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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
No, 40 -
June 1985
R a d ia l V e lo e itie s o f S ta r sin G lo b u la r C lu s te r s :
a L o o k in to
C D
Cen and 47 Tue
M .M a y o r a n dG . M e y la n , G e n e v a O b s e rv a to ry , S w itz e rla n d

S u b je c te d to d y n a m ic a l in v e s tig a tio n s s in c e th e b e g in n in g o fth e c e n tu ry , g lo b u la r c lu s te r s s till p r o v id e a s tr o p h y s ic is ts w ith th e o re tic a l a n d o b s e rv a tio n a l p ro b le m s , w h ic h s o fa r h a v e o n ly b e e n p a r tly s o lv e d .

If fo r a lo n g tim e th e s ta r d e n s ity p r o je c te do nth e s k y w a s
fa irly
w e il re p re s e n te d
b y
s im p le
d y n a m ic a l m o d e ls , r e c e n t

p h o to m e try o f s e v e ra l c lu s te rs re v e a ls a c u s pinth e lu m in o s ity fu n c tio n o f th e c e n tra l re g io n , w h ic h c o u ld b e th e firs t e v id e n c e fo r c o lla p s e d c o re s .

T h e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f p h o to e le c tr ic
c r o s s - c o re la tio n
te c h \ue000
n iq u e s fo r th e d e te r m in a tio n o f s te lla r ra d ia l v e lo c itie s o p e n e d
th e d o o r to k in e m a tic a l in v e s tig a tio n s (G u n n a n d G riffin , 1 9 7 9 ,
N
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1
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F ig .1 :L e ft:4 7T u e (N G C 1 0 4 ) fro m
th e D e e p B lu e S u r v e y-
S R C -(J ). R ig h t: C e n treo f4 7T u e fro m
an e a r-in fra re d p h o to m e tries tu d yo f L io y d
E v a n s .T h ed ia m e te ro f th e la rg e e ire le e o r r e s p o n d s to th e d is ko f th e le ft p h o to g r a p h .T h e m a x im u mo f th e r o ta tio n a p p e a r s in s id e th e e ir c le ; th e
lin e a rp a rto fth e r o ta tio n e u rv e ( s o lid - b o d y ro ta tio n ) a ffe e ts o n ly s ta rs in s id e o n e a re m in u te o fth e e e n tre .
1
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1 0 .
T e n ta tiv e T im e -ta b le o f C o u n c il S e s s io n s
a n d C o m m itte e M e e tin g sin1 9 8 5
N ovem ber1 2
S c ie n tific T e c h n ic a l C o m m itte e
N ovem ber1 3 -1 4
F in a n c e C o m m itte e
D ecem ber1 1-1 2
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
D ecem ber1 6
C o m m itte e o f C o u n c il
D ecem ber1 7
C o u n c il
A llm e e tin g s w ill ta k e p la c ea tE S O
inG a r c h in g .
5 .
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1 .0
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E
F ig .
6 :
R a tio
u r/o o
o fo rd e re d
to
ra n d o m
m o tio n s
in
fu n e tio n
o f
e llip tie ity e a n d a n is o tr o p yb .O ue to th e s tr o n g in flu e n e eo f th e e e n tra l
p a r to f th e c lu s te rs , th e p r e s e n t o b s e r v e d p o s itio n so fwG en a n d 4 7
T u ea rein fa v o u ro fa n e g lig ib le a n is o tr o p yo f th e v e lo c ity d is tr ib u tio nin
th e fe w e e n tra l e o re ra d ii.
th a t th e y
d id
n o t ta k e
in to
a c c o u n ttw o
v e ry -h ig h

v e lo c ity m e m b e r s ta rs o f th is c lu s te r. If th e s etw os ta rs s itu a te din th e c o re

of M3
a re
a d d e d
t o
th e
s a m p ie
o f s ta rs , th e
c e n tra l
v e lo c ity d is p e r s io n in c r e a s e s a n d s h o w s a v a lu e g r e a te r th a n
th o s e o f re g io n s im m e d ia te ly o u ts id e .

F o rwG e n a n d4 7 T u c , th e d is tr ib u tio n s o f re s id u a l v e lo c itie s inth e d iffe r e n t s h e lls w e re in v e s tig a te d . T h e y d o n o t p re s e n t a n y s ig n ific a n t d iv e r g e n c e fr o m

n o r m a lla w s , n o r d o th e y h a v e v e ry h ig h v e lo c ity s ta rs . H e n c e th e la rg e c e n tra l v a lu e s o f th e v e lo c ity

d is p e r s io n s
o b ta in e d
in
th e
c e n t re s
o fw
G en
a n d
4 7T u c a re n o t d u e to a fe w
s ta r s w ith e x c e p tio n a l v e lo c itie s .
T h e
d y n a m ic a l im p o r ta n c e
o fb in a r ie s
in
th e
e v o lu tio n
o f
g lo b u la r
c lu s te rs
is
n o w
w e il
e s ta b lis h e d ;
in
p a rtic u la r,
b e c a u s e o f e q u ip a r titio n , h e a v y b in a r ie s s h o u ld
be concen\ue000
tra te d
inth e c o re . T h u s it w o u ld

b e p o s s ib le to th in k th a t a t le a s ta p a rto f th e c e n tra l in c re a s e o f th e v e lo c ity d is p e rs io n c o u ld

b e
e x p la in e d
b y
th e
e x is te n c e
o f o rb ita l m o tio n s
o f
b in a ry s ta rs . T h e tw ic e m e a s u re d s ta rsinth e c o re s o fwG en
and4 7 Tucd o not seem
t oc o n firm
th is id e a .
T h e
r e la tiv e
im p o rta n c e
o f o rd e re d
a n d
ra n d o m
m o tio n s
a re g iv e n b y th e ra tio
1 )Jo o ,w h e re
1 )0
2
isth e m a s s -w e ig h te d
m e a n s q u a re ro ta tio n s p e e d a n d
00
2
th e m a s s -w e ig h te d m e a n
s q u a re ra n d o m
v e lo c it y a lo n g th e lin e o f s ig h t.
T h e r e s u lts v is ib leinF ig .6 s h o w th a twG en a n d4 7 T u c a rein
c 1 0 s ea g re e m e n t w ith m o d e lso f o b la te a x is y m m e tr ic s y s te m s
=
- - - - -
x
=3
m
m
= .,....2
h rl
9
....3
-
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4 7
T u e
5 .
V e lo c ity D is p e r s io n
G o n trib u tio n so f ro ta tio n
a n d
in te g ra tio n
a lo n g th e
lin e o f
s ig h t h a v in g b e e n e lim in a te d , th e v e lo c ity d is p e r s io n c o m p o \ue000
nent due
o n lyt o
ra n d o m
m o tio n s w a s
o b ta in e d , u n d e r th e
a s s u m p tio n o f is o tro p y ,ina fe w
c o n c e n tr ic s h e lls : fo rwG en,
F ig .4 a n d
f o r4 7 T u c , F ig ,5 . T h e s e
re s u lts s h o w
th e

sam e te n d e n c yinb o th c lu s te rs : a s lo w a n d re g u la r in c re a s e o f th e v e lo c ity d is p e r s io n fr o m

th e e d g e o f th e c lu s te r to w a r d s th e
c e n tre , w ith
la r g e v a lu e sinth e c o re .
Ino r d e r to d is c u s s th e s e s u rp ris in g re s u lts , itis w o r th w h ile
t ore c a ll th a t if G u n n a n d G riffin(1 9 7 9 ) d o n o t fin d th is c e n tra l
in c r e a s einth e ir s tu d y o f M 3 (N G G 5 2 7 2 ), th is is d u e toth e fa c t
F ig .
4 :
w
G en:
o b s e rv e d
v e lo c ity
d is p e r s io n
a n d
m o d e l v e lo c ity
d is p e r s io n (e o n tin u o u s/in e ) e o m p u te d w ith IM F e x p o n e n t x
=
2a n d
w ith
m h lmg
=
3 ,
w h e re
mh ris
th e
m ean
in d iv id u a l m a s so f h e a v y
re m n a n ts a n d mg
th e in d iv id u a l m a s so fa g ia n t s ta r.
(iv )th e d iffe re n tia l ro ta tio n
inth e o u te r p a rts
(v )th e d e c re a s e o f ro ta tio n
to w a r d s th e p o le s b e c a u s e o f
n o n - c y lin d r ic a l ro ta tio n .
A fte r s u b tra c tio n
o fth e
ra d ia l c o m p o n e n to f th e
s p a tia l
~
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
o f e a c h c lu s te ra s a w h o le(J
=
2 3 2 .6 k m /s fo rw G e n ;
V
=
-1 9 .5
k m /s fo r4 7 T u c ). th e ro ta tio n a l v e lo c ity fie ld s a re
c le a r ly d is p la y e d .

F ig . 2 s h o w s th e e q u a to ria l ro ta tio n c u rv e o fwG enw h e re a s th e n o n -c y lin d ric a l c h a ra c te r o f th e ro ta tio n a p p e a rsinF ig .3 .It is in te re s tin g to p o in t o u t th e s tru c tu ra l re s e m b la n c e b e tw e e n b o th c lu s te rs th ro u g h th e fa c t th a t th e ro ta tio n a l v e lo c ity p e a k s inb o th c a s e s b e tw e e n3 a n d

4c o r e ra d ii.
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6 .
8 .
1 0 ,
1 2 .
1 4 .
R la re m n ]
F ig .
5 :
4 7
T u e :
o b s e rv e d
v e lo c ity
d is p e r s io n
a n d
m o d e l v e lo c ity
d is p e rs io n (e o n tin u o u s/in e ) e o m p u te d w ith IM F e x p o n e n t x
=
3a n d
w ithm h lmg
=
2a n d 3(b o th e a s e s g iv e th e s a m e re s u lt).
3
S P A T IA L
IS O R O T A T IO N
C U R V E S
Q .
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2 .
3 .
4 .
5 .
6 .
7 .
B .
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1 0 .
1 1 .
1 2.
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1 2 .
F ig .3 :S m o o th e d v e lo c ity fie ld d e d u c e d fro m
w

G enr a d ia l v e lo c ity m e a s u re m e n ts : s p a tia l is o ro ta tio n c u rv e s d ra w n o nam e r id ia n p la n e c o n ta in in g th e r o ta tio n a x iso fth e c lu s te r (u n d e r th e h y p o th e s is o fa n e q u a to r-o n v ie wo fth e c lu s te r )

2 .
4 .
3 .
6 .
5 .
o .
7 .
9 .
8 .
.0 .
1 1 .
( i )
C E N
2
b I/s
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IR e l
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1 2 .
4 .
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9 .
7 .
8 .
3 .
5 .
1 0 .
Z
IR e l
1 1 .
re a lc e n tra l v e lo c ity d is p e r s io n ,a n
IR

p la te o f th e n u c le u s o f 4 7T u c(L 1 o y d E v a n s , 1 9 7 4 ) w a s u s e d to id e n tify c e n tra l s ta rs . W ew e re e x tre m e ly lu c k y to d is c o v e r th a t, b y d e c re a s in g th e g a ino fth eT V m o n ito r a t th e 1 .5 m D a n is h te le s c o p e , th e in n e r p a rt o f th is c lu s te r a p p e a re d v e ry s im ila r to th eIRc h a rt(F ig .1 ), th u s m a k in g th e m e a s u r e m e n t o f ra d ia l v e lo c itie so f in d iv id u a l s ta r s fe a s ib le .

R o ta tio n

Itis w e il k n o w n th a t th e fla tte n in g o f e llip tic a l g a la x ie sis n o t n e c e s s a rily d u e o n ly to r o ta tio n , th e la tte r b e in g g e n e ra lly to o w e a k t o e x p la in th e la rg e o b s e r v e d e llip tic itie s .A n a lte r n a tiv e to g a la x ia n ro ta tio n s e e m s to b ea na n is o tr o p y o f th e v e lo c ity d is p e r s io nintr ia x ia l e llip s o id s o r o b la te s p h e r o id s .In th e c a s e o fg lo b u la r c lu s te r s ,

th e
p ro b le m
lo o k s
d iffe re n t;
w e
th e n
o b s e rv e th e in te rn a l p a rtsinw h ic h th e r e la x a tio n tim e s c a leis
r e la tiv e ly
s h o rt.
T h u s ,
a t
le a s t
in
th e
c e n tra l
p a rts
w h e re
ro ta tio n
is
e x p e c te d ,
v e lo c ity
d is p e r s io n
o b ta in e d
th ro u g h

d y n a m ic a l m o d e ls o f g lo b u la r c lu s te r s a p p e a rs n e a rly is o tr o \ue000 p ic . G iv e n th e s m a ll m e a n e llip tic itie s o f th e s e c lu s te r s , w e m a y th in k th a t th e ir fla tte n in g

isd u e to
ro ta tio n , th e

la tte r b e in g g e n e ra lly w e a k a n d th e re fo re d e te c ta b le w ith d iffic u lty .E v e n th o u g h th e ro ta tio n o f s o m e g lo b u la r c lu s te rs h a da l re a d y b e e n d e te c te d

(0 0
G enb y H a r d in g , R O B , 1 9 6 5 ; M 1 3 b y G u n n a n d
G riffin
[u n p u b lis h e d ];4 7Tuc by Mayor eta l, 1984,A A
1 3 4 ,
1 1 8 ).n od e ta ile d v e lo c ity fie ldV (r,z ) w a s d e te r m in e d (d is ta n c e
r to th e ro ta tio n a x is a n d z to th e e q u a to ria l p la n e ).
T h e m a in c h a r a c te r is tic s o f th e v e lo c ity fie ld s fo r th e tw o
c lu s te rs s tu d ie d c a n
b e s u m m a r iz e d a s fo lIo w s :
( i)s o lid - b o d y ro ta tio nin th e n u c le u s
w
G en:Q c=4 .6 k m
S -1
rc-
1
=1 .3 .1 0 -6 y - l
47 Tuc :Q c
=
2 .7k m
S -l
rc-1=
4 .9 . 1 0 -6y -1
( ii)th e m a x im u m
v e lo c ity Vm ax
( iii)th e p o s itio n o f th is m a x im u m
a sa fu n c tio n o f th e ra d iu s
wG en:Vm ax
=
7 .4k m
S -1
at r=
3.2 rc
4 7Tuc : Vm ax
=4 .6k m
S -l
a t r= 3 .5 rc
R ,
C O R L:
R A D IU S
'2 .-4 0
e r
" 'I n
\u2022
J ,I,"J
r
V m S II
\u2022
, .
k l'l/.
f t l
R
\u2022
J ,'2
k
9 .
1 0 .
1 I
1 '2 .
1 3 .
\ .
1 5 .
1 6 .
1 7 .
L B
1 9
'2 0 .
'2 1
:1 :'2 .
'2 3 .
" 2 "
'2 5 .
A c c u ra teR a d ia lV e lo c itie sth a n k st o C O R A V E L
S e t u p a t th e
G a s s e g ra in fo c u so f th e
1.5 m
D a n is h
te le \ue000
scope atL aS illa , th e G O R A V E L p h o to e le c tr ic s p e c tr o m e te r
p r o v id e s
h ig h - q u a lity ra d ia l v e lo c itie s
(B a ra n n e
e ta l.1 9 7 9 ,
V is ta sinA s tro n o m y ,2 3 ,2 7 9 ).
T h e m e a n a c c u ra c y p e r m e a s u re m e n tis0 .6 a n d 0 .9 k m /s
fo r4 7
T u c
a n d
0 0
G en
r e s p e c tiv e ly .
M o re
th a n
6 0 0
ra d ia l
v e lo c ity m e a s u r e m e n ts o f s ta rs , m a in ly b e tw e e n
B
m ag
1 3
a n d 1 5 , h a v e b e e n c a rrie d o u t th ro u g h c o lla b o ra tio n b e tw e e n
o b s e rv e rs fro m

E S O ,th e G o p e n h a g e n , M a r s e ille s a n d G e n e v a O b s e rv a to rie s (M a y o r e ta l,1 9 8 3 ,A s tro n . A s tro p h y s . S u p p l. 5 4 ,4 9 5 ).

T h e k in e m a tic a l a n d d y n a m ic a l d e s c r ip tio n g iv e n b e lo w w a s
o b ta in e d th ro u g h th e m e a n
ra d ia l v e lo c itie s o f 2 9 8 m e m b e r
s ta rsin
0 0G ena n d 1 9 2 m e m b e r s ta rsin4 7 T u c . T h e s e s ta rsa re
u n ifo rm ly
d is trib u te d
fro m
th e
c e n tre s
t o
9 .3
c o re
ra d ii fo r
0 0
G ena n d to 3 0 .5 fo r4 7 T u c .
K in g 's c o n c e n tra tio n p a ra m e te rs c
=
lo g( r lrc) . lo g a r ith m o f
th e ra tio o f th e tid a l ra d iu s rtto th e c o re ra d iu s rc , fo r th e s e tw o
c lu s te rs
u n d e r lin e
th e ir
im p o rta n t d iffe re n c e s
o f s tru c tu re :
0 0
G enis a ra th e r lo o s e c lu s te r w ith c= 1 .3 6 , rc= 2 .4 a r c m in ,
rt=
5 5a rc m in , w h e re a s4 7 T u c s h o w s a s tro n g ly c o n d e n s e d
core w ith c
=
2 .0 3 , rc=
0 .4 7 a r c m in a n d rt=

5 0a r c m in . T h is s tr u c tu r a l d is p a r ity in v o lv e s im m e d ia te c o n s e q u e n c e so nth e o b s e r v a tio n o f in d iv id u a l s ta r sinth e c e n tra l re g io n s : th e reis n o p r o b le m

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