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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

TH E
M E S S E N G E R
N o .3 8 -D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 4
V is it o f S T C to P o s s ib le S ite s fo r th e V L Tin N o r th e r n C h ile
o .E n a rd , E S O

T h e S T C ( S e ie n tifie T e e h n ie a l C o m m itte e ) m e t a tL a S illa th e 8 th a n d 9 tho fO e to b e r. F o llo w in g th e m e e tin g , a 3 - d a y - lo n g trip to n o rth e rn C h ile b ro u g h t th e S T C m e m b e rs (F ig .1 )to a n d a b o v e a fe w

s ite s w h ie h
have been

p ie k e d u pa sp o te n tia lly in te re s tin gs p o tsb yA . A rd e b e rg d u rin g h is e x p lo ra to ry s u rv e y o f1 9 8 3 /8 4 .

O neo fth em ost p r o m is in g s ite s is C e rro P a ra n a l , lo e a te d a t
about 150 km
s o u tho fA n to fa g a s ta a n d 1 5 k m
fro m
th e e o a s t
(F ig .2 ).T h e e le v a tio n is 2 ,6 5 0 m . T h is s ite is a ttr a e tiv e b e e a u s e
o fit s
r e la tiv e ly
e a s y
a e e e s s ,
it s
d ry n e s s
a n d
p h o to m e trie
q u a lity . Its p r o x im ityt oth e e o a s t ra is e s h o p e th a t th e a tm o s \ue000
p h e re is little d is tu r b e d
b y n e ig h b o u r in g
m o u n ta in s a n d th a t
e o n s e q u e n tly
s e e in g
is
e x e e lle n t.
A s
n o te d
b y
a
fe w
S T C
m e m b e rs , th e
s ite
s u fte rs
fro m
it s
r e la tiv e
n a rro w n e s s

a n d a lth o u g h th e s p a e e a v a ila b le w o u ld b e q u ite s u ftie ie n t fo r th e V LT ,th e re

w o u ld
b e
little s p a e e fo r o th e r te le s e o p e s . O th e r
s u m m itsinth e n e ig h b o u r h o o d e o u ld
how ever be used.
A n o th e r
e lo s e - b y
m o u n ta in ,
C e rro
A rm a z o n a s ,
3 ,1 0 0 m
h ig h , h a s a ls o b e e n v is ite d . It is m u e h la r g e r th a n P a ra n a l b u t,
fu rth e r
in la n d
b y
a b o u t22 km ,
it m ay
not be
a s
g o o d
a s
P a ra n a l, th o u g h o n lya no b je e tiv e e o m p a r is o n e o u ld a s e e rta in
th is .
T h e re g io n
Glose to the Bolivian

b o rd e r, n o rth -e a s t o f S a n P e d ro d 'A ta e a m a , is rie ho fv e r y h ig h e le v a tio n v o le a n o s ; a 3 \ue000 h o u r rid e fro m

S a n P e d ro b ro u g h t e o u ra g e o u s S T C
m e m b e rs
u p
t o
o n e
o fth e
fe w
a e e e s s ib le
v o le a n o s , th e
A p o g a d o
a t
5 ,6 5 0 m
e le v a tio n . A s s h o w ninF ig .1 , ( s o m e ) S T C
m e m b e rs
feit still very
e o m fo rta b le , a lth o u g h
e v e n
s lig h t e fto rts w e re
p a in fu lly
e x p e r ie n e e d .
L o e a tin g
a n
o b s e rv a to ry
at sueh
a n

e le v a tio n w o u ld p r o b a b ly b e q u ite a d v e n tu r o u s ,b u t th e fu n d a \ue000 m e n ta l p r o b le m re m a in s th e d e te rm in a tio no fth e v a lu e o fs u e h s ite s w ith r e s p e e t t o L a S illa a n d o t h e r e x e e lle n t s ite s s u e h a s M auna Kea.

T h e re a re m a n y s ite sinC h ile w h ie h , w ith e le v a tio n so f a b o u t
4 ,0 0 0 m , w o u ld
re p re s e n t ag o o d
e o m p r o m is e
b e tw e e n th e
d e s ir et o
g o
a s
h ig h
a s
p o s s ib le
a n d
th e
n e e e s s ity to
o fte r
b e a r a b le w o r k in g e o n d itio n s . E x p e rie n e e a t H a w a ii s u g g e s ts
th a t 4 ,2 0 0 m
is s till a e e e p ta b le fr o m

th e h u m a n p o in to fv ie w . S u e h s ite s e a n b e fo u n dinth e v ie in ityo f th e h ig h v o le a n o s , in th e e e n tr a l e h a in w e s to f S a n P e d r o , a n d a ls o e a s to fL a S illa . N one

o fth o s e
m o u n ta in s
a p p e a rs
e o m p le te ly
is o la te d
a n d
a e e e s s
is
ra th e r d iftie u lt,b u tth e y
w o u ld
p ro b a b ly
d e s e rv e
a tte n tio n , e s p e e ia lly if th e
o th e r lo w e r e le v a tio n
s ite s w o u ld
p ro v e to
b e
u n s a tis fa e to ry e ith e r fro m
a s e e in g
o r h u m id ity
p o in to fv ie w .
'

A fte r th e e o m p le tio n o f th e in itia l e x p lo r a to r y s u rv e y , s ta rte d in 1 9 8 3 b y A rn e A rd e b e rg , a la rg e r s e a le p ro g ra m m e o f in v e s ti\ue000 g a tio n is b e in g d e fin e d .

A d e d ie a te d w o r k in g g r o u p e o m p o s e do fE u ro p e a n e x p e rts in th e fie ld h a s b e e n s e t u p a n d w ill is s u e r e e o m m e n d a tio n s . A u to m a tie m e te o r o lo g ie s ta tio n s h a v e a lre a d y b e e n in s ta lle d a t P a ra n a l a n d a t L a S illa ; a th ir d s ta tio n w ill b e in s ta lle d a t o n e

F ig .1 :P ie rre C h a rv ina n d G u s ta v T a m m a n n /o o k in g s till v e ry c o m fo r t-
a b tea tV o /c a n oA p a g a d o a t56 5 0m a ttitu d e . T h is v o /c a n ois o n eo f th e
v e ry fe w h ig h s u m m its e a s i/y a c c e s s ib /eb yc a r.
1
F ig .2 :A e r ia l v ie wo f G e r r o P a ra n a l. T h e e le v a tio n is e lo s e to 2 ,7 0 0m
a n dth e e o a s t is o n lya t1 5 k m
d is ta n e e .T h e

w h ites p o ta t th e r ig h t h a n do fth es u m m it isa s h e lte r u s e db y th e tw o p e rs o n s w h o m o n ito r th e s ite .T h er id g e is fa e in g th e p r e v a ilin g w in d d ire e tio na n dis a b o u t

4 0 0 m
lo n g .

h ig h e le v a tio n s itein D e c e m b e r . T h e y w ill p r o v id e e a s y p r o \ue000 c e s s a b le d a ta th a t w ill c o m p le m e n t th e d a ta c o lle c te d s in c e S e p te m b e r 1 9 8 3 . A te th e r e d b a llo o n w ill a ls o p e r m it to m e a \ue000 s u re th e tu rb u le n c ea s w e ila s o th e r m e te o ro lo g ie p a ra m e te rs , b e tw e e n 0 a n d 8 0 0 m

a b o v e s ite s . T h is e q u ip m e n tis e a s ily tr a n s p o r ta b le a n d s h o u ld p e r m it a p re lim in a ry in v e s tig a tio n o f th e lo c a l c o n tr ib u tio n to s e e in g . M o re p e rm a n e n t e q u ip m e n t, s u c h

a s
fa s t th e rm a l s e n s o rs , a c o u s tic
ra d a rs
a n d
s e e in g
m o n ito rs ,isp la n n e d fo r 1 9 8 5a t P a ra n a l(a n dL a S illain v ie w o f
a na b s o lu te c a lib r a tio n w ith e x is tin g te le s c o p e s ).
T h e
im p o rta n c e
o f
s e e in g
fo r
th e
n e w
la rg e

te le s c o p e p r o je c tsa s w e ila s th e p e r s p e c tiv e fo r im p r o v in g th e im a g e q u a lity th ro u g h a d a p tiv e c o rre c tio n h a v e ra is e d u p c o n s id e r \ue000 a b le e ffo rts b y s e v e ra l g ro u p s to b e tte r u n d e rs ta n d th e c a u s e s o f s e e in g d e te r io r a tio n , a n d p o s s ib ly fin d

e u re s . D e s p ite th e d iffic u lty o f c o m p a r in g q u a n tita tiv e ly re s u lts o b ta in e d b y d iffe \ue000 re n t m e th o d sa td iffe r e n t p la c e s , itis h o p e d th a t w ith in 2 to

F ig .3 :An e w a u to m a tie m e te o ro lo g ie s ta tio na t G e rro P a ra n a l. A n o th e r
s ta tio nisin sta lie da t L a S illa o na3 0 m
h ig h m a s t. A th ir d o n e w illb e
in s ta lle d o na h ig h e le v a tio n s ite .
3 y e a rsa n a g re e m e n t c o u ldb e re a c h e do n a fe w v ita l q u e s \ue000
tio n s
s u c h
a s
"what makes
a
s ite
r e a lly
g o o d ? ", o r "h o w
im p o rta n t
is
it to
set a
te le s c o p e
at a
h ig h
s ite ? " . T h o s e
q u e s tio n sa re in d e e d o f p a ra m o u n t im p o r ta n c e fo r th e
E S O
V L T .
B lu e C o m p a c t G a la x ie s : In fa n ts o f th e U n iv e r s e ?
N .B e rg v a //a n dK . O /o fs s o n , A s tr o n o m ic a / O b s e rv a to ry , U p p s a /a
"O B J E C T
H A D E S ",
s u p p o s e d
t o
b e
" u ltim a te
o b je c ts
o f
g re a te s t c o m p a c tn e s s ", m o s t w o rk to d a yisdoneo n com pact
g a la x ie s th a t h a v e
p ro p e rtie s m o re ty p ic a l o f n e w ly fo rm e d
g a la x ie s .
' a
\u2022
b
c
F ig .1 :T h re e b lu eeom pact g a la x ie s a ss e e n o n th e E S O
Q u ie k B lu e
S u rv e y p la te s o b ta in e d w ith th e E S O
1mS e h m id t te le s e o p e :(a ) E S O
3 3 8 -IG 0 4 ,(b )E S O 4 0 0 -G 4 3 ,(e ) E S O
4 8 0 -IG 1 2
(1a re m in
=
1 7m m ).
T o pisn o rth , e a s t isto th e le tt.
1 .W h a tis a B lu e C o m p a c t G a la x y ?
S h o rtly a fte r th e c o m p le tio n o f th e 4 8 " P a lo m a r O b s e rv a to ry
S c h m id t te le s c o p e
in
th e
b e g in n in g
of the
1950s, a
g re a t

n u m b e r o f s te lla r o b je c ts w ith fu z z y im a g e s w e re d is c o v e r e d o np h o to g r a p h ie p la te s o b ta in e d w ith th e in s tru m e n t. S u b s e \ue000 q u e n t s p e c tro s c o p ic

o b s e rv a tio n s
r e v e a le d
th a t th e s e
s o \ue000
c a lle d
"s ta rs "
a c tu a lly
w e re
o f e x tra g a la c tic
n a tu re .
In
th e
1 9 6 0 s F ritz Z w ic k y e s ta b lis h e d
th is n e w
fa s c in a tin g ty p e o f
o b je c ts
a s
a s e p a ra te
m o r p h o lo g ic a l
ty p e ,
th e
"com pact
g a la x ie s " , C G s , d e fin in g th e m

b y th e ir s te lla r a p p e a r a n c e a n d b y d e m a n d in g th a t th e ir s u rfa c e lu m in o s ity s h o u ldb e b r ig h te r th a n2 0

m
a rc s e c -
2
.E x a m p le s o f th r e e s u c h c a s e s ,w h ic hw ea re
p r e s e n tly in v e s tig a tin g , a re g iv e n
inF ig .1 .
H is to r ic a lly itis in te r e s tin g to n o te th a t w h ile Z w ic k y th o u g h t
th a t m a n y
c o m p a c t g a la x ie s
re p re s e n te d
o n e
o f th e
fin a l
s ta g e sinth e life o f a g a la x y , c lo s e ly r e la te d t o w h a th e c a lle d
2
\u2022
t
\u2022
\u2022
w h ic h to o k p la c ein G a rc h in g fro m A p ril 9 to 1 2 , 1 9 8 4 , h a v e
n o w b e e n p u b lis h e d . T h e y m a y b e o rd e re d fro m
E S O \ue000
G a rc h in g .
T h e p ric e fo r th e 9 0 8 -p a g e v o lu m eisO M8 0 ,-(U S $ 3 0 .-)
a n d h a s to b e p re p a id .

Ify o u w is h to re c e iv e th e P r o c e e d in g s , p le a s e s e n d y o u r c h e q u e toE S O ,F in a n c ia l S e r v ic e s , K a r l- S c h w a r z s c h ild \ue000 S tr.2 ,0 - 8 0 4 6 G a rc h in g b e i M \u00fc n c h e n , o r tra n s fe r th e a m o u n t to

th e
E S O
bank accountN o. 2102002
w ith
C om m erzbank M \u00fcnchen.
2 .
B re a k in g T h ro u g h th e C o m p a c t C ru s t. . .
The com pact appearance of aB C G
ism a in ly a c o n s e \ue000

q u e n c e o f its r e la tiv e ly s m a ll a p p a r e n t d im e n s io n sa n dits h ig h s u rfa c e b rig h tn e s s , w h ic h p ro d u c e o v e re x p o s e d im a g e so n th e p h o to g r a p h ic s u rv e y p la te s . U s in g la rg e r in s tru m e n ts o n e c a n re s o lv e th e im a g e s o f th e s e o b je c ts a n d b e g in tos e esom e v e ry in te re s tin g s tru c tu re s .

F ig .3a shows the appearance ofE S O 338-IG 04(s e e also
F ig .1a )o n a s h o rt-e x p o s e d p h o to g ra p h ic p la te th a t re g is te rs

th e b lu e lig h t o f th e g a la x y . T h e k n o ts s u r r o u n d in g th e c e n tra l "blob" m ayb eg ia n t HII re g io n s o r s ta r c lu s te rs . A m u c h la rg e r d y n a m ic a l ra n g eisa v a ila b le if o n e u s e s aC C O c a m e r aa sin

F ig .3 ba n dc . T h e fir s t im a g e(F ig . 3 b ) s h o w s th e re s u lt o f a

d iv is io n b e tw e e n tw oC C Ofra m e s , o n e o b ta in e d th ro u g h a b ro a d b a n d filte r c e n tre do nH a a n d th e o th e r th ro u g ha n in fra re d filte r c e n tre do n -

8 0 0 0\u00c4(F ig . 3 c ). S in c e th e " H a \ue000
im a g e " c o n ta in s lig h t fr o m

b o th g a s a n d s ta rs , w h ile th e in fra re d im a g eis e n tire ly d o m in a te d b y s ta rlig h t, th e re s u ltin g im a g e w ill s h o w , m a in ly th r o u g h th e s tr e n g th o f H aa scom \ue000 p a re dtoth e s te lla r c o n tin u u m , r e g io n s w h e re th e g a s e o u s e m is s io n , a n d th u s p r o b a b ly a ls o th e s ta r - fo r m in g a c tiv ity , is m o s t in te n s e . A s w e c a ns e e ,a v e ry in te re s tin g s tru c tu re a p p e a rs , c o n s is tin g

o f th re e

h o t s p o ts o f s ta r fo rm a tio n e n c lo s in g th e c e n tre .W e a ls o s e e a s tr u c tu r e re m in d in g o f a s p ira l a rm , s tre tc h in g o u t to w a r d s th e e a s t.Itis te m p tin g to in te rp re t th e o b s e rv a tio n sinte r m so f a c o lla p s in g a g g lo m e r a \ue000 tio n o f H I c lo u d s w h ic h a re b e in g s h o c k e do nth e ir w a y to w a r d s th e g ra v ita tio n a l c e n tre , th e re b y trig g e rin g th e s p e c \ue000 ta c u la r b u rs t o f s ta r fo rm a tio n w ea ren o w w itn e s s in g . T h is is w h a t a y o u n g g a la x y s h o u ld lo o k lik e !

T h e in fra re d im a g e , h o w e v e r, lo o k s s tr ik in g ly d iffe r e n t w ith its re g u la r is o p h o te s , m o r e r e m in d in g o fa no ld g a la x y .It a ls o h a s a lu m in o s ity p r o file w h ic histy p ic a l o f o ld s te lla r s y s te m s .

W ee x p e c t th a t th e tim e it w o u ld ta k e fo r a g a la x y to o b ta in
s u c h a re la x e d s tru c tu re w o u ld b e o f th e o rd e r o f a fe w1 0
8
y e a rs .
th ro u g h

tra d itio n a l o b s e rv a tio n a l m e th o d s . P a ra lle l to th e o b s e rv a tio n s w ea rea ls o d e v e lo p in g s y n th e tic m o d e ls o f c o lo u r e v o lu tio no fg a la x ie sa s a fu n c tio n o f tim e , b a s e do n e v o lu tio n a r y tr a c k so f s ta rs o f lo w m e ta llic ity . T h e p u r p o s eis to c o m p a re o u r o b s e rv e d c o lo u rs w ith th o s e o b ta in e d fro m th e m o d e ls a n d th u s b e a b le to d e te r m in e th e a g e o f th e o b s e rv e d B C G s (fo r a t le a s t th e o n g o in g b u rs t) a n d to d e riv e in fo r m a tio n a b o u t th e ir s te lla r m a s s fu n c tio n . T h e s e m o d e ls w ill b e fu r th e r d is c u s s e d b e lo w .

"Very Large Telescopes,
th e ir In s tru m e n ta tio n a n d
P ro g ra m s "
T h e P r o c e e d in g s o f th elA U C o llo q u iu mN o.7 9o n
1 .2
1 .0
0 .8
o
A ta n e a rly s ta g e Z w ic k y re a liz e d th a t C G sa s a g r o u p
c o n ta in e d
s u c h
d iv e rs e
c re a tu re s
a s
g ia n t
H11

re g io n s , q u a s a rs , a n d s tr ip p e d - o ff d w a r f e llip tic a ls . T h is h e te ro g e \ue000 n e o u s n a tu re

o f th e
C G s
is
re fle c te d
in
a c o lo u r-c o lo u r
d ia g ra m , w h e re th e y d is p e rs e ra th e r m u c h ,a siss h o w nin
F ig .2 .H e re w e h a v e p lo tte d

p o s itio n s o f5 2 C G sin th e s o u th e rn h e m is p h e re ,a llo b s e rv e d b y th e U p p s a la g ro u p . T h e m a jo ritya reg a th e re d w ith in th e re c ta n g u la r b o x w h e re " n o r \ue000 m a l g a la x ie s "a refo u n d . H o w e v e r, s o m e o f th e s e g a la x ie s s h o w c o lo u rs th a ta reu n u s u a lly b lu e(u p a n d to w a r d s th e le ftin th e d ia g ra m ).B y fa r th e b lu e s tin o u r s a m p ieisE S O 3 3 8 - IG 0 4 (B -V=-0 .0 8 ,U -B =- 0 .6 2 , e x tin c tio n c o rre c te d ).In fa c t, th is o b je c t p r o v e s t o b e o n e o f th e b lu e s t g a la x ie s e v e r fo u n d .

T w o d e c a d e s a g a little w a s k n o w n a b o u t th e s e e x tre m e c a s e s . T h e re fo re , a n e w b ra n c h o f e x tra g a la c tic a s tro n o m y w a s d e v e lo p e d : th e s tu d y o f b lu e c o m p a c t g a la x ie s(B C G s ). T h e b lu e lig h tis a c o n s e q u e n c e o f th e h ig h p r o p o r tio n o f y o u n g s ta rsinth e g a la x ie s , a n d ins o m e c a s e sn o o ld s ta rs a ta ll c a n b e d e fin ite ly d e te c te d . A m o n g o th e r p ro p e rtie s o f th e B C G s a reth e ir ric h n e s sin g a s a n d th e ir s tr o n g d e fic ie n c y o f e le \ue000 m e n ts h e a v ie r th a n h e liu m , w h e n c o m p a r e d to g a la c tic HII re g io n s . T h e re fo re , a fu n d a m e n ta l q u e s tio nis w h e th e r th e s e g a la x ie s a re tr u ly y o u n g . A lte r n a tiv e ly , th e y m a y b e o ld g a la x \ue000 ie s w h ic h o c c a s io n a lly g o th r o u g h s h o r t b u r s ts o f in te n s e s ta r fo rm a tio n . S u c h a s itu a tio n is p r e d ic te d b y th e s to c h a s tic s ta r fo rm a tio n th e o ry (G e ro la e t a l., 1 9 8 0 ,A s tro p h y s ic a l J o u rn a l

2 4 2 ,5 1 7 ),p r o v id e d th a t th e g a la x ie sa re s u ffic ie n tly s m a ll.
In d e e d , th e B C G s ty p ic a lly h a v e s m a ll s iz e s .W es h a ll d is c u s s
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O is s e c t o r S c a n n e r a tL a S illa . T h e s e s h o w e m is s io n - lin e s a n d re s e m b le s p e c tr a o f HIIre g io n s s u p e r\ue000 p o s e do na nu n d e r ly in g s te lla r p o p u la tio n . T h e a v a ila b ility o f C C Od e te c to rs d u rin g th e la s t y e a rs h a s b ro u g h t n e w in s ig h ts in to th e m y s te r y o f B C G s a n d h a s re v e a le d p e c u lia r itie s w ith in th e s e o b je c ts th a t w e n e v e r w o u ld h a v e b e e n a b le to d is c o v e r th ro u g h

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m a in -s e q u e n c e s ta rs (c u rv e )!J a v eb e e n in d ic a te d .
3

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