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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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02/01/2013

M ESSENG ER
No. 39 -
M arch 1985
N ew
In fra re d P h o to m e te r a n d F /3 5 C h o p p in g S e c o n d a ry
a t th e 3 .6 m
T e le s c o p e
A .M o o rw o o da n d A . v a n O ijs s e ld o n k , E S O
A nF /3 5c h o p p in g s e c o n d a r y m ir r o r w a s in s ta lle d a n d te s te d
o nth e 3 .6 m te le s c o p ein N o v e m b e r 1 9 8 4 to g e th e r w ith a n e w
in fra re d
p h o to m e te r w h ic h
in c o rp o ra te s
th e
T V

a c q u is itio n a n d g u id in g s y s te m .Infu tu re , th is s y s te m w ill re p la c e th e"F /8 " p h o to m e te r u s e d

u n til n o w . A fte ra b rie fd e s c r ip tio n

o f th e c h o p p e r a n d p h o to m e te r, w e re p o rt h e reo nth e p e rfo rm a n c e a c h ie v e d d u r in g th is fir s t te s t u s in g d e te c to r u n its e s s e n tia lly id e n tic a l to th o s e u s e d w ith th e o ld s y s te m

a n d d e s c r ib e d b y
M o o rw o o d
ina ne a r lie rM essenger a r tic le(2 7 ,1 1 , 1 9 8 2 ).
C h o p p in g S e c o n d a r y
F ig .
1
is
a
p h o to g ra p h
o f th e
3.6 m
te le s c o p e
w ith
th e

c h o p p in g s e c o n d a r y in s ta lle d .A sth e m ir r o r h a s a d ia m e te r o f o n ly3 3c m , itis ra th e r m o re d iffic u lt tos e e th a n th e n o rm a lF /8 s e c o n d a ry !Itis a tta c h e d

t o
a u n it, p r o v id in g
fo r c h o p p in g ,
fo c u s s in g
a n d
ro ta tio n , w h ic h
is
s u p p o rte d
b y
th e
s p e c ia l
in fra re d to p rin g a n d s p id e r a s s e m b ly m o u n te din p la c e o f th e
u s u a l
o p tic a l
to p
rin g .
T h e
m irro r
is
d r iv e n
b y

m a g n e tic a c tu a to rs w h ic h a re s e rv o -c o n tro lle d to p ro v id e e ith e r s q u a re w a v e c h o p p in g (fo r p h o to m e tr y ) o r a lin e a r s w e e po n th e s k y (fo r s p e c k le

in te rfe ro m e try ). Im m e d ia te ly
b e h in d
it, a m e ta l
c o m p e n s a tin g
p la te
h a v in g
a
s im ila r
m o m e n t o f in e rtia
is

d riv e nin o p p o s itio n to th e m irro r b y th e s a m e c o n tro l s y s te m . T h is s u b s ta n tia lly im p r o v e s th e o v e ra ll p e rfo rm a n c e b y s u p \ue000 p r e s s in g

a n y
v ib r a tio n
o f b o th
th e
p o s itio n
sensor and
th e

s u p p o r t s p id e r. C h o p p in g a m p litu d e , fre q u e n c y , c e n tre p o s i\ue000 tio n , a n g le a n d th e fo c u sa rea llre m o te ly c o n tro lle dv iaa nH P te rm in a lin th e c o n tro l ro o m .

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rise tim e(9 0%
d u ty c y c le a t th e fre q u e n c ie s a ro u n d
10H z
n o r m a lly u s e d
fo r p h o to m e try ) a n d
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a n
e n d
p o s itio n
s ta b ility
o f
=
0.5 %
o f th e
a m p litu d e
u p
t o
v a lu e s
of 2
a rc m in u te so nth e s k y .
F ig .1 :F /3 5 to p rin g a n d c h o p p in g s e c o n d a r y m o u n te do n th e 3 . 6m
te le s c o p e .
F ig .2 :T h en e w F I3 5 p h o to m e te r.
P h o to m e te r

F ig .2is a p h o t o g r a p ho f t h e n e w p h o t o m e t e r m o u n t s h o w n s u p p o r tin g In S b a n d b o lo m e te r d e te c to r u n its e q u ip p e d w ith s ta n d a rd p h o to m e tr ic a n d C V F filte rs . T h e n e w s p e c k le d e te c \ue000 to r h a s a ls o b e e n d e s ig n e d to b e c o m p a tib le w ith th is m o u n t. F ig .3isa s c h e m a tico f th e o p tic a l la y o u t a n d c o n ta in s s o m e b a s ic d a ta fo r th e3 .6m a n d a ls o th e 2 .2m te le s c o p e w h e re it isp la n n e d

t o
in s ta lla n
id e n tic a l p h o to m e te r fo r u s e w ith
a n
F /3 5c h o p p in g s e c o n d a r y u n it to b e b u ilt b y th e M a x - P la n c k \ue000
In s titu t f\u00fc r A s tr o n o m ie
in
H e id e lb e r g . A lth o u g h
o n ly
o n e
is

s h o w n , th e d e te c to r u n its a rein fa c t fe d b y s e p a ra te d ic h ro ic m irro rs w h ic h a re s u p p o rte dins u c h a w a y th a t th e c e n treo f th e

fie ld
is
e ith e r
o c c u p ie d
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o n e
o f th e
d ic h r o ic s
o r
is
c o m p le te ly u n o b s tr u c te d to a llo w a c q u is itio no f fa in t o b je c ts .
F/3 5
P h o to m e te r
fro m
w o b b l,n g
f/3 5
s e c o n d a ry
T e le s c o p e
fla n g e
3 6 m
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2 2 m
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.1 0 0 m m
.1 0 0 m m
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o n
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F ig .3 :O p tic a l s c h e m a tico f th e p h o to m e te r iIIu s tra tin g th e p r in c ip leo f
th eT V a c q u is itio n lg u id in g s y s te m .
2

T h eT V c a m e r a is fix e d a n d v ie w s th e fie ld v ia th e fie ld m irro r, a s m a ll fla t m ir r o r lo c a te d a t th e p u p il im a g e fo r m e d b y th e fie ld m irro r a n d o n eo ftw oo b je c tiv e s w h ic h d e te r m in e th e in s ta n \ue000 ta n e o u s fie ld s iz e s g iv e ninF ig .3 . T h e la rg e fie ld o fte r s h ig h e r s e n s itiv ity

fo r a c q u is itio n
w h ile
th e
s m a ll fie ld
h a s
a

m o re o p tim u m s c a le fo r g u id in g . F o r th e la tte r p u rp o s e , o fts e t g u id e s ta rs c a n b e lo c a te d b y s c a n n in g th e in s ta n ta n e o u s fie ld s o v e r th e to ta l fie ld

b y tiltin g th e s m a ll fla t m irro r. T o th e o b s e rv e r,
th is
is
e q u iv a le n t to
a
n o rm a lX ,Y

m o v e m e n t o f e ith e r th e c a m e ra o r a m o r e c o n v e n tio n a l g u id e p ro b e . W ith th is m irro r a t its " c e n tr e fie ld " p o s itio n , th e o p tic a l c r o s s p r o je c te d o n to th e c a m e ra

is
c e n tre d
o n
th e
in fra re d
b e a m
a n d ,
t o

fa c ilita te c e n tr in g g u id e s ta rs , its s iz eism a t c h e d t o th e s m a ll fie ld a n d h e n c e s h o w s th e e x te n to fth e la tte r w ith in th e la rg e fie ld . F o r a c q u is itio n , th e o b s e r v e r h a s th e c h o ic e o f v ie w in g th e c h o p \ue000 p e d

o r a s in g le
im a g e (w ith th e c h o p p e r s ta tio n a ryine ith e r
b e a m
o r c e n tre d ) w h ic h
c a n
e ith e r b e

d ire c t o r th ro u g h th e d ic h r o ic . S im ila rly , th e te le s c o p e c a n b e g u id e d d ir e c tly o n th e o b je c t b e in g

o b s e rv e d th ro u g h
th e
d ic h r o ic o r o n
a n
o fts e t
g u id e s ta r.Inp ra c tic e , th e s e c h o ic e s a re d e te rm in e d b y th e
o b je c t b rig h tn e s s . D u rin g
th e
te s t, th e
dark sky
lim its
w e re
mv
" '"
1 9
(d ire c t),
1 6 .5
( b o lo m e te r d ic h r o ic ) a n d
1 4 .5
(In S b
d ic h r o ie ) b u t itish o p e d to
im p r o v e th e s e
lim its
infu tu re b y

c o o lin g th e c a m e r a w h ic h w a s n o t p o s s ib le o n th is o c c a s io n fo r te c h n ic a l re a s o n s . P ro v is io n fo r d a y tim e o b s e rv in g h a s a ls o b e e n

m ade
b y
in s ta llin g
a
s e c o n d ,
in fra re d
s e n s itiv e ,
T V

c a m e ra s u c h th a t it o r th e n o rm a l c a m e ra c a n b e s e le c te d b y s im p ly m o v in g a m e c h a n ic a l s lid e t o w h ic h b o th c a m e r a s a re p e rm a n e n tly

a tta c h e d .
U n fo rtu n a te ly ,
th is
firs t
te s t
o f
it s
p e rfo rm a n c e
w as
som ew hat
d is a p p o in tin g .
A t
a b o u t
4 5 \u00b0
fro m
th e S u n itis p o s s ib le to s e e s ta rs d o w n tom H(1 .6 5~
l
m
)
" '"5 .T h isis b e tte r th a n
th e n o r m a l c a m e r a a n d s h o u ld h e lp
e a s e
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p ro b le m
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p o in tin g
(b y
c h e c k in g
th e
te le s c o p e
p o in tin g o n
b r ig h t s ta rs ) b u tisin a d e q u a te fo r g u id in g .
As w ith

th e c h o p p e r,a llth e p h o to m e te r fu n c tio n s (e x c e p t s w itc h in g b e tw e e nT Vc a m e ra s ) a re re m o te ly c o n tro lle d fro m th e c o n tro l ro o m .

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M a g n itu d e lim its(1a ,
3 0m in .,
< })
=
7 .5 ")d e te rm in e d d u rin g
th e te s t a re s u m m a riz e dinT a b le1 to g e th e r w ith th e im p r o v e \ue000
m e n ts
g a in e d
r e la tiv e
t o
th e
o ld
"F /8 "
s y s te m .
T h e s e

a re c o n s is te n t w ith th e in c re a s e d th r o u g h p u to fth e te le s c o p e p lu s p h o to m e te r(" '"4 0%

a t1 .2~
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a t2 0~
m
)
a n d th e
re d u c tio n
in
th e rm a l
b a c k g ro u n d
e m is s io n .
A t3 .8
~
m
,
a n
e fte c tiv e e m is s iv ityo f0 .1 5
w a s m e a s u re d fo r th e te le s c o p e
p lu s p h o to m e te r c o m p a re d
w ith
a v a lu eo fa b o u t tw ic e th is
d e te rm in e d fo r th e o ld s y s te m

u s in g th e s a m e te c h n iq u e . T h e w a v e le n g th d e p e n d e n c eo fth e s e n s itiv ity g a inis d e te r m in e d b y th e

r e la tiv e
c o n trib u tio n s
o fth e
n o is e
fro m
th e
d e te c to r
( d o m in a n t a tJ ,H ),th e te le s c o p e th e rm a l e m is s io n(L ,N ) a n d
th e th e rm a l s k y e m is s io n
(M ,Q ).V a r ia b le
n o is e a t N a n d
Q
c o u p le d w ith r a p id ly v a ry in g h u m id ity o n th e n ig h ts a v a ila b le
T A B lE
1 :L im itin g m a g n itu d e s a n d im p r o v e m e n t re la tiv e
to theF I\u00df
s y s te m
B A N D
J
H
K
l
M
N
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C e n tre
W a v e le n g th (flm )
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1 .6 5
2 .2
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4 .8
1 0 .3
1 8 .6
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M a g n itu d e '
2 0 .6
1 9 .8
1 9
1 4 .7
1 1 .7
8 .8
= 4 .5
Im p ro v e m e n t
w .r.t.F /8
0 .5
0 .4
0 .6
0 .8
0 .3
0 .4
= 0 .2
\u2022 L im its c o r r e s p o n d
t o
th e
1 0n o is e
m e a s u re d
th ro u g h
a 7 .5 " d ia m e te r d ia \ue000
p h ra g m
w ith a to ta l in te g r a tio n tim e o f3 0m in .

fo r p e r fo r m a n c e te s ts s u g g e s ts th a t th e m a g n itu d e lim its q u o te d fo r th e s e b a n d s m a y h a v e b e e n s o m e w h a t d e g ra d e d b ya na d d itio n a l s k y n o is e c o m p o n e n t.

The new
s y s te m

a ls o o ffe rs s e v e ra l o th e r p e rfo rm a n c e a d v a n ta g e s w h ic ha rele s s d ir e c tly o b v io u s .N o s ig n ific a n t c h o p p in g o ffs e t s ig n a lsa reg e n e ra te d fo r e x a m p le a n d th e reis th u sn o b a s e lin e d r iftin g d u e to te le s c o p e fle x u re d u rin g lo n g in te g ra tio n s . T h e

p o s s ib ility o f d ir e c t g u id in g th ro u g h

th e d ic h r o ic s a v o id s th e lo s s o f tim e re q u ire d to fin d o ffs e t g u id e s ta rs a n d th e a v a ila b ility o fa no p tic a lly g e n e ra te d re fe re n c e c ro s s p e rm its a c c u ra te o p tic a l c e n trin g in d e p e n d e n tly o f th e e le c tr o n ic s ta b ility o f th eT V s y s te m . S o m e o b s e rv a tio n a l fle x ib ility h a s a ls o b e e n g a in e d b y v ir tu e o f th e fa c t th a t s w itc h in g

b e tw e e n
d e te c to rs ,
c h a n g in g
th e
c h o p p in g
a m p litu d e a n d d ir e c tio n , e tc .a ren o w r e la tiv e ly e a s y o p e r a \ue000
tio n s fro m th e c o n tro l ro o m .
A W ord
0 1T h a n k s

M a n yE S O s ta ff h a v e b e e n in v o lv e din th e p r o je c t a t v a rio u s s ta g e s . F o r th e ir te c h n ic a l s u p p o r tinG a r c h in g w e w o u ld Iik e p a rtic u la rly to th a n kD .E n a rd ,G . H e s s ,G . H u s te r,B . J e n s e n ,

T e n ta tiv e T im e -ta b le o f C o u n c il S e s s io n s
a n d C o m m itte e M e e tin g sin1 9 8 5
M ay2 0
U s e rs C o m m itte e
M ay2 1
S c ie n tific T e c h n ic a l C o m m itte e
May 22-23
F in a n c e C o m m itte e
M ay3 0
C o m m itte e o f C o u n c il, B e rlin
M a y 3 0 -3 1
C o u n c il, B e rlin
J u n e4 -5
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e , Z \u00fc ric h
N ovem ber1 2
S c ie n tific T e c h n ic a l C o m m itte e
Novem ber 13-14
F in a n c e C o m m itte e
Decem ber 11-12
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
D ecem ber1 6
C o m m itte e o f C o u n c il
D ecem ber1 7
C o u n c il
A llm e e tin g s w ill ta k e p la c ea tE S O
inG a rc h in g u n le s s s ta te d
o th e rw is e .

J .- L . L iz o n ,M . M o r e s m a u ,W . N e e s ,J . P a u re a u a n dG . R a ffi. D u rin g th e in s ta lla tio n a n d te s t w e w e re a ls o a b ly a s s is te d b y th eL a S illa s ta ff a n da re p a r tic u la r ly g ra te fu l fo r th e in v a lu a b le h e lp g iv e n b y1 .B o h l,P . B o u c h e t,F . G u tie r r e z ,G . Ih le ,J . R o u c h e ra n dK . T e s c h n e r.

A S3 3 8in O u tb u rs t, o r H o w
I F o u n dm y " P e t S y m b io tic "
R .S c h u /te -L a d b e c k , L a n d e s s te rn w a rte H e id e /b e rg -K \u00f6 n ig s tu h /

U n til s o m e m o n th s a g o , I u s e d to e n v y th o s e o fm y c o l\ue000 le a g u e s w h o w e r e a lw a y sta lk in g a n d w r itin g w ith tr e m e n d o u s e n th u s ia s m a b o u tth e ir fa v o u rite o b je c t.My recent observa\ue000 tio n s o f th e s y m b io tic s ta rA S3 3 8 e n a b lem e n o w to te lla n e x c itin g s to r y a s w e il.

D id
lO b s e r v eth e R ig h t O b je c t?

S y m b io tic s y s te m s c o n ta in la te - ty p e (b rig h t) g ia n ts o r M ira s a n d ,ina d d itio n , a h o t ra d ia tio n s o u rc e . T h e ya re s u rro u n d e d b y g a s e o u s a n d d u s ty e n v e lo p e s . T h e re fo re , th e ir ra d ia tio n s h o u ld b e p o la riz e d d u e to s c a tte r in ginth e a tm o s p h e re s o f th e

la te -ty p e
s ta rs
a n d /o r th e
c ir c u m s te lla r
n e b u la e .
In

O c to b e r 1 9 8 3 , I s ta rte d a m u ltifilte r lin e a r p o la riz a tio n s u rv e y o f 1 6 s y m b io tic s ta rs , u s in g th e 1 .2 3 m te le s c o p e o f th e G e rm a n \ue000 S p a n is h A s tro n o m ic a l C e n tre . O n ly fo u r s ta rs s h o w e d s u ffi\ue000 c ie n tly la rg e in tr in s ic p o la r iz a tio n th a t c o u ld b e s e p a ra te d fro m th e

in te rs te lla r c o m p o n e n t. T h e s e
w e re
s u c h fa s h io n a b le

s y m b io tic sa sH MS g e ,V 10 1 6 C y g a n d R A q r a n d , la s t n o t le a s t,A S3 3 8 .T h e w a v e le n g th d e p e n d e n c e o f th e p o la r iz a tio n a n d th e p o s itio n a n g le o fA S3 3 8a s d is p la y e dinF ig . 1 s h o w s o m e in te re s tin g p ro p e rtie s : a p r o n o u n c e d m a x im u m o f th e p o la riz a tio nin th e B - filte r a n d a s ig n ific a n t, s h a rp ro ta tio n o f th e p o s itio n a n g le a tH a.Ina fo r th c o m in g a rtic leinA s tro n o m y

a n d A s tro p h y s ic sI s h a ll s h o win d e ta il th a t th e p o la r iz a tio n o f
A S

3 3 8 c a n b e e x p la in e d b y t w o s c a tte r in g re g io n s : M ie s c a tte r in g b y s o lid p a r tic le sinth e e x te n d e d a tm o s p h e re o f th e M s ta r a n d T h o m s o n s c a tte rin gina na s y m m e tr ic c ir c u m s te lla r n e b u la ( p o s s ib lya na c c r e tio n d is k a ro u n d a c o m p a n io n s ta r). E n c o u ra g e d b y th is re s u lt1d e c id e d th a tA S 3 3 8 m e rits a m o re th o r o u g h in v e s tig a tio n . L u c k ily , th e lo w d e c lin a tio n o fA S3 3 8 a llo w s its o b s e r v a tio n fro m th e s o u th e rn h e m is p h e rea sw e il.In J u ly /A u g u s t 1 9 8 3 , I h a d o b s e r v in g tim e a t E S O 's 1 .5 m a n d 5 0c m te le s c o p e s fo r s p e c tr o s c o p ic a n d p h o to m e tric s tu d ie s o f s o u th e rn s y m b io tic s ta rs . D u rin g th is o b s e rv in gru n ,I had a lre a d y s e c u re d o n eID Ss p e c tru min th e ra n g e 4 5 0 0to 6 8 0 0\u00c4

a n dU B V R I p h o to m e try o fA S

3 3 8 . S u b s e q u e n tly , I c o u ld c o n v in c em yc o lle a g u eF .J . Z ic k g r a f o f th e im p o r ta n c e o f g e ttin g J H K L p h o to m e try o fA S3 3 8 d u r in g h is o w n o b s e r v in g ru na t th eE S O 1 m te le s c o p ein A p ril 1 9 8 4 ; a n dJ . B o u v ie r,in J u ly 1 9 8 4 , to o k a n o th e rlO S s p e c tr u m a t th e 1 .5 m te le s c o p e , c o v e rin g fro m

a b o u t 3 6 5 0 to 8 0 5 0\u00c4 .The 1983 and 1984
s p e c tro g ra m sa rep re s e n te d
in
F ig .2 .They show

s tro n g e m is s io n lin e s o f th e B a lm e r s e r ie s a n dH ela n dn u m e ro u s w e a k e r e m is s io n lin e s o f s in g ly io n iz e d ir o n . O n ly a tr a c e o f t h e u n d e rly in g la te - ty p e c o n tin u u misv is ib le lo n g w a r d fro mH ain th e 1 9 8 4 s p e c tr o g r a m . D a v id A lle n 's r e c e n tly p u b lis h e d n e w " C a ta lo g u eo fS y m b io tic S ta rs " a ls o c o n ta in s a s p e c tru m o f

A S3 3 8 , d a te d A u g u s t 1 9 7 8(s e eF ig .2 ).E v e n a q u ic k lo o k a t

th is s p e c tro g ra m s h o w s it to b e q u ite d iffe re n t fro m m y o w n o n e s :InA lle n 's s p e c tr o g r a m , th e B a lm e r lin e s a n d th e H e l lin e sa res tro n g e r a n d ,in a d d itio n , th e re a ree m is s io n lin e s o f h ig e r io n iz e d s p e c ie s s u c ha sH e11,[0 1 1 1 ]and[F eV II]. The M \ue000 ty p e a b s o rp tio n s p e c tru m is p ro m in e n t w ith s tro n gT i0b a n d s . M y s u rp ris e c h a n g e d in to fe a r w h e n I re c a lle d th a t, fo r id e n tify \ue000 in gA S3 3 8 , I h a d n o t u s e d a fin d in g c h a rt, b u t th e d e s c r ip tio n o f its p o s itio n g iv e n b y

P .M e rrill a n dC . B u rw e ilin 1 9 5 0
(A s tro p h y s ic a l J o u rn a l,1 1 2 ,7 2 ).D id I re a lly o b s e r v e th e r ig h t
o b je c t? F o rtu n a te ly , d u rin g th e o b s e rv a tio n s , I h a d m a d e a
q u ic k fre e h a n d
d r a w in g o f th e fie ld
a ro u n dA S
3 3 8a s it

a p p e a re do nth eT V g u id e r s c re e n . A c o m p a r is o n o f th is " fin d in g c h a r t" w ith th e o n e p u b lis h e d n o w b y A lle n n o t o n ly p ro v e s th a t I a c tu a lly d id o b s e rv e th e rig h t o b je c t, b u t,in 1 9 8 3 , th e s ta r s e e m e d to b e m u c h b r ig h te r c o m p a re d to o th e r fie ld s ta rs th a no n th eP O S S p r in t u s e d b y A lle n .

A n
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3 3 8 b e c o m e e x p la in a b le if w e a s s u m e th a t it h a s u n d e r g o n ea n o u tb u rs ta s s o m e tim e s o b s e rv e d

in
s y m b io tic s ta rs . T h e
p u b lis h e d a n d n e w n e a rIRd a ta o fA S 3 3 8 fro m 1 9 7 4 ,1 9 8 0 a n d3

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