly\u00b12 a rc s e c . T h e p rin c ip a l e rro r s o u rc e w a sth e d iffu s e \ue000 n e s s o f th e c o m e t c o m a .W etr a n s m itte d th e p o s itio n stoD r.

M a rs d e n a b o u t 1 2 h o u rs a fte r th e o b s e rv a tio n s a n d w e re q u ite h a p p y to le a rn th a t th e y c o n tr ib u te d s ig n ific a n tly to th e im p r o v e \u00b7 m e n t o f th e o r b it a n d th e r e b y d ir e c lly to th e s u c c e s s o fe .g .th e ra d a r e x p e r im e n ts w ith th e A r e c ib o a n d G o ld s to n e a n te n n a s .

L a te in th e e v e n in g o f1 1

M a y , ju s t a fte r th e c lo s e s t a p p r o a c h to th e e a r th , it w a s a g a in p o s s ib le to o b s e r v e th r o u g h a h o lein th e c lo u d s o v e r M u n ie h , a n d th is tim eD r. M a r s d e n r e c e iv e d th e p o s itio n s o n ly 4 h o u r s la te r. (It s h o u ld h e re b e n o te d th a t th is

w as
o n ly
p o s s ib le
b e c a u s e
th e re
is
n o
s p e e d
lim it on
th e
G e r m a n h ig h w a y s !)
T h e
a b o v e
s to ry
is
a
n ic e
illu s tr a tio n
o f
h o w

a m a te u r a s tr o n o m e r s c a n c o n tr ib u te s ig n ific a n tly to o u r s c ie n c e . W ith \u00b7 o u t th e d e d ic a tio n o f M r. S t\u00e4 ttm a y e r, it w o u ld

not have been p o s s ib le to o b ta in th e s e c r u c ia l o b s e r v a tio n s a n d th u s to h e lp th e p ro fe s s io n a l a s tro n o m e rs p o in tin g

th e ir te le s c o p E :s
I n
th e
c o rre c t d ire c tio n .
A b s o lu te P h o to m e try o f H II R e g io n s
J .G a p /a na n dL . O e h a rv e n g , O b s e r v a to ir e d e M a rs e ille
T o d a y it is p o s s ib le to
o b s e rv e
H II r e g io n s
n o t o n lyin th e
v is ib le p a r t o f th e
s p e c tru m , b u t a ls ointh e
ra d io , m illim e tr e ,
in fra re d , a n d
u ltr a v io le t ra n g e s . C o m b in in g
p h o to m e trie d a ta
fro m

s e v e ra l o f th e s e w a v e le n g th s h e lp s u s to u n d e rs ta n d th e p ro p e rtie s o f H II r e g io n s a n d o f th e ir e x c itin g s ta r c lu s te rs . B u t o lte n , ra th e r s u rp ris in g ly , th e m e a s u r e m e n ts a re q u ite g o o d a t th e s e

" e x o tic "
w a v e le n g th s
b u t
o n ly
q u a lita tiv e ,
o r
o f
lo w
a c c u ra c y ,inth e o p tic a l re g io n .
A
fe w
y e a rs
a g o
w e
d e c id e d
to
try to
r e m e d y th is
la c k o f
a c e u ra te a b s o lu te s u rfa c e p h o to m e try o f e m is s io n n e b u la e b y
c o n s tru c tin g
a
s p e c ia l p h o to e le c tr ic
p h o to m e te r, w h ic h
w as
m o d ifie d
in
1 9 8 1
b y
th e
a d d itio n
of a
s c a n n in g
F a b ry \u00b7P e ro t
in te rfe ro m e te r. W e h a v e s in c e u s e d it a t th e O b s e rv a to ire d e
H a u te P ro v e n c e in F ra n c e a n d a t th e 5 0 c m
a n d 1 .5 2m ESO
te le s c o p e s a t L a S illa .
C h o o s in g th e In s tr u m e n t
A g r a tin g in s tr u m e n t w a s im m e d ia te ly re je c te d . T h is k in d o f
d e v ic e
is g o o d fo r m e a s u rin g
a c c u ra te
r e la tiv e

in te n s itie s o f lin e s , b u t it u s e s a n e n t r a n c es lit,w h ic h h a sa n in c o n v e n ie n l s h a p e fo r c o m p a r is o n w ith ra d io m a p s a n d w ith p h o to g r a p h s ; a ls o , to ta l flu x

m e a s u r e m e n ts a re d iffic u l!. W e
c h o s e

p h o to \u00b7 e le c tric p h o to m e tr y w ith in te rfe re n c e filte rs (a n d , la te r, a F a b ry \ue000 P e ro t)

b e c a u s e
it is
s e n s itiv e ,
a c c u ra te , c a n
b e
put on
a n
a b s o lu te s c a le u s in g s ta n d a r d s ta rs , a n d w o r k s w ith a c ir c u la r
d ia p h ra g m

o f m u c h la r g e r a r e a th a n a s li!. T h is m a k e s it fa ir ly e a s y to c a lib ra te p h o to g ra p h s , a n d w e c a n g e n e ra lly a rra n g e to h a v e a d ia p h r a g m

c o m p a r a b le
ind ia m e te r to
th e
be am
of a
ra d io te le s c o p e s o a s to fa c ilita te
r a d i% p tic a lc o m p a r is o n s .
N e b u la r
p h o to m e try
re q u ire s
a c c u ra te
k n o w le d g e
o f
th e
tra n s m is s io n c u rv e s o f th e filte rs u s e d . U n fo rtu n a te ly , in te rfe r\u00b7
e n c e filte rs a re o fte n
ra th e r n o n -u n ifo rm
inth e ir tr a n s m is s io n
c h a r a c le r is tic s , e s p e c ia lly n e a r th e e d g e s . T h e r e fo r e w e p la c e

o u r filte rs in a c o llim a te d b e a m , n e a r th e im a g e o f th e e n tr a n c e p u p il, r a th e r th a n n e a r th e fo c a l p la n e o f th e te le s c o p e a s w e d o fo r

le s s
c r itic a l
a p p lic a tio n s .
F u rth e rm o re ,
w e
c a lib r a te
o u r
filte rsins itu :w e le a v e th e m
ino u r in s tr u m e n t a n d illu m in a te th e

e n tra n c e a p e rtu re w ith lig h t fro m a m o n o c h ro m a to r. E x a c tly th e s a m e p a r t o f e a c h filte r is u s e d d u r in g c a lib r a tio n a n d d u r in g th e o b s e rv a tio n s , th a n k s

t o
a
m ask
p la c e d
a t th e
im a g e
o f th e
e n tr a n c e p u p il a n d a d ju s te d a t th e te le s c o p e .
A n o th e r r e q u ir e m e n t is h ig h - a c c u r a c y p o in tin g . U n lik e s te lla r
p h o to m e try ,in
g e n e ra l n o ta ll o f th e
lig h t fro m
o u r e m is s io n
re g io n
fa lls
w ith in
th e
d ia p h r a g m . T h u s
in te rp re ta tio n

o f th e o b s e rv a tio n s re q u ire s a c c u ra te k n o w le d g e o f th e d ia p h r a g m 's p o s itio n .

T h e re
is
n o t a lw a y s
a
s ta r v is ib le
a t
th e
d e s ir e d

c o o rd in a te s , s o o ffs e t p o in tin g is n e c e s s a ry . A t th e E S O 5 0 c m te le s c o p e , p o in tin g o f th e te le s c o p e its e lf is s u ffic ie n tly g o o d fo r u s1 0o ffs e t fro m

a n e a rb y s ta r, b u t s u c h a c c u ra c y is u n u s u a l.
H e n c e o u r s p e c tro p h o to m e te r h a sa nx \u00b7y o ffs e t s y s te m
w h ic h
u s e s
m ic ro m e te r s c re w s
t o
s h ift th e
p o s itio n
o f th e
g u id in g
re tic le
a n d
th e
e y e p ie c e w ith
r e s p e c t to th e d ia p h r a g m . T h is
s y s te m

w a s p a r tic u la r ly u s e fu l a t th e E S O 1 .5 m te le s c o p e . A t th e b e g in n in g o f o u r o b s e r v in g ru n , w e m e a s u r e d th e re la tiv e p o s itio n s o f s e v e ra l s ta rs a n d

(b y le a s t-s q u a re s ) d e riv e d th e p la te s c a le a n d a ro ta tio n p a ra m e te r. W e w e re th e n a b le to d o o ffs e t p o in tin g to b e tte r th a n

a s e c o n d o f a re .
P h o to m e trie m e th o d s .S o fa r w e h a v e d e s c r ib e d th e b a s ic
p ro p e rtie s o f o u r in s tru m e n t -
as showninF ig . 1 -
e x c e p t fo r
th e
F a b ry \u00b7P e ro t.
B e fo re
p r o c e e d in g
fu rth e r,
it
is
u s e fu l
to
c o n s id e r h o w w e w o u ld u s e th e p h o to m e te r if w e d id n o t h a v e
th e
F P .

F irs t, w e m u s t c a lib ra te th e p h o to m e te r - te le s c o p e c o m b in a \ue000 tio n , u s in g o b s e r v a tio n s o f s ta n d a rd s ta rs th ro u g h c o n tin u u m filte rs fo r w h ic h th e tr a n s m is s io n c u rv e s h a v e b e e n a c c u ra te ly m e a s u re d . T h is

g iv e s
u s
a n
e ffe c tiv e
c o lle c tin g a re a ,w h ic h
in c lu d e s th e e ffe c ts o f te le s c o p e s iz e , re fle c tiv itie s , p h o to m u l\ue000
tip lie r q u a n tu m
e ffic ie n c y , e tc . (b u tn o tth e filte r tr a n s m is s io n ) .
N ow we can observea nH
11re g io n u s in g a n a rro w -b a n d (1 0 o r

1 5A )filte r c e n te r e d o n a n e m is s io n lin e . D iv id in g th e e m is s io n \ue000 lin e s ig n a l (in p h o to n s p e r s e c o n d ) b y th e tr a n s m is s io n o f th is filte r a n d b y th e e ffe c tiv e c o lle c tin g a re a g iv e s u s th e lin e flu x o f th e

re g io n .
(O f
c o u rs e ,
w e
m ust
c o rre c t
fo r
a tm o s p h e ric
e x tin c tio n .)
T h e m a in p r o b le m is th a t, e v e n w ith s u c h filte rs , th e r eiso fte n
a
fa ir
am ount
o f
c o n tin u u m
ra d ia tio n
w h ic h
g e ts
th ro u g h
"
P "'---
c ,
F P
P
c ,
F
I
iIi
J -..I...l
E';+ r"
\ ' /
F ig .1 :B a s ico p tic a l d e s ig no f th e s p e c tro p h o to m e te r, s h o w in g p rin c i-

p a lc o m p o n e n ts . E : e y e p ie c e ; R : re tic le ;M : m irro r;0 : d ia p h ra g m ;L ,: fie ld le n s ;C ,: c o /lim a tin g le n s ; F : filte r;P :m ask ( im a g eo f te le s c o p e e n tra n c e p u p il); F P : s c a n n in g F a b ry \u00b7P e ro t; C2

:im a g in g le n s ; L2
:F a b ry
le n s ; P M : R C A
C 3 1 0 3 4 p h o to m u ltip lie r ; K : c a th o d e .
T h e
a rtic le
b y
D .
E n a rd
a n d
G. Lund
a b o u t " M u ltip le \ue000
O b je c t F ib e r S p e c t r o s c o p y " w ill b e
p u b lis h e d
in
th e
n e x l
is s u e o f th eM essenger(S e p te m b e r 1 9 8 3 ) a n d n o tin th e
p re s e n t o n e a s w a s a n n o u n c e dinth eM essenger N o . 3 1 .
3

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