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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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02/01/2013

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
No. 33 -
S e p te m b e r 1 9 8 3
P ro f. O tto H e c k m a n n
P h o to g ra p h : D r. P a ta r L a m a rs d o rf
O tto H e c k m a n n
1 9 0 1 -1 9 8 3
O tto
H e c k m a n n , p a s t D i\ue000
re c to r
G e n e ra l
o f
th e
E u ro p e a n
S o u th e rn
O b\ue000
s e rv a to ry
(1 9 6 2 -1 9 6 9 ),
P r e s id e n t o f th e
In te rn a \ue000
tio n a l A s tr o n o m ic a l U n io n
(1 9 6 7 -1 9 7 0 ),a n d th e A s \ue000
tro n o m is c h e
G e s e lls c h a ft
(1 9 5 2 -1 9 5 7 ),

P ro fe s s o r o f A s tro n o m y a n d D ire c to r o fth e H a m b u rg O b s e rv a \ue000 to ry(1 9 4 1 -1 9 6 2 ),d ie d o n M ay13, 1983.

T h e
E u ro p e a n
S o u th \ue000
e rn

O b s e rv a to ry h a s p a r\ue000 tic u la r re a s o n to b e g ra te \ue000 fu l

t o
O tto
H eckm ann
w hose
c re a tiv e
im p u ls e
W as
th e
e s s e n tia l
c o n -
trib u tio n to th e fin a l r e a liz a tio n o f th is E u r o p e a n o r g a n iz a tio n .
B o rn o n J u n e23, 1901

inO p la d e n , h e e a r ly d e v e lo p e d h is in te re s tina s tr o n o m ic a l p ro b le m s .F . K \u00fc s tn e ra t th e U n iv e rs ity o f B o n n in tr o d u c e d h im in to c la s s ic a l p o s itio n a l a s tr a n o m y .H e v e ry p r o b a b ly fo r m e d h is s c ie n tific s ty le . A fte r h a v in g re c e iv e d h isP h.D .a t B o n n , h o w e v e r , h e s o o n fo llo w e da n in v ita tio n b y

H .K ie n le
t o
G \u00f6 ttin g e n , w h e re
h e
becam e
a c q u a in te d
w ith
m o d e rn a s tro p h y s ic a l p ro b le m s .

A sa ne x c e lle n t o b s e r v e r h e s o o n c o u ld im p r o v e th e a c c u - . ra c y o f p h o to g r a p h ic p h o to m e tr y to a h ith e rto u n e q u a lIe d le v e l. F a m o u s w e r e h is in v e s tig a tio n so nth e c o lo u r - m a g n itu d e d ia \ue000 g ra m

o f o p e n c lu s te rs , to g e th e r w ithH .H a ffn e r.
F a s c in a te d b yE .H u b b le 's d is c o v e r y o f th e re d s h ift-d is ta n c e
~
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
o f e x tr a g a la c tic n e b u la ein
1 9 2 9 ,h e re s u m e d e a rlie r
In v e s tig a tio n s o n c o s m o lo g y w h ic h fin a lly r e s u lte dinth e p u b li\ue000
c a tio n
o f
h is
b o o k ,
T h e o rie n
d e r
K o s m o lo g ie
w h ic h
la te r
a p p e a re da tH a m b u rgin1 9 4 2 .
W h o e v e r w itn e s s e d th e p e rio d o f in te lle c tu a l s u p p r e s s io nin
th e
la te
th irtie s
in
G e rm a n y ,
c a n
im a g in e
th e
h a z a rd o u s
e n te r p r is e o f s u c h a p u b lic a tio n a t th a t tim e .
In
1 9 4 1
O tto
H eckm ann
r e c e iv e d
h is
a p p o in tm e n ta s th e
D ire c to r o f th e
H a m b u rg
O b s e rv a to ry . F irs t e n g a g e d
in
th e

a c c o m p lis h m e n t o f th e g re a t a s tro n o m ic a l c a ta lo g u e s A G K 2 and AG K3 ,h e s o o n w e n t in to th e fo o t p rin ts o f W a lte r B a a d e w h o o n c e h a d b u ilt a la r g e S c h m id t te le s c o p e . T h e in a u g u r a \ue000 tio n

o f th e
"H a m b u rg
B ig
S c h m id t"
w as
th e
in itia tiv e
s te p
to w a rd s a g re a te r ta s k .
O tto
H eckm ann
a lw a y s
k e p t
c lo s e
c o n ta c t
w ith
W a lte r
B a a d e . T h e la tte r, g iv in g le c tu re s a t th e L e id e n O b s e r v a to r y ,in
1 9 5 3
e m p h a s iz e d
to
th e
E u ra p e a n
a s tro n o m e rs
th e
g re a t
im p o rta n c e o f a c o m m o n E u ro p e a n o b s e rv a to ry "e s ta b lis h e d
in
th e
s o u th e rn
h e m is p h e r e , e q u ip p e d
w ith

p o w e rfu l in s tru \ue000 m e n ts , w ith th e a im o f fu rth e rin g a n d o r g a n iz in g c o lla b o r a tio nin a s tra n o m y " .

Ina fu n d a m e n ta l c o n fe re n c e w ithW . B a a d ein th e s p rin g o f
th a t y e a r, a
n u m b e r o f o u ts ta n d in g
E u ro p e a n
a s tro n o m e rs ,
am ong
w hom
A .
D a n jo n
fro m
F ra n c e ,
P .
B o u rg e o is
fro m
B e lg iu m ,J .H .O o rt fro m th e N e th e rla n d s , S ir H a ra ld S p e n c e r\ue000
J o n e s fro m
G r e a t B rita in ,B .L in d b la d fra m
S w eden,O . H eck\ue000
m ann
fro m
G e rm a n y , d e c id e d
to
r e a liz e
th is
p ro je c t.
Inth e
fo llo w in g y e a rs , h o w e v e r , it w a s a lw a y s O tto H e c k m a n n w h o
p u s h e d
th in g s
fo rw a rd ,
w ho
in itia te d
h op e
a n d

tru s t w h e n d e s p o n d e n c y a n d d e p re s s io n th re a te n e d th e s u c c e s s o f th e p la n .

It w a s a g a in O tto H e c k m a n n w h oin1 9 6 2a fte r h is a p p o in t\ue000
m ent as
D ire c to r G e n e ra l a n d
u n til h is
re tire m e n t
in
1 9 6 9

c a r r ie d a ll th e b u r d e n o f th e im m e n s e ta s k o f b u ild in g u p th e h e a d q u a rte rs o f E S O , a n d th e o b s e rv a to ryo nL a S illain C h ile , a n d to b r in g it fin a lly in to o p e r a tio n .

W ith
O tto
H eckm ann
a n
o u ts ta n d in g
a s tro n o m e r is g o n e ,
h o n o u r e d b y th e a w a r d to h im

o f th e d e g re e s o fD r.h .c .o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f A ix - M a r s e illein1 9 6 6 ,D r.h .c .o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f L a P la tain1 9 6 8 ,a n d H o n .D . S c . o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f S u s s e xin

1 9 7 0 ,b y th e m e m b e r s h ipin n u m e r o u s S c ie n tific A c a d e m ie s o f
E u ro p e
a n d
th e
A m e r ic a s , a n d
m a n y g o ld
m e d a ls
o f w h ic h
a s
a n
e x a m p le
o n ly
th e
B ru c e
M e d a l o f th e
A s tro n o m ic a l
S o c ie ty o f th e P a c ific w ill b e m e n tio n e d .
A .B e h r
The ESO
E c h e lle S p e c tro g ra p h fo r th e C a s s e g ra in F o c u s
o f th e 3 .6 m
T e le s c o p e
s .D 'O d o r ic o ,D . E n a r d , J .L . L iz o n ,B . L ju n g ,
W .N e e s ,D . P o n z ,G . R a ffia n d J .F . T a n n e , E S O
Inth e fir s t te s tsa t L a S illa , G A S P E G , c o u p le d w ithaG G O
d e te c to r, p r o v e dto b ea p r o m is in g in s tr u m e n t fo r h ig h d is p e r-
s io n w o r k o n fa in t o b je c ts .
A B r ie fH is to ry o f C A S P E C
T h e d e c is io n to b u ild a c r o s s d is p e r s io n C a s s e g r a in e c h e lle
s p e c tro g ra p h fo r th e 3 .6 m
te le s c o p e
c a n
b e tra c e d
b a c k to
1 9 7 4 .
H o w e v e r,
th e
lo a d
o f
w o rk
t o
c o m p le te
th e
3.6 m
te le s c o p e w a s s u c h th a t o n lyin1 9 7 6 M a u r ic eL e L u y e r c o u ld
p re s e n t th e
firs t o p tic a l c o n c e p t. W ith
th e
c o lla b o r a tio n
of a
r e v ie w
te a m
com posed
o f
J .
A n d e rs e n ,
L .
O e lb o u ille ,
E .
M a u r ic e ,
P .
E .
N is s e n
a n d
s e v e ra l
E S O
a s tro n o m e rs
(P .
C r a n e ,J . O a n z ig e r ,J . M e ln ic k a n dM .H . U lr ic h ) a fin a l d e s ig n
w as
a d o p te d
in
J u n e
1978. Then
th e
d e ta ile d

e n g in e e r in g p h a s e to o k o ff:M .L e L u y e r w a s a p p o in te d p r o je c t le a d e r a n din c h a r g e o f th e o p tic s ;W . R ic h te r d e s ig n e d th e m e c h a n ic s a n d th e s tru c tu re , a n dW .N e e s a n dP . S c h a b e l to o k th e r e s p o n s ib il\ue000 ity o f th e

in s tru m e n t c o n tro l a n d
its d e te c to r. T h e
la tte r w a s
in itia lly th o u g h t to b e a S E C v id ic o n .
W hen,
in
th e
sum m er of 1980, ESO
m oved
in to
it s
n e w
h e a d q u a rte rs
in
M u n ic h ,
C A S P E C 's
c o n s tru c tio n
w as
w e il
a d v a n c e d , b u t m a n y o f th e s ta ff m e m b e r s w h o w e r e in v o lv e din
th e p r o je c t le ft E S O . T h is re s u lte d
in
a d e la y o f m o re th a n a
y e a r: o n ly
in
O c to b e r1 9 8 1
c o u ld
J .
F .T a n n e ,
a
n e w
s ta ff

m e m b e r a t th e tim e , b e a p p o in te d te c h n ic a l p r o je c t le a d e r w ith th e ta s k o f fin a lly a s s e m b lin g a n d te s tin g th e m e c h a n ic a l a n d o p tic a l c o m p o n e n ts .Inth is h e w a s h e lp e d b y J .L . L iz o n , w h ile G .

R a ffi c o o r d in a te d
th e
in s tru m e n t s o ftw a re , a n d
O .

P o n z s ta rte d to w o r ko na d a ta re d u c tio n p a c k a g e .S . O 'O d o r ic o to o k c a re o f th e a s tro n o m ic a l re q u ire m e n ts a n d th e p re p a ra tio n o f th e te s t p ro g ra m m e .

A t th e e n d o f 1 9 8 2 it w a s re a liz e d th a t th e V IO IC O N w a s n o t p e rfo rm in ga sw e il a s e x p e c te d , d u e m a in ly to p r o b le m s w ith th e m a g n e t c o ils . It w a s th e n d e c id e d to s w itc h to a C C O , w h ic h h a d b e e n r o u tin e ly u s e dind ir e c t im a g in g a t L a S illa fo rs o m e tim e ,a sth e s p e c tro g ra p h d e te c to r.

Inth e te s ts a t th e 3 .6 m

te le s c o p ein J u n e a n d J u ly 1 9 8 3 , C A S P E C p e r fo r m e d e x c e p tio n a lly s m o o th ly a n d w ith o u t p ro b \ue000 le m s fo r a c o m p le x

in s tru m e n t u s e d
fo r th e
firs t tim e

a t th e te le s c o p e . S o m e m in o r h a rd w a re a n d s o ftw a re p ro b le m s w e re d e te c te d a n d w ill b e s o lv e d b e fo r e th e in s tr u m e n t c o m e s in to ro u tin e o p e r a tio n . R e s o lu tio n , s ta b ility a n d s p e e d p ro v e d to b e v e r y c lo s e to th e p r e d ic te d v a lu e s .

A lth o u g h th e r e d u c tio n a n d d e ta ile d e v a lu a tio n o f th e m o re th a n o n e h u n d re d u s e fu l a s tro n o m ic a l im a g e s h a s ju s t s ta rte d , w e

re p o rt
p r e lim in a r ily
o n
th e
in s tru m e n t,
to
g iv e
som e
g u id e lin e s to th e a s tr o n o m e r s w h o w a n t to a p p ly fo r th e n e x t
o b s e r v in g p e rio d .
A
d e ta ile d
te c h n ic a l
re p o rt a n d
a
u s e r 's
m a n u a l w ill b e
a v a ila b le to th e u s e r s b y th e b e g in n in g o ft n e x t y e a r.
T h e P re s e n t In s tru m e n t C o n fig u ra tio n a n d M o d e o f
O p e ra tio n
T h e O p tic a ! L a y o u t
T h e o p tic a l d e s ig n a n d th e
p a r a m e te r s o f th e m a in o p tic a l
c o m p o n e n ts
of CASPEC
h a v e
b e e n
p re s e n te d
in
th e
M es-
s e n g e rN o . 1 7 a n d w ill n o t b e re p e a te d h e re . T h e c o n fig u ra tio n
in w h ic h th e in s tr u m e n t w ill b e o ffe r e d
in itia lly to th e u s e r s is
2
d e te r m in e d m a in ly b y th e s m a ll s iz e o f th e p r e s e n t C C O , w h ic h
is a 5 1 2x
3 2 0 p ix e ls , 1 5 .3 6x 9 .6 m m
b a c k illu m in a te d R C A
c h ip . T h e c o m b in a tio n o f a 3 1 .6 lin e s /m m
e c h e lle ( b la z e a n g le
=

6 3 C :4 ) a n d a 3 0 0 lin e s /m m c r o s s d is p e r s io n g r a tin g ( a c tu a lly a m o s a ic o f tw o ) , a n d th e s h o rt c a m e r a (a c h ro m a tic a n d o f th e fo ld e d S c h m id t ty p e , F

=
1 .5 ) g iv e s a c o m p a c t fo r m a tin w h ic h
about 900A ,s p lit in to
s e v e ra l o rd e rs , a re
re c o rd e d
in
o n e
fra m e .
At 5000A ,th e re c ip ro c a l d is p e rs io nis 5N m m
w ith a r e s o lv \ue000
in g
p o w e r o f 20 0 0 0 . A t th e
C a s s e g r a in
fo c u s
o f th e
3.6 m

te le s c o p e , 1 .2 a n d 0 .7 4 a rc s e c a re p ro je c te do no n e p ix e l o f th e d e te c to rinth e d ir e c tio n o f th e d is p e r s io n a n d p e r p e n d ic u la r toit r e s p e c tiv e ly .

C A S P E C
c a n
b e
u s e d
in
th e
ra n g e
3 5 0 0 -10 0 0 0A ;th e
d iffe re n t
w a v e le n g th
re g io n s
a re
c e n tre d
o n
th e
C C O
b y
m o v in g th e c r o s s d is p e r s e r . T h e e c h e lle g r a tin g p o s itio n is k e p t
fix e d . S p a c in g b e tw e e n th e o rd e rs v a rie s fro m

m o re th a n 5 0 p ix e lsinthe extrem e red toa s little as 5 inth e e x tre m e b lu e . T h e s e v a lu e s a n d th e n e e d fo r a fre e in te ro rd e r s p a c in ginth e C C O

to m o n ito r th e
b a c k g r o u n d d e fin e th e
lim its o f th e tw o \ue000
d im e n s io n a l c a p a b ility
of CASPEC.
F o r e x a m p le ,
a t
H a,
a
2 0 a r c s e c s lit c a n
b e
u s e d w h ile s till k e e p in g th e o r d e r s w e il
s e p a ra te d . A th o riu m

la m p is u s e d fo r th e c o m p a r is o n s p e c \ue000 tr u m a n d a b u ilt-in q u a r tz la m p fo r th e fla t fie ld .Inb o th c a s e s th e e x p o s u re

tim e s
a re
of a
fe w
seconds. The
s ta b ility

o f th e in s tru m e n t, w h ic h re p re s e n te d a m a jo r p ro b le minth e firs t te s ts inG a r c h in g ,is n o w

b e tte r th a n
1 p ix e l o v e r 9 0 \u00b0 o f ro ta tio n .
F u n c tio n C o n tra !a n d O p e ra tin g S o ftw a re
A ll C A S P E C
fu n c tio n s , 1 5in to ta l, a re re m o te ly c o n tr o lle d
fro m
th e c o n s o le
a t th e
u s e r s ta tio n . A
n e w

m o d u la r d e s ig n a p p r o a c h w a s c o n c e iv e d f o r t h e fu n c tio n s (Iik e ,e .g ., c o llim a to r , s lit, a n d

c ro s s
d is p e rs e r) w h ic h
h a v e to
v a ry
w ith in
a g iv e n
ra n g e .
T h e y
a re
p e rfo rm e d
b y
c lo s e d -Io o p
p o s itio n in g
s y s \ue000
te m s , a ll o f w h ic h
in c o r p o r a te th e fo llo w in g
ite m s :O .C .m o\ue000
to r, ta c h o ,
a b s o lu te - p o s itio n
e n c o d e r, m o to r-d riv e
a m p lifie r,
e n c o d e r
p o s itio n
d e c o d in g
m o d u le
a n d
a
m ic ro p ro c e s s o r
c o n tro lle r.A sa r e s u lt m o s t o f th e in d iv id u a l fu n c tio n s

a tth e s p e c tro g ra p h a re in te rc h a n g e a b le a m o n g e a c h o th e r a n d th e to ta l n u m b e r o f s p a re c o m p o n e n ts c o u ld

b e
m in im iz e d . T h e
m ic ro c o n tro lle rs
a re
n e w
E S O
s ta n d a rd
C A M A C
m o d u le s
e s p e c ia lly d e v e lo p e d fo r c o n tr o l a p p lic a tio n s .
T h e
C A S P E C
o n - lin e
s o ftw a re , to
c o n tro l th e
in s tru m e n t,
a c q u ire s d a ta fro m
th e C C O

d e te c to r a n dtod o o n -lin e d a ta re d u c tio n , c o n s is ts o f q u ite a n u m b e r o f p ro g ra m m e s c o o p e ra t\ue000 in g to g e th e r. It ru n s u n d e r th e R T E -4 B o p e ra tin g s y s te m

ina n
E S O
s ta n d a rd
H P
1 0 0 0
c o n fig u ra tio n
(2 5 6K w

o f m e m o ry , 5 0 M b y te s d is k , C A M A C c ra te ). T h e m a in p ro g ra m m e (C A S P ) h a n d le s th e u s e r in te rfa c e a n d th e in s tru m e n t lo g ic . A s o ftw a re p a c k a g e s e ts u p a n d m o n ito rs th e C C O

d e te c to r v ia a m ic ro \ue000
p ro c e s s o r c o n tro lle r. It e x e c u te s e x p o s u re s o n
dem and
a n d
s to re s a c q u ire d d a ta o n d is k a n d ta p e . T h e IH A P d a ta p ro c e s s \ue000
in g s y s t e m

isu s e d fo r o n - lin e d a ta re d u c tio n a n d n o w in c lu d e s a c o m m a n d fo r e x tra c tio n o fa no r d e r fro m th e tw o -d im e n s io n a l e c h e lle fo rm a t.

T h e u s e r in p u t is v ia fu n c tio n k e y s a n d fo rm s , w h ic h h a v e to b e fille dinw ith th e a p p ro p ria te p a ra m e te rs . T h e fo rm a tis s u c h th a t a v is itin g a s tr o n o m e r s h o u ld q u ic k ly le a rn h o w to s e t u p a s in g le e x p o s u r e o r a s e q u e n c e o f e x p o s u r e s .

\u00b7 T h eC A S P E C p ro g ra m m e s m a k e u s e o f a n e w d a ta a c q u is i\ue000
tlo n s y s te m

( c a lie d O A Q ) d e v e lo p e d a t E S O to e a s ily tr a n s fe r d e te c to r p a c k a g e s (Iik e th a t o f th e C C O ) to v a rio u s in s tru m e n ts a n d in s tr u m e n t p a c k a g e s to d iffe re n t te le s c o p e s . C A S P E C

is
th e firs t in s tr u m e n t d e v e lo p e d w ith in
th is
n e w
fra m e
b u t th e
s o ftw a re fo r th en e w
B &
C
s p e c tro g ra p h fo r th e 2 .2 m
te le \ue000
s c o p e
a n d
fo r E F O C S , th e
fa in t o b je c t s p e c tro g ra p h
fo r th e
3 .6m a re
b e in g im p le m e n te d n o w
a lo n g th e s a m e lin e s .
T h eB r ig h t a n d D a r k S id e so f th eG G D

T h e p e rfo rm a n c e o f th e C C O c h ip w h ic h is c u rre n tly u s e d a t C A S P E C is in g e n e r a l q u ite s a tis fa c to ry . T h e re a d -o u t n o is e is 4 0 e -/p ix e l, th e

d a rk
c u rre n t 1 5 e -/h o u r/p ix e l a t T
=
1 5 0
o
K .
T h e q u a n tu m
e ffic ie n c y p e a k s a t1 ..5 0 0 0 w ith 6 0 %
a n d is 1 5 %
a n d
2 5 %

a t3 5 0 0A a n d9 0 0 0A r e s p e c tiv e ly . T h e s e v a lu e s w e re m e a s u re d o n th e d e te c to r te s t b e n c h in G a rc h in g . T h e re th e C C O

w a s a ls o fo u n d to b e lin e a r w ith in0 .1% .
O n
th e
d a r k s id e , th is
C C O
show s
a d e g ra d e d
h o riz o n ta l
c h a rg e
tra n s fe r w h e n
a
s p e c tra l im a g e
is fo rm e d
o n
a
d a rk
b a c k g r o u n d . T h is re s u lts ,e .g., in
a low
a m p litu d e ta il a t th e
n g h t s id e
o f a c o m p a r is o n
s p e c tru m
lin e . T h is e ffe c t c a n
b e
e lim in a te d b y e x p o s in g th e c h ip u n ifo r m ly to a lo w le v e l o f lig h t,
~
t
th e
p ric e , h o w e v e r, o f in tro d u c in g
a d d itio n a l n o is e
to the
Im a g e .Inth e p r e s e n t c o n fig u ra tio n th e e ffe c t is p e r p e n d ic u la r
to th e d is p e r s io n d ir e c tio n . T w o h o t a re a s , w h o s e
in te n s itie s

in c r e a s e lin e a r ly w ith tim e , a re a ls o o b s e r v e d o n th e b o r d e r o f th e C C O .T h ec h a r g e s p r e a d w h ic h t h e y p r o d u c e is n o t s e v e r e fo r e x p o s u re

tim e s
up to tw o
h o u rs . M o re
a n n o y in g
a re
th e

ra n d o m ly d is tr ib u te d , n o n - r e p r o d u c ib le s p ik e s w h o s e n u m b e r ris e s w ith e x p o s u r e tim e a t a ra te o f a b o u t 2 1 m in u te . T h e o n ly P o s s ib le

e x p la n a tio n
a re
c o s m ic
ra y s , b u t th e ir fre q u e n c y
is
a b o u t tw ic e th a t q u o te d in th e lite ra tu re .
T h e m o s t s e v e re p ro b le m o f th e C C O
re m a in s h o w e v e r th a t
0 1th e " fr in g e s " w h ic h a re p r o d u c e d b y lig h t in te rfe re n c e w ith in
th e c h ip a n d r e s u lt in a r e d u c tio n o f th e s e n s itiv ity a t a g iv e n
:-v a v e le n g th a n d p o s itio n . F o r t h is c h ip , th e y a r e a s h ig h a s 3 0%
I nth e re d .In th e s c a rc e lite ra tu re o n s p e c tro s c o p ic u s e o f th e
C C O s w h ic h is a v a ila b le , it is s ta te d th a t th e y c a n b e a c c u r a te ly
fla t-fie ld e d .Ino u r c a s e , th e p ro c e s s is m a d e m o re c o m p lic a te d
E X P O S U R E
IS E C O N D S I
~
i
g
.
1 :T h e p r e d ie tio n s fo r s ig n a l/n o is e r a tio sa sa fu n e tio no f e x p o s u r e
tim e fo r s ta rso fd iffe r e n t m a g n itu d e sa t).5 0 0 0A . P h o to n s ta tis tie s a n d
th e
re a d -o u t n o is e
o fth e
G G O
(5 0
e le e tro n s ) w e re
e o n s id e r e da s
S O u re e so fn o is e . T h e s e p re d ie tio n s w e re m a d ea fe w m o n th s b e fo re
th e te s t o b s e rv a tio n s . T h e y w e re fo u n dtop r o v id e u s e fu l g u id e lin e s fo r
th e a e tu a l o b s e rv a tio n s u n d e r v e ryg o o ds e e in g e o n d itio n s ( F W H IS
1

a re s e e ): W ith la r g e r im a g e s , b o th th e lo s so flig h t a n d th e s p r e a d o v e r m o re p ix e ls p e r p e n d ie u la r to th e d is p e r s io n p a r tia lly d e g r a d e th e S /No f th e o b s e r v a tio n s .

T e n ta tiv e T im e -ta b le o f C o u n c il S e s s io n s
a n d C o m m itte e M e e tin g s
U n til D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 3
Novem ber 8
S c ie n tilic a n d T e c h n ic a l C o m m ilte e
N ovem ber9 -1 0
F in a n c e C o m m ilte e
N ovem ber1 1
C o m m ilte e0 1 C o u n c il
N ovem ber2 9 -3 0
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m ilte e
D ecem ber1 -2
C o u n c il
A ll m e e tin g s w ill ta k e p la c ea tE S O
inG a r c h in g .
b y th e e x is te n c e o f a b a c k g r o u n d o f b ia s a n d
s c a lte r e d lig h t
w h ic h h a s to b e s u b tra c te d b e fo re th e s ta r s p e c tru m
is d iv id e d
b y
th e
fla t
fie ld
im a g e
fro m
th e
q u a rtz
la m p .
W hen
th e s e
p ro b le m s
a re
ta k e n
in to
a c c o u n t, o u r p r e lim in a r y
re d u c tio n s
in d ic a te th a t a n a c c u r a c y o f a t le a s t 1%
c a n b e a c h ie v e d in th e
f1 a t-lie ld c o r r e c tio n .
T h e F irs t A s tr o n o m ic a l R e s u lts
T h e
te s t o b s e rv a tio n s
in d ic a te
th a t th e
m a in
g o a l o f th e
C A S P E C

p ro je c t,i.e . r e la tiv e ly h ig h d is p e r s io n s p e c tr o s c o p y o n la in t o b je c ts , h a s b e e n a c h ie v e d . F ig . 1 c a n b e u s e d a s a g u id e lin elo rlim itin g m a g n itu d e s , a n d S /N ra tio s . O b s e r v a tio n s a t g o o d s ig n a l to n o is e o f th e c o n tin u u m

o f o b je c ts a s la in t a s
mv=
1 4
h a v e
e a s ily
b e e n
a c h ie v e d
w ith
a v e ra g e
s e e in g
c o n d itio n s . E m is s io n
lin e s h a v e
b e e n
o b s e rv e d

in o b je c ts0 1 fa in te r m a g n itu d e s . F ig . 2 s h o w s o n e s u c h o b s e rv a tio n . C A S \ue000 P E C d e lin ite ly g iv e s n e w p o s s ib ilitie s to E u r o p e a n a s tr o n o m \ue000 e r s a n d its c a p a b ilitie s a p p e a r r a th e r g o o d w h e n c o m p a r e d w ith th e p e rfo rm a n c e s0 1s im ila r in s tr u m e n ts , s u c h a s th e K itt P e a k o r

M M T
e c h e lle
s p e c tro g ra p h s .
T h e
p ro g ra m m e s
w h ic h
b e c o m e fe a s ib le
c o v e r q u ite d iffe r e n t to p ic s in

a s tro p h y s ic s . O n e c a n m e n tio n th e s tu d y o f in te r s te lla r lin e s in th e M a g e lla n ic C lo u d s

s ta rs ,
th e
d e te rm in a tio n
of abundances
o f s ta rs
in
g lo b u la r c lu s te r s
a n d
in
th e
h a lo , th e
s tu d y
0 1th e
v e lo c ity
p ro file s
in
e m is s io n
lin e
g a la x ie s , s ta rs , q u a s a r s a n d
s u p e r\ue000
n o v a r e m n a n ts , b u t th is lis t is o b v io u s ly in c o m p le te .
W h ile a la r g e a m o u n t o f o r ig in a l w o r k c a n c e r ta in ly b e d o n e
w ith th e p r e s e n t in s tr u m e n t c o n fig u ra tio n , o n e h a s a ls o to
b e
a w a r e o f its lim ita tio n s . F ig . 3 s h o w s th a t th e h ig h e r r e s o lu tio n
o fth eC A T+ C E S c o m b in a tio n is w o r th b e in g u s e d w h e n o n e
. 1
F ig .2 :A
1 3 0 -m in u te
G A S P E G
e x p o s u r eo f th e
a p p r o x im a te ly
1 4 th
m a g n itu d e q u a s a rM R
2 2 5 1 -1 7 8 .
T h e
e n tra n e e a p e rtu re m e a s u re d
2. 1x 5a r e s e e o n th e s k y . T h eH pa n d[D ill} M
4 9 5 9 ,5 0 0 7 lin e s ( w e il
v is ib le
in
tw o
d iffe re n t
o rd e rs )
a s
w e il
a s
th e
n a rro w
A
5 5 7 7 ,
).5 8 9 0 -9 6As k ylin e s a r e p r e s e n t in th e s p e e tru m .
3

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