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messenger-no37

messenger-no37

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
N o .3 7 -S e p te m b e r 1 9 8 4
A 1 5M e tre S u b m illim e tr e T e le s c o p e o nL a S illa
D u rin g its la s t m e e tin g , o n 7 J u n e 1 9 8 4 , th e
E S O
C o u n c il
a p p ro v e d th e a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n th e S w e d is h
N a tu ra l S c i\ue000
e n c e R e s e a rc h C o u n c il a n dE S Oo n th e jo in t in s ta lla tio n a n d
o p e ra tio n o n
L aS illa o f a1 5 m
s u b m illim e tr e te le s c o p e a n d
th e
a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n
IR A M
a n d
E S O
u n d e r w h ic h
IR A M
w ill p r o v id e th e te le s c o p e .

T h e o b s e r v in g tim e w ill b e s h a r e d e q u a lly b e tw e e n S w e d e n a n dE S O .M u c h o f th e te c h n ic a l r e s p o n s ib ility fo r th e p r o je c t w o u ld lie w ith th e O n s a la S p a c e O b s e r v a to r y w h ic h o p e ra te s a 2 0 m m illim e tr e te le s c o p e a t O n s a la . T h e S w e d is h /E S O S u b -

m illim e tr e T e le s c o p e(S E S 1 )is s c h e d u le d to b e c o m e o p e ra \ue000
tio n a lin1 9 8 7 .
D ire c to r G e n e ra l R e a p p o in te d
P ro f.
L .
W o ltje r
h a s
b e e n
re a p p o in te d
b y
th e
E S O
C o u n c il t o
b e
D ire c to r G e n e ra l fo r th e
p e rio d
1 J a n u a ry
1 9 8 5 to
3 1
Decem ber 1989.
T h e R e m o te C o n tro l R u n fro m
L aSerena, June1 0 -1 7 , 1984
G .R a ffia n dM . T a re n g h i,E S O
W ith
th e
e x p e n d itu re
o f m is s io n s
fro m
E u ro p e
t o

C h ile s h o w in g a s te a d y in c re a s e , n o t o n ly b e c a u s e o f flig h t p r ic e s b u t a ls o b e c a u s e o f th e ris ein in fra s tru c tu re u p k e e p o f re m o te s ite s , a lo n g w ith a c le a r t e n d e n c y to lo w e r th e c o s t o f s a te llite tra n s m is s io n , it s e e m s to u s th a t re m o te c o n tro l w ill b e c o m e a ne c o n o m ic a l s y s te m

to o p e ra te te le s c o p e s .

Itis im p o r ta n t to u n d e rlin e h e re th a t th e e c o n o m ic fa c to ris n o t th e o n ly o n e , a n d p r o b a b ly n o t e v e n th e m a jo r o n e .T h ere a l re a s o n fo r th e m o d e rn te n d e n c y to w a rd s re m o te c o n tro lis th e h o p e to m a k e b e tte r u s e o f o u r p re s e n t a n d fu tu re te le s c o p e s . P o s s ib le a d v a n ta g e s d ir e c tly o r in d ir e c tly c o m in g fro m re m o te c o n tro l a re :

(1 )
T h e te le s c o p e c a n b e lo c a te d o n th e b e s t p o s s ib le s ite ,
w h ic h m a yin its e lf n o t b e c o m fo r ta b le fo r a s tro n o m e rs .
Change of ESO
te le p h o n e n u m b e rin S a n tia g o
P le a s e ta k e n o te th a t th e te le p h o n e n u m b e r o fL a S illa v ia
th eE S O S a n tia g o o ffic eh a s b e e n c h a n g e d fro m
8 8 7 5 7 to
6 9 8 8 7 5 7 .
(2 )
L a rg e r g ro u p so f a s tro n o m e rs c a n p a rtic ip a tein o b s e rv \ue000
in g p r o g r a m m e s .
(3 )

S e tte r u s e o f te le s c o p e tim e . S c h e d u lin g o f te le s c o p e s b e c o m e s m o r e fle x ib le a n d it w ill b e p o s s ib le t o m a k e m a x \ue000 im u m

u s e o f th e b e s t s e e in g n ig h ts .
(4 )
S e tte r c o lla b o r a tio n b e tw e e n te c h n ic a l m a in te n a n c ein
C h ile
a n d
E u ro p e
w ill re s u lt. In s tru m e n t te s ts
w ill h a v e th e

a d v a n ta g e o f b e in g c a rrie d o u t u n d e r th e c o n tro l o f a la rg e r te c h n ic a l te a m , a n dinp a r tic u la r b y th e g r o u p w h o a s s e m b le d th e e q u ip m e n tinE u ro p e .

W e
a re in v e s tig a tin g
p o s s ib le
s y s te m s o f c o m m u n ic a tio n
b e tw e e n
th e
o b s e rv a to ry
a n d
E u ro p e . T h e
tr a n s m is s io n
o f
d a ta b e tw e e n th e te le s c o p e c o n tro l s y s te m
a n d s o m e ty p e o f
d a ta
p r o c e s s in g
a n d
v is u a liz a tio n
e q u ip m e n t
in

G a r c h in g s h o u ld in c lu d e th e tr a n s m is s io nin re a l tim e o f th e te le s c o p e 's fie ld

im a g e
a n d
th e
in s tru m e n t's
d a ta
a n d ,
in
th e
re v e rs e
d ire c tio n , th e tra n s m is s io n o f th e c o n tr o l c o m m a n d s .

If th e o p e r a tio n o f th e te le s c o p e c a n n o tb e fu lly a u to m a te d , a m e a n s o f c o m m u n ic a tio n b e tw e e n th e o b s e rv e rinG a r c h in g a n d a n ig h t a s s is ta n tinL a S illa m u s tb e p r o v id e d .

Inth e c a s e o f th eN T T , itis in te n d e d t o im p le m e n t re m o te
c o n tro la sa c o n n e c tio n o f tw o c o m p u te rs v ia a lo n g -d is ta n c e
lin k . C le a r ly th is a p p r o a c h g iv e s s o m e a d v a n ta g e s , s u c ha s :
-
C o m m u n ic a tio n
r e lia b ility c a n
b e in c r e a s e d
b y re tra n s \ue000
m is s io n s
t o
s u c h
a
le v e l
th a t
a ll
tr a n s m is s io n
e rro rs
a re
e lim in a te d .
-
T h e ra w d a ta c a n b e s e n t fro m o n e c o m p u te r to th e o th e r.
A no b v io u s im p lic a tio n o f th is is th a t th e fu ll p o w e r o fa n im a g e
p r o c e s s in g
s y s te m
o n
th e
u s e r-e n d
com puter can
th e n

b e a p p lie d a t w ill to th e d a ta . F u rth e rm o re , th e u s e r h a s th e d a ta a v a ila b le t o h im

a lr e a d y a t th e e n d o f h is o b s e r v in g n ig h t.

T oc la rify th e s e a d v a n ta g e s b e tte r, o n e s h o u ld th in k o f th e a lte r n a tiv e o f s im p ly h a v in g a te r m in a l c o n n e c te d v ia a lo n g \ue000 d is ta n c e lin k to a d is ta n t c o m p u te r .In th is c a s ea ll g ra p h ic s , e tc . m u s t b e c o m p u te do nth e h o s t d is ta n t c o m p u te r a n d th e re s u lt (e .g . a p lo t) m u s t b e s e n t d o w n th e lin e e a c h tim e to th e u s e r 's te rm in a l.

O na s lo w
s p e e d

lin e th is re q u ire s tim e , a n d th e te rm in a l d o e s n o t h a v e th e " in te llig e n c e " to c o r r e c t tra n s m is s io n e rro rs , w h ic h w ill p r a b a b ly d e s tr o y th e g ra p h a n d th e ra w d a ta w ill n o t b e a v a ila b le to th e u s e r.

A re m o te c o n tra lru nfro m
L aS e re n a , la s t J u n e , w a s a firs t
re le v a n t s te pinth is d ir e c tio n .
T h e T e c h n o lo g y U s e d fo r th eL a S e re n aR un
T h e2 .2 m te le s c o p e o fE S O w a s c h o s e n toru n th is e x p e r i\ue000
m ent
b e c a u s e
it s
c o n tr o l/a c q u is itio n
s o ftw a re
w as
im p le m e n te din a m a n n e r s u ita b le fo r re m o te c o n tro l, e v e n if
n o t in itia lly w r itte n
e x p lic itly fo r th is , a n d
b e c a u s e
a na u to \ue000
g u id e r w a s a v a ila b leo nit. T h e in s tr u m e n ts u s e d w e re a B o ile r
&
C h iv e n s s p e c tra g ra p h
w ith
C C O
d e te c to r a n d
aC C O
fo r
d ir e c t im a g in g .

T h e tw o c o m p u te rs c o n n e c te d w e re tw oH P1 0 0 0 s y s te m s , o n einth e 2 .2 m te le s c o p e a n d th e o th e r inth eE S O o ffic e inL a S e re n a .

T h e lin e in - b e tw e e n
w a s le a s e d b y t h e C h ile a n
P T TE n te l
and was basedo na m ic r o w a v e lin k fr o m
L aS illa to th e E n te l
o ffic e
in
L aS e re n a
p lu s a s h o rtV H F
lin kin
L aS e re n a . T h e
fre q u e n c y b a n d u s e d w a s a n o rm a l te le p h o n e b a n d a n d E n te l
p r o v id e d a ls o m o d e m s a t 4 8 0 0 b a u d .
F ig .1 :L aS e re n a ,
1 6J u n e
1 9 8 4 .T h e
c o n tro ! ro o m
a tth e
E S O
L a
S e re n a o ffic e , d u r in g
a
m e a s u r e m e n to f th e s e e in go f th eL a S illa s k y .
2
In
p ra c tic e
w e
u s e d
d iffe re n t m o d e m s

(s y n c h ro n o u s ) a t 9 6 0 0 b a n d , w h ic h s u p p o r te d a ls o te le p h o n e v o ic e c o m m u n i\ue000 c a tio na sa na lte rn a tiv e t o d a ta tra n s m is s io n .

T h e R e m o te C o n tro l S o ftw a re
T h e c o m m u n ic a tio n s o ftw a r e w a s b a s e do nO S /1 0 0 0 , a t th e
to p
o f w h ic h
a
p a c k a g e
w as
b u ilt to
a llo w
p ro g ra m m e
t o
p ro g ra m m e
c o m m u n ic a tio n
v ia
m a iib o x e s
over a
lin k .T h e
c o n tr o l/a c q u is itio n
s o ftw a re
in
th e
2.2 m
h a d
a lre a d y
b e e n

b u ilt a r o u n d m o d u le s e x c h a n g in g c o m m a n d s v ia m a ilb o x e s . W h a t w a s n e e d e d fo r re m o te c o n tro l w a s to s e p a ra te s o m e o f th e s e m o d u le s (th e " u s e r e n d ") fro m

th e o th e rs (th e " c o n tr o l\ue000 le r" o r in s tru m e n tlte le s c o p e e n d ). T h e "u s e r e n d " p ro g ra m m e s d e a lin g w ith s o ftk e y in p u t a n d in p u t- o u tp u t ta b le s w e re m o d \ue000 ifie d to in te r a c t w ith th e re m o te c o n tr o l p a c k a g e .

T h e
"c o n tro lle r"
m o d u le s
re m a in e d
u n c h a n g e d ,
w hic h
m e a n s th a t th e y c o u ld
ru ne ith e r lo c a lly o r r e m o te ly .
T h e "u s e r e n d " p ro g ra m m e s w e re a ls o u n c h a n g e da sfa r a s
a p p e a ra n c e to th e u s e ris c o n c e rn e d .

S p e c ia l a tte n tio n h a d tob ep a id t o th e u s a g e o f th e im a g e p r o c e s s in g IH A P p r o g r a m m e . T h e d a ta a c q u is itio n w a s d o n e o nth eL a S illa c o m p u te r , re a d in g d a ta in to a d is kin th eIH A P d a ta -b a s e a n d p u ttin g th e m

o nta p e th e re .
T h e IH A P p ro g ra m m e a tL aS illa , c a lle d r e m o teIH A P , w a s
m ade
a v a ila b le
a ls o
t o
th e
u s e rin
L a
S e re n a , a llo w in g
a
n u m b e r o f e x a m in a tio n so nth e a c q u ir e d d a ta .T h e tr a n s m is \ue000
s io n
o f d a ta
fra m
th e
L a
S illa
c o m p u te r
t o
th e
u s e r-e n d
c o m p u te r w a s
c a rrie d
o u t ty p ic a lly
w ith
a file
t o
f ile
c o p y
p ro g ra m m e .
A
d a ta
c o m p r e s s io n
p ro g ra m m e
w as
a ls o
te s te d ,w hic h
a llo w s th e s e n d in go fd a tain c o m p re s s e d fo rm
w ith o u t lo s s o f
in fo rm a tio n .A na d d itio n a l a d v a n ta g e o f th isis th e c a p a b ility to
tra n s fe r d a ta
fro m
re m o te
IH A P
t o
lo c a lIH A P
a n d
t o
do a
d is p la yo na R a m te k d is p la y a t th e s a m e tim e . B y " lo c a IIH A P " ,
th e IH A Po nth e u s e r-e n d c o m p u te ris o f c o u rs e m e a n t.
C a p a b ilitie s O ffe r e d
T h e c a p a b ilitie s o ffe r e dinL a S e re n aa re d e s c r ib e d b e lo w .
\u2022

T h e s a m e u s e r in te rfa c e to in s tru m e n ts (B o ile r&C h iv e n s a n d A d a p te r w ithC C O )a sinL aS illa a t th e 2 .2 m te le s c o p e a n d th e s a m e d e v ic e s (in s tru m e n ta tio n a n d g r a p h ic te rm i\ue000 n a l, R a m te k im a g e d is p la y ) w e r e a v a ila b le .

\u2022
A ne x tra fe a tu re , w ith re s p e c t to n o rm a l o b s e rv a tio n , w a s
th e a c c e s s to b o th 1 0 c a ilH A P(o nth eL a S e re n a c o m p u te r)
a n d re m o te IH A P
(o nth eL a S illa c o m p u te r).
\u2022
Itw as
p o s s ib le
t o
p re s e t,
o ffs e t,
a n d
fo c u s
th e
2 .2m

te le s c o p e v ia th e in s tru m e n t p ro g ra m m e . T h isisa no p tio n a v a ila b le a ls o a tL aS illa , w h e n th e u s e r d e fin e sa ne x p o \ue000 s u re . T h e in s tru m e n t p ro g ra m m e ta k e s c a re o f s e n d in g th e a p p ro p ria te c o m m a n d s to th e te le s c o p e c o n tro l s y s te m .

\u2022
Inp r in c ip le it is a ls o p o s s ib le to u s e d ir e c tly th e te le s c o p e
c o n tra I s y s te m
c o n s o le
fra m
L a
S e re n a
u n d e r
re m o te
c o n tra l, h a v in g a c c e s s toa llth e fu n c tio n s o f th e te le s c o p e .
H o w e v e r, o p e r a tio n a lly it p ro v e d
t o
b e
u n n e c e s s a ry a n d
th e te le s c o p e c o n tr o l c o n s o le w a s le ft to th e n ig h t a s s is ta n t
inL aS illa , w h o u s e d it m a in ly to s ta r t a u to g u id in g .
\u2022
O a tatr a n s m is s io n w a s c a r r ie d o u t a n d w a s a v a ila b lein t w o
w ays.
-
file t o file tra n s fe r (d a ta w e re c o p ie d fro m th eIH A Pd a ta \ue000
b a s e to a file a n d s e n t d o w n th e lin ka sa n y file ).
-
IH A P
t o
IH A P
c o m m u n ic a tio n
d ir e c tly w ith
d a ta
com \ue000
p re s s io n . (T h e d a ta c o m p re s s io n p ro g ra m m e e x tra c te d
th e
d a ta
d ir e c tly
fro m
th e
IH A P
d a ta -b a s e
a n d
a ls o
o p tio n a lly c u t th e m
b e fo r e tra n s m is s io n .)
T h e
tr a n s m is s io n
o ffu ll r a w
C C O
im a g e s
(3 2 0
x
5 1 2
p ix e ls )
to o k
a b o u t
7
m in u te s .
H o w e v e r,
im a g e s
w e re
n o r m a lly e ith e r c u t w ith th r e s h o ld le v e lso rtru n c a te d to a
s u b s e to fth e fu ll im a g e . T h is a llo w s th e r e d u c tio n
o fth e
s iz eo fim a g e s to s o m e1 0 -2 0% , e v e n w ith o u t (o r b e fo re )
u s in g d a ta c o m p r e s s io n .
It is
in te re s tin g
t o
n o te
a n y h o w
th a t o p e ra tio n a lly , th e
d a ta
tr a n s m is s io n
tim e s
w ent
" u n n o tic e d "

a s , ty p ic a lly , d a ta w e re s e n t a c ra s s th e lin k w h ile th e n e x t C C O e x p o s u re w a s ta k in g

p la c e .
O a ta
tr a n s m is s io n
d o e s
n o t c la s h
e ith e r w ith

s e n d in g com m andst oth e in s tr u m e n t o r te le s c o p e ,a s th is in v o lv e s a s h o rt e x c h a n g eo fm e s s a g e s o n t h e lin e .

\u2022
A n
in te ra c tiv e
m essage
s y s te m
w as
a ls o
u s e d
t o
s e n d /
r e c e iv e
m essages
fro m
a
d e d ic a te d
c o n s o le .
T h is
w as
c o n s ta n tly a c tiv e a n d w o r k in g to g e th e r w ith a ll o th e r o p e ra \ue000
tio n s o n th e lin k .
\u2022

A v o ic e c h a n n e l w a s a v a ila b le a sa na lte rn a tiv e to th e d a ta c h a n n e l. T h is is u s e fu lins itu a tio n s lik e s ta r t- u p , re b o o tin g , e tc .

a n d
w as
ra u tin e ly
u s e d ,
e .g .
d u rin g
e x p o s u re s

t o o b ta in in fo rm a tio nina m o re d ire c t a n d in fo rm a l w a y th a n v ia a m e s s a g e s y s te m .

C o n c lu s io n s
T h e o p e ra tio n fro m

L a S e re n a p ro v e d to b e fe a s ib le b o th fo r th e s p e c tra g ra p h ic m o d e a n d im a g e ry . H o w e v e r, p a rtic u la rly fo r s p e c tra s c o p y , th e a d d itio no fa d e v ic e to d ig itiz e th e fie ld im a g e

o fth e
te le s c o p e , a n d
tra n s m it it to
th e
re m o te
s ite ,
w h ic h w a s n o t y e t a v a ila b le a t t h is s ta g e , is p la n n e d a n d w ill b e
n e c e s s a ry .
T e n ta tiv e T im e -ta b le o f C o u n c il S e s s io n s
a n d C o m m itte e M e e tin g sin
1 9 8 4
O c to b e r8 -9
S c ie n tilic T e c h n ic a l C o m m itte e , C h ile
N ovem ber1 3 -1 4
F in a n c e C o m m itte e
N ovem ber2 7-2 8
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
N ovem ber2 8
C o m m itte e
0 1C o u n c il
N ovem ber2 9 -3 0
C o u n c il
A llm e e tin g s w ill ta k e p la c ea tE S O
inG a rc h in g u n le s s s ta te d
o th e rw is e .
N e x t S te p
T h e n e x t lo g ic a l s te p is to o b s e rv e fro m

G a rc h in g . V a rio u s te c h n ic a l a lte rn a tiv e st od o th is w ill b e p o s s ib le . T h e y b a s ic a lly a re :

-
O ire c t lin k v ia s a te llite tr a n s m is s io n a n da na n te n n ain L a
S illa .
-
O ir e c t lin k
v ia
a
s a te llite
lin k fr o m
S a n tia g o
s h a re d
b y
E S O , p lu s a d e d ic a te d te le p h o n e lin e t o S a n tia g o .
.
-
A d e d ic a te d te le p h o n e lin e to S a n tia g o p lu s a c c e s s fro m
S a n tia g o to
a p u b lic in te rn a tio n a lc o m p u te rn e tw o rk .In th is
c a s e ,
in
p ra c tic e , d a ta
w o u ld
b e
ro u te d
v ia
a
c o m p u te rin
S a n tia g o to a U S A
c o m p u t e r v ia a c o m m u n ic a tio n s s a te llite
lin k a n d fr a m
th e re to E u ro p e .
W e e x p e c t th a t th is la s t p o s s ib ility w ill b e c o m e a v a ila b leina
fe w

m o n th s a s a s e rv ic e . A te s t w ith th is m ig h t b e re la tiv e ly c h e a p to ru n a n d w o u ld ta k e u s o n e s te p fu rth e rinth e d ire c tio n o fh a v in g re m o te c o n tra l fo r th eN D .

W e w o u ld lik e to th a n kM . Z ie b e ll fo r h is c o n tr ib u tio nt o th e p ro je c t,P .B ie re ic h e l fo r h is d a ta c o m p re s s io n p ro g ra m m e ,O . H o fs ta d t a n d th e T R S

s ta ff fo r h a n d lin g th e
le a s e c o n tra c ts
w ith
E n te l a n d f o r th e s u p p o r t in C h ile .
O x y g e n A b u n d a n c e sin M e ta l P a a r S ta rs
R .G .G ra tto na n dS . O rto la n i, O s s e rv a to rio A s tr o fis ic o d i A s ia g o , Ita ly
In tro d u c tio n
T h e s tu d yo f th e c h e m ic a l c o m p o s itio n o f o ld s ta rs m a y g iv e
u s in te re s tin g in fo r m a tio n a b o u t th e e a rly p h a s e so fe v o lu tio n
o fo u r G a la x y . T h e B ig B a n g m a y h a v e fo rm e d o n ly a tra c e o f

e le m e n ts h e a v ie r th a n B e . It is q u ite c o n s e q u e n t th a t th e e a rly g e n e ra tio n o f s ta rs ino u rG a la x y (a n d in a n y g a la x y ) m u s t h a v e fo rm e d

w ith
a
lo w
m e ta l a b u n d a n c e ; th e
m e ta ls w e re

th e n fo rm e dinth e in te rio ro f th e s e e a rly s ta rs a n d re tu rn e d to th e in te rs te lla r m e d iu m th r a u g h s te lla r w in d so rs u p e rn o v a e x p lo \ue000 s io n s . S u c c e s s iv e g e n e r a tio n so fs ta rs fo rm e d w itha n in c re a s \ue000 in g

m e ta l a b u n d a n c e . T h is
p ic tu re
is
s u b s ta n tia te d
b y
th e

re la tio n e x is tin g b e tw e e n m e ta llic ity a n d g a la c tic o r b it e c c e n \ue000 tr ic itie s s h o w n b y E g g e n e ta l.(1 9 6 2 ); th is is in te rp re te d a s th e in te ra c tio n b e tw e e n a fa s t c o lla p s e o f th e g a s c o m p o n e n t o f th e g a la c tic h a lo a n d th e in c re a s eo fth e m e a n m e ta llic ity o fth e sam e gas.

M a n y p o in ts a re s till o b s c u r e in th is p ic tu r e ; th e a b s e n c e o f o b s e rv a tio n so fv e ry m e ta l p o o r s ta rs s e e m s to in d ic a te th a t th e In itia l M a s s F u n c tio n (IM F ) m a y h a v e b e e n d iffe r e n tinth e p a s t, b e in g s tr o n g ly b ia s e d to m a s s iv e o r e v e n s u p e r - m a s s iv e s ta rs( M

>1 0 0M e v ). T h e e v o lu tio no f th e s e c a n d id a te s to th e
firs t
g e n e ra tio n
o f
s ta rs
is
fa r
fro m
b e in g
c le a r
(s e e
e .g .
W o o s le y e t a l., 1 9 8 2 ); th e re is th e s tro n g s u s p ic io n th a t th e y
m a y fo rm
la rg e q u a n titie so fO x y g e n b u t v e ry s m a ll a m o u n ts
o fIra n . O n
th e
o th e r s id e , ty p e
I s u p e rn o v a e
a re

p ro b a b ly e ffic ie n tF em a k e r s , w h ile th e r e is n o a v a ila b le in d ic a tio no fth e p re s e n c e o f O x y g e nin th e ir e je c ta . A s ty p e I s u p e rn o v a e d o n o t fo llo w th e a rm so fs p ir a l g a la x ie s a n d a re p r e s e n t a ls o in e llip tic a ls , w e th in k th a t th e life tim e s o f th e ir p r a g e n ito r s a re lo n g . T h u s th e tim e s c a leo fp ro d u c tio n o fO x y g e n (a n d s o m e o th e r lig h t e le m e n t) m a y

b e
s u b s ta n tia lly
d iffe re n t fra m
th e
tim e s c a leo fIra n (a n d o th e r h e a v y e le m e n ts ) p r a d u c tio n .
It s e e m s th u s in te re s tin g to s tu d y th e b e h a v io u r o f th e O /F e
ra tio
w ith
tim e .
U n fo rtu n a te ly
i t
is
q u ite
d iffic u lt to
d e r iv e
s u ffic ie n tly a c c u r a te a g e s fo r p o p u la tio n
1Io b je c ts . W e m a y

h o w e v e r a s s u m e th a t a g e is c o rre la te d w ith m e ta l a b u n d a n c e . T h is h y p o th e s is is p r o b a b ly g o o dinth e s o la r n e ig h b o u r h o o d , th o u g h

it m ay
b e
d a n g e ro u s
t o
e x te n d
it
n a iv e ly
t o
o th e r
g a la c tic re g io n s .
O b s e r v a tio n s a n d A n a ly s is
E a rly a tte m p ts to d e riv e O x y g e n a b u n d a n c e s fo r m e ta l p o o r
s ta rs h a v e b e e n m a d e b y S n e d e n e ta l.(1 9 7 9 ) a n d C le g g e t a l.
3

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