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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
N o.3 5 -M a rc h
1 9 8 4
R e p o rto n th e F irs t E S O -C E R N
S y m p o s iu m
o n
" L a rg e S c a le S tru c tu re o f th e U n iv e rs e , C o s m o lo g y a n d
F u n d a m e n ta l P h y s ic s "
G .S e tti, E S O
T h e
firs t
E S O -C E R N
S y m p o s iu m
w as
h e ld
a t
C E R N ,
G e n e v a , fro m
2 1s t to 2 5 th N o v e m b e r 1 9 8 3 a n d w a s a tte n d e d

b y a p p r o x im a te ly 2 0 0 p a r tic ip a n ts . T h e d is c u s s io n s c o n c e n \ue000 tra te d o n th e g e n e ra l fie ldo fC o s m o lo g y , w h e re th e p ro g re s s m adeinth e

p a s t tw e n ty y e a rs , b o th
ine le m e n ta ry p a rtic le s
a n d
a s tro n o m y ,
h a s
show n
th a t th e s e
tw o
fie ld s

o f b a s ic re s e a rc h a re m e rg in g to w a rd a n e w a n d fu n d a m e n ta l u n d e r\ue000 s ta n d in g

o f th e
la w s
th a t g o v e rn
o u r U n iv e r s e . A
d e ta ile d
a c c o u n tisc o n ta in e d
inth e
P r o c e e d in g s o f th e S y m p o s iu m
w h ic h w ill b e a v a ila b lein a fe w
m o n th s .
T h e
m e e tin g
w as
s ta rte d
w ith
a n
in tro d u c to ry
le c tu re
b y
D .W .S c ia m a (O x fo rd a n d T rie s te ) w h o h ig h lig h te d th e n u m e r\ue000
ous and

fu n d a m e n ta l p r o b le m s th e u n d e rs ta n d in g o f w h ic h a p p e a rs to re q u ire a jo in t e ffo rt o f p a rtic le p h y s ic is ts , a s tro p h y \ue000 s ic is ts a n d c o s m o lo g is ts .

A sd is c u s s e d b yL . W o ltje r(E S O ) , th e a s tr o n o m ic a l o b s e r v a \ue000 tio n s h a v e s h o w n th a t th e U n iv e rs eisn o t o n ly e x p a n d in g , b u t a ls o s tr o n g ly e v o lv in ginth e s e n s e th a t th e p h y s ic a l p ro p e rtie s o f th e g a la x ie s h a v e c h a n g e d w ith tim e . F o r in s ta n c e , it h a s b e e n d is c o v e r e d th a t c e rta in c la s s e s o f o b je c ts , s u c ha sra d io g a la x ie s

a n d
q u a s a rs ,
w e re
m o re
n u m e ro u s
a n d
p ro b a b ly

m o re p o w e rfu linth e p a s t th a n th e y a re n o w . T h is , to g e th e r w ith th e d is c o v e r y o f th e p r o p e r tie s o f th e s o - c a lle d u n iv e rs a l b a c k g ro u n d

ra d ia tio n ,
h a s
le d
t o
th e
c o n c lu s io n
th a t
th e
U n iv e rs e c a n b e d e s c r ib e d b y th e m o s t s im p le h o m o g e n e o u s
a n d
is o tr o p ie
m o d e ls
o f G e n e ra l R e la tiv ity , w h e r e b y
it h a s
e v o lv e d fro m
a v e ry c o n d e n s e d a n d v e ry h o t p h a s e a b o u t2 0
b illio n y e a rsa g o -th e " h o t b ig - b a n g " . T h is in te r p r e ta tio nh a s
a na d d itio n a l a ttr a c tio n : it c a n e x p la inin a v e ry n a tu ra l w a y th e
a b u n d a n c e so fc e rta in
e le m e n ts , w h ic h
w o u ld

b e e x tre m e ly d iffic u lt to a c c o u n t fo r b y th e n u c le a r p ro c e s s e s ta k in g p la c ein s ta rs . A c c o r d in g ly , th e b u lk o f e le m e n ts , s u c ha s h e liu m

a n d
d e u te riu m , w e re p r o d u c e d w h e n th e a g e o f th e U n iv e rs e w a s
o n ly a b o u t 1 0 0 s e c o n d s , th e
te m p e ra tu re a b o u t o n e
b illio n
d e g re e s a n d th e d e n s ity o f th e o r d e r o f th e d e n s ity o f w a te r,in
a
p h a s e
th a t la s te d
about 8
m in u te s . A t th a t m o m e n t th e
U n iv e r s e
w as
e s s e n tia lly
a
g a s e o u s
m ix tu re
com posed
o f
p ro to n s , n e u tro n s , e le c tro n s , p o s itro n s , n e u trin o s a n d
a n ti\ue000

n e u trin o s (a n d p e rh a p s s o m e o th e r e x o tic p a rtic le s , s u c ha s p h o tin o s ) im m e r s e din a h e a t b a th o f p h o to n s . T h e e q u ilib r iu m b e tw e e n

th e s e
c o m p o n e n ts
is
m a in ta in e d
b y
th e
w eak
in te ra c tio n ,
o n e
o f th e
fo u r fu n d a m e n ta l fo rc e s
w h ic h
a re
b e lie v e d
t o
g o v e rn
a lln a tu ra l p h e n o m e n a .* T h e
w e a k fo rc e
to g e th e r w ith th e " h o t b ig - b a n g " m o d e l a llo w s d e fin ite p r e d ic \ue000
tio n s
a b o u t
th e
a b u n d a n c e s
o f
p rim o rd ia l
e le m e n ts .
A s
p o in te d
out by
J .A u d o u z e
(P a ris ), th is
a s tro p h y s ic s m o d e l
lim its th e n u m b e r o f n e u trin o ty p e s t o n o m o re th a n4 , w h ic his
a lre a d y s ig n ific a n tly b e tte r th a n th e u p p e r lim it o f a b o u t tw e n ty
o b ta in e d
in
p a r tic le
p h y s ic s e x p e r im e n ts (d a ta
o n
zo

d e c a y o b ta in e d a t C E R N ). A n o th e r im p o r ta n t c o n s tra in t th a t s te m s fro m

p rim o rd ia l
e le m e n t
a b u n d a n c e s
is
th a t
th e
p re s e n t
\u2022 The
fo u r fu n d a m e n la i fo re e s
a re : Ih ee le c tro m a g n e tic
fo rc e ,
w h le h

a e ls a m o n g e le e lr ie a lly e h a r g e d p a r tic le s a n distr a n s m ltle d b y Ih e p h o lo n (il g o v e m s th e s lr u e tu r e o f th e a to m ); th ew e a k fo rc e ,w h ie h a e lso n le p lo n s a n d h a d r o n s a n distr a n s m itle d b y th e b o s o n s W \u00b7. W -, Z \u00b7 (il isr e s p o n s ib le fo r th e b e ta d e e a y o fr a d io a e liv e

e le m e n ls ) ;
th e
s tra n g
fo rc e ,
w h le h
a e ls
o n
h a d ro n s
a n d
is
Ir a n s m itle d b y p a r tie le s e a lle d p io n s a n d k a o n s(11is r e s p o n s ib le fo r Ih e n u e le a r
fo re e s Ih a l k e e p lo g e lh e r th e

p ro to n s a n d n e u tro n sinIh e a to m le n u e le i; Ih e s lr o n g in le r a e lio n a m o n g th e q u a r k s , w h ie h a re s u p p o s e d to b e Ih e e o n s lilu e n ts o f

Ih e
p ro to n s
a n d
n e u tro n s .
is
d u e
to
p a r tlc le s
e a lle d
g lu o n s ) ;
a n d
Ih e
g r a v ita tio n a l fo rc e ,
w h ie h
a e ts o n e v e ry th in g a n d
isIra n s m ilte d b y a p a r tie ie
e a lle d g r a v ito n .
[fh ele p to n s in c lu d e Ih e e le e lro n . Ih e m u o n a n d Ih e la u p a rtie le s a n d Ih e Ih re e
e o rre s p o n d in g
Iy p e s o f n e u irin o s . T h e
h a d ro n s
in c lu d e
Ih e
b a ry o n s
(w h le h
u ltim a le ly d e e a y in lo p r o io n s ) a n d Ih e m e s o n s .]
d e n s ityo f b a ry o n ic m a tte rin th e U n iv e rs e c a n n o t b e m o re th a n
a b o u t1 0 %
o f th e "c 1 o s u re " d e n s ity , th a tis to s a y , th e d e n s ity
w h ic h
d iv id e s
th e
m odel
u n iv e r s e s
d e r iv e d
fro m
g e n e ra l
re la tiv ity in to " o p e n " a n d " c lo s e d " . If th e d e n s ityisle s s th a n
th e
c 1 0 s u re
d e n s ity
th e n
th e
U n iv e r s e
is
"o p e n "
a n d
w ill
e x p a n d fo r e v e r to in fin ity o r, v ic e - v e r s a , it w ill re a c h
a m ax\ue000
im u m
s iz e a t s o m e tim einth e fu tu r e a n d w ill th e n re c o lla p s e
u n d e r th e a c tio n o f its o w n

g ra v ity .Inp r in c ip le , it s h o u ld b e p o s s ib le , b y m e a n so fa s tro n o m ic a l o b s e rv a tio n s , to fin d o u tin w h a t k in d o f u n iv e r s e w e liv e .In p r a c tic e , h o w e v e r , th is e n ta ils th e u s e o f a c la s s o f a s tr o n o m ic a l o b je c ts (s u c ha sg a la x ie s o f a c e rta in

ty p e ) w h ic h
s h o u ld
b e
b r ig h t e n o u g h
t o

p e rm it a m a p p in g o f th e U n iv e rs ein d e p th a n d w h o s e in trin s ic p ro p e r\ue000 t ie sd o n o t c h a n g e w ith th e c o s m ic tim e .A s d is c u s s e d b yA . S a n d a g e (P a s a d e n a ), d e s p ite g re a t e ffo rts it h a s n o t y e t b e e n p o s s ib le to s e p a ra te th e e v o lu tio n a ry e ffe c ts fro m th o s e d u e to th e g e o m e tr y o f th e U n iv e rs e . T h e s o lu tio n to th is fu n d a m e n ta l p ro b le m

h a s p r o b a b ly to a w a it th e a d v e n t o f b o th th e S p a c e T e le s c o p e a n d th e la rg e te le s c o p e s o f th e fu tu re , s u c ha sth e V L T .

T h a t m o s t o f th e m a tte rin th e U n iv e rs e m a y in d e e d b ein
n o n -Iu m in o u s fo rm
h a s b e e n c o n v in c in g ly a rg u e d b yS . F a b e r
(L ie k O b s e rv a to ry )o n
th e

b a s is o f o b s e rv a tio n s o f d iffe re n t ty p e s o f g a la x ie s , g r o u p s a n d c lu s te r s o f g a la x ie s .Ita p p e a rs a s th o u g hinth e s e d iffe re n t ty p e s o f a s tro n o m ic a l c o n d itio n s o r d in a r y v is ib le m a tte r m a k e s u p o n ly a b o u t1 0 %

o f th e to ta l
m a s s in v o lv e d . T h e n a tu re o f th is " d a r k " m a tte r h a s b e e n th e
s u b je c t o f m a n y
s p e c u la tio n s
a n d
e v e ry th in g , fro m
c e rta in
ty p e s o f e le m e n ta ry p a rtic le s , to m in i b la c k - h o le s ,u pto very

m a s s iv e s ta r s w ith a m a s s o f a b o u t o n e m illio n tim e s th e m a s s o f th e S u n , h a s b e e n p r o p o s e d . T o illu s tra te h o w u n s a tis fa c \ue000 to ry

th e
s itu a tio n
is , it s u ffic e s
t o
re m a rk
th a t th e
m asses
in v o lv e dinth e s e d iffe re n t p ro p o s a ls e x te n d o v e r a ra n g e o f a t
le a s ts e v e n tyo rd e rs o f m a g n itu d e !
A v e ry im p o r ta n t th e o re tic a l d e v e lo p m e n t h a s ta k e n p la c ein
th e
p a s t fe w
y e a rs
w ith
th e
a p p lic a tio n
o f th e
c o n c e p ts o f
g ra n d
u n ifie d
th e o rie s
o fp h y s ic s
(G U T s )t o

c o s m o lo g y . T o h ig h lig h t th is le tu sfir s t b r ie fly s u m m a r iz e s o m e o f th e b a s ic p r o b le m s fa c in g th e c o s m o lo g is ts .

S tra n g e ly e n o u g h , th e firs t p ro b le m

com es about because th e U n iv e rs e lo o k ss ois o tr o p ie . O b s e r v a tio n s o f g a la x ie s a n d e x tra g a la c tic

ra d io
s o u rc e s
(ra d io
g a la x ie s
a n d
q u a s a rs )
s h o w th a t th e d is tr ib u tio n o f c o n d e n s e d m a tte rin s p a c e , a s id e
fro m

lo c a l ir r e g u la r itie s ,isis o tro p ie to b e tte r th a n o n e p a rtin a h u n d re d . B u t a m u c h s tr ic te r lim itisd e riv e d fro m th e o b s e rv a \ue000 tio n so fth e3 \u00b0K u n iv e rs a l ra d ia tio n w h ic h ,a s re p o rte d b yD .T . W ilk in s o n (P rin c e to n ), a p p e a r s t o b e in tr in s ic a lly is o tr o p ieo n a lla n g u la r s c a le s

t o
b e tte r th a n
o n e
p a rtin
te n
th o u s a n d .
H o w e v e r,in
th e
fra m e w o rk
o f th e
s ta n d a rd

"h o t b ig -b a n g " m o d e l it c a n b e s h o w n th a t tw o h y p o th e tic a l o b s e rv e rs p la c e d , s a y ,1 8 0

0
a p a rtin th e s k y a t a d is ta n c e c o rre s p o n d in g to th e
la s t m o m e n tinw h ic h th e
u n iv e rs a l r a d ia tio n
in te ra c te d w ith
o rd in a ry
m a tte r,
c o u ld
not have
c o m m u n ic a te d
w ith
e a c h

o th e r . T e c h n ic a lly s p e a k in g , th is is e q u iv a le n t to s a y in g th a t th e "h o riz o n s "o fth e t w o o b s e rv e rs , w h o s e ra d ii in c re a s e w ith th e s p e e d o f lig h t (th e m a x im u m p o s s ib le s p e e d ), w e re s till w e il s e p a ra te d .

N ow
th e
is o tro p y
p ro b le m
a r is e s
b e c a u s e
itis
d iffic u lt tos e e h o w re g io n s o f s p a c e w h ic h h a d n o tim e fro m
T h eE S Og u e s th o u s ein S a n tia g o w h e re th e v is itin g a s tro n o m e rs a re h a p p yto re s t (o r o n e d a y a fte r m o re th a n 2 0 h o u rsin a p la n e .
2
A llm e e tin g s w ill ta k e p la e e a tE S Oin G a re h in g u n le s s s ta te d
o th e rw is e .
T e n ta tiv e T im e -ta b le o f C o u n c il S e s s io n s
a n d C o m m itte e M e e tin g sin1 9 8 4

p ic tu r e , th e s e e x tre m e ly h ig h e n e rg ie sa re re a c h e d n a tu ra lly a t th e v e ry b e g in n in g o f th e life h is to r y o f th e U n iv e rs e , w h e n its a g e w a s le s s th a n a b o u t 1 0 -

3 5

s e c o n d s . A fte r th is tim e , th e c o o lin g d u e to th e e x p a n s io n o f th e U n iv e rs e b r in g s th e a v e ra g e e n e rg y o f th e p a rtic le s b e lo w 1 0

1 4
G e V .
O n e o f th e p r e d ic tio n s o f G U T sis th a t th e p ro to n s h o u ld
d e c a y w ith a h a lf-lifeinth e ra n g e 1 0
3 1
-1 0
3 3
years, very m uch
g re a te r th a n th e a g e o f th e U n iv e rs e( -2 x1 0
1 0

y e a rs ).T h is p o s s ib ility a ris e s b e c a u s einth e G U T s th e q u a rk s , w h ic ha re th e c o n s titu e n ts o f th e b a ry o n s , a n d th e le p to n sa re p a rts o f th e s a m e p ic tu re .A sa c o n s e q u e n c e , th e b a r y o n ic n u m b e r need not be conserved any m ore,a sh a d b e e n a s s u m e din th e c la s s ic a l m o d e ls o f e le m e n ta r y p a r tic le th e o ry . T h e re s u lts o f a n u m b e r o f e x p e rim e n ts s e t u p to m e a s u re th e p ro to n h a lf-life w e re re v ie w e d b yE .F io rin i (M ila n ).T h e m o s t s tr in g e n t r e s u ltis n o w b e in g o b ta in e d fro m th e O h io M o r to n S a lt m in e e x p e r i\ue000 m entw hic h s e ts a lo w e r lim it to th e p r o to n h a lf- life o f 1.5 x1 0

3 2

y e a rs . T h is re s u lta l re a d y e n a b le s o n e to ru le o u t th e s im p le s t o fth e G U T m o d e ls w h ic h p r e d ic ts th a t th e p ro to n h a lf-life w o u ld b e a t m o s t 1 0

3 1
y e a rs .
B e c a u s e o f th e n o n -c o n s e rv a tio n o f th e b a ry o n ic n u m b e r,
o n e c a n w o r k o u t a s c h e m e w h ic h le a d sinth e firs t 1 0 -
3 5

s e c o n d s to a b a ry o n a s y m m e tr ic u n iv e rs e , e v e n if o n e h a d s ta rte d fro m c o n d itio n s o f p e rfe c t s y m m e try b e tw e e n p a rtic le s a n d a n ti- p a r tic le s ,in th is w a y e x p la in in g o n e o f th e b a s ic c o s m o lo g ic a l p r o b le m s o u tlin e d b e fo re . U n fo rtu n a te ly , itisn o t y e t p o s s ib le , w ith in

th e
fra m e w o rk
o f G U T s , to
m ake
a
q u a n tita tiv e ly p re c is e e s tim a te o f th e e x c e s s o f m a tte r o v e r
a n ti-m a tte r.
Ina re la te d c o n te x t,G . G ia c o m e lli (B o lo g n a ) re v ie w e d th e

p re s e n t s ta tu s o f th e s e a rc h fo r m o n o p o le s , th e m a g n e tic c o u n te rp a rts o f th e e le c tric c h a rg e , w h o s e e x is te n c eis p re \ue000 d ic te d b y th eG U T ss c h e m e s . S in c e th e ir m a s sis e n o r m o u s

(_ 1 01 5G e V ),th e y c a n n o t b e p ro d u c e din th e la b o ra to ry , b u t o f

course m ight have been producedinth e v e ry e a rly p h a s e s o f th e " h o t b ig - b a n g " a n d n o w p e rv a d e th e U n iv e rs e .Infa c t, th e p r o d u c tio n m ig h t h a v e b e e ns oc o p io u s th a t o n e h a s to in v o k e " s u p p r e s s io n " s c h e m e s to a v o id c o n flic t w ith th e u p p e r lim it o nth e ir p r e s e n t s p a c e d e n s ity .

A n o th e r im p o rta n t fe a tu reo fth e m o re e la b o ra te G U T sis th e e x p e c ta tio n th a t n e u trin o s h a v e n o n -z e ro re s t m a s s . O b v i\ue000 o u s ly , th is im m e d ia te ly ra is e s th e p o s s ib ility th a t " d a r k " m a t\ue000 te r, w h ic h m a y p e rv a d e th e U n iv e rs ea sp r e v io u s ly d is c u s s e d , is p r o v id e d b y th e n e u trin os e a .Inth e s ta n d a rd " h o t b ig -b a n g " m odel one can com pute,ina fa irly a c c u r a te w a y , th e n u m b e r d e n s ity o f n e u trin o s w h ic h tu rn s o u t to b e o f th e s a m e o rd e ra s th e p h o to n d e n s ityin th e3 \u00b0K u n iv e rs a l ra d ia tio n fie ld , th a tis

th e m o m e n t o f th e o r ig in a l e x p lo s io n to c o m e in to p h y s ic a l in te r a c tio n c a n lo o ks os im ila r,a s in d ic a te d b y th e is o tr o p y m e a s u re m e n ts m e n tio n e d a b o v e .

T h e s e c o n d p ro b le m , w h ic hin te c h n ic a l te rm sis k n o w na s th e " fla tn e s s " p ro b le m ,is d ir e c tly re la te d to th e d e n s ity o f m a tte rinth e U n iv e rs e .It a ris e s fro m th e s im p le o b s e rv a tio n th a t a n y d e v ia tio n o f th e m a tte r d e n s ity fro m

th e "c lo s u re "
d e n s ity in c re a s e s w ith
c o s m ic tim e . T h u s , if th e p re s e n t
d e n s ity o f th e U n iv e rs eiso n ly a b o u t1 0 %
o f th e c lo s u re
d e n s ity -a s
in d ic a te d
b y o b s e rv a tio n s
o f th e
c o n te n t o f

b a ry o n icm a tte r-a tth e tim e w h e n th e U n iv e rs e w a s o n ly a b o u t 1 0 0 s e c o n d s o ld (o r w h e n th e c o m p r e s s io n fa c to r w a s -

1 0b illio n ), th e d e n s ity o f m a tte r d e v ia te d fr o m th e c lo s u re d e n s ity o n ly b y o n e p a r tino n e h u n d re d th o u s a n d . M o s t re s e a rc h e rs

c o n s id e r th is
fin e -tu n in g
v e ry
u n n a tu ra l a n d ,
c o n s e q u e n tly , b e lie v e
th a t th e
m a tte r d e n s ity m u s t h a v e
a lw a y s b e e n v e ry c lo s e to th e " c lo s u r e " d e n s ity .
T h e th ird p ro b le m
isc o n c e rn e d w ith th e a p p a re n t a s y m \ue000

m e tryinth e m a tte r/a n ti-m a tte r c o n te n t o f th e U n iv e rs e , th a tis t o s a y , w ith th e e v id e n c e th a t th e U n iv e rs eis e s s e n tia lly com posed of baryons.Inth e s im p le s ta n d a rd " h o t b ig - b a n g " m o d e l, th e reisn o re a s o n to th in k th a t in itia lly a t le a s t th e U n iv e rs e w a s n o t h ig h ly s y m m e tr ic , w ith e q u a l n u m b e r s o f b a ry o n s a n d a n ti- b a r y o n sin e q u ilib riu m

w ith th e ra d ia tio n fie ld : b a r y o n s a n d a n ti- b a r y o n s a n n ih ila te in to p h o to n s a n d , v ic e -v e rs a , p h o to n s m a te ria liz e in to b a ry o n /a n ti-b a ry o n p a irs . B e c a u s e o f th e c o o lin g d u e to th e e x p a n s io n o f th e U n iv e rs e , e v e n tu a llya ll b a r y o n /a n ti- b a r y o n p a irs a n n ih ila te d g iv in g ris e to a c o rre s p o n d in g n u m b e r o f p h o to n s th a t c o n s titu te th e u n iv e rs a l ra d ia tio n fie ld n o w o b s e rv e d a t a te m p e ra tu re o f 3 \u00b0K ,b u t s o m e h o w a s m a ll a m o u n t o f b a ry o n s w a s le ft o v e r. T h a t th e d e v ia tio n fro m

a p e rfe c t b a ry o n /a n ti-b a ry o n s y m \ue000
m e try s h o u ld

h a v e b e e n s m a llis s h o w n b y th e fa c t th a t p re s e n tly th e rea rea b o u t 1 0 0 m illio n p h o to n s p e r b a r y o n (th e u n iv e rs a l ra d ia tio n h a s c o o le d d o w n to its p re s e n t te m p e ra tu re o f a b o u t3 \u00b0K b e c a u s e o f th e e x p a n s io n o f th e U n iv e rs e , b u t th e n u m b e r o f p h o to n s h a s b e e n c o n s e rv e d ).Ifth e U n iv e rs e w a s b a ry o n s y m m e tric to s ta rt w ith , th e a b o v e p ic tu re o f c o u r s e im p lie s th a t th e b a ry o n n u m b e r h a s n o t b e e n s tr ic tly c o n s e rv e d( its h o u ld b e re m e m b e re d th a t a b a ry o n a n da n a n ti- b a r y o n a d d e x a c tlyin th e o p p o s ite w a y , g iv in g a to ta l b a r y o n n u m b e r id e n tic a lly e q u a l toz e ro ).

R e c e n t d e v e lo p m e n tsin e le m e n ta ry p a r tic le p h y s ic s a n d fu n d a m e n ta l th e o ry , w h e n a p p lie d to c o s m o lo g y , m a yinfa c t in d ic a tea ne le g a n t w a y o u t o f th e s e p r o b le m s . A fte r th e s u c c e s s fu l c o n fir m a tio n o f th e G la s h o w , S a la m a n d W e in b e rg th e o ryo nth e u n ific a tio n o f e le c tr o m a g n e tic a n d w e a k fo rc e s re c e n tly o b ta in e d a tC E R Nw ith th e d is c o v e r y o f th eW + a n d

Z Ob o s o n s ,a s d is c u s s e d b yP . D a rriu la t(C E R N ), th e reis n o w
a nin c re a s e d c o n fid e n c ein th e th e o re tic a l a p p ro a c h to th e

u n ific a tio n o fa llfu n d a m e n ta l fo rc e s .It s h o u ld b e n o te d th a t a lm o s t a c e n tu r y h a s e la p s e d s in c e M a x w e ll m a d e th e fir s t fu n d a m e n ta l s te p

o f in c o rp o ra tin g
e le c tric
a n d
m a g n e tic

fo r c e s in to o n e u n ifie ds c h e m e --th eth e o ry o f e le c tro m a g n e \ue000 tis m .A sre v ie w e d b yP . F a y e t (P a ris ), th e rea re a n u m b e r o f th e o re \u00dc c a l m o d e ls w h ic h h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d to u n ify th e e le c tro -w e a k a n d

s tro n g
in te r a c tio n s , g e n e ra lly k n o w n
a s

G r a n d U n ifie d T h e o r ie s(G U T s ).A t th is m o m e n t, it s till a p p e a rs d iffic u lt to w o rk o u t d e fin ite q u a n tita tiv e p re d ic tio n s , b u t o n e q u a n tityw h ic h s e e m s to b e fa irly w e il e s tim a te dis th e e n e rg y o f th e p a r tic le s a b o v e w h ic h th e m o d e ls s h o u ld b e c o m e e x a c t, th a tis t os a y , th e u n ific a tio n e n e rg y a t w h ic h th e fo rc e s lo s e th e ir in d iv id u a lity . T h is e n e rg y tu r n s o u t to b e a b o u t 1 0

1 4
G e V ,
w h ic h c o r r e s p o n d s to a m a s s w h ic h is a b o u t 1 0
1 2

tim e s th e m a s s o f th eW +a n dzo b o s o n s . T h is m e a n s , o f c o u rs e , th a t a d ir e c t v e rific a tio n

o fth e
G U T sv ia
th e
p ro d u c tio n
o f th e
p a r tic le s
w h ic h
m e d ia te th e
u n ifie d
fo rc e
is
u n th in k a b le ,
e x c e p tinth e to o d is ta n t fu tu re . H o w e v e r,in th e " h o t b ig - b a n g "
A p ril1 3
M ay2 2
M ay2 3
J u n e4 -5
June 6
June 7
O e to b e r 8

N ovem ber1 3 -1 4 N ovem ber2 7 -2 8 N ovem ber 28

N ovem ber2 9 -3 0
S e ie n tifie T e e h n ie a l C o m m itte e
U s e rs C o m m itte e
F in a n e e C o m m itte e
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
C o m m itte e o f C o u n e il, G e n e v a
C o u n e il, G e n e v a
S e ie n tifie T e e h n ie a l C o m m itte e , C h ile
F in a n e e C o m m itte e
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
C o m m itte e o f C o u n e il
C o u n e il
3

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