Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
messenger-no44

messenger-no44

Ratings: (0)|Views: 124 |Likes:

More info:

Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/11/2014

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
.t
No. 44
June 1986
E S O
O b s e rv a tio n s o f B rig h t S u p e rn o v ain C e n ta u ru s A
F ig u re
1 :T h isp ic tu r eo f th e n e w ly d is c o v e re d s u p e rn o v a
1 9 8 6Gin
th e p e c u lia r, s o u th e r n
g a la x y C e n ta u ru sA
( =
N G C
5 1 2 8 )w aso b ta in e do n
1 9 8 6M a y 8 .0 U T w ith
th eE S O
4 0 -c m
d o u b le a s tro g ra p h(G P O ) o nL a S illa . E x p o s u re :9 0 m itw te so n b lu e -s e n s itiv elIa -O
e m u ls io n .
O b s e rv e r:H . D u e rb e c k , v is itin g a s tr o n o m e r fro m
A s tr o n o m is c h e s In s titu t, M \u00fc n s te r,F R G .T h e
1 1 .5 -m a g
s u p e rn o v a
( in d ic a te d
w ith
a n
a rro w )is
s itu a te d
in
th e
e x te n s iv e
dust band
th a t
s u rro u n d s th e g a la x y .
A n
e x te n s iv e
o b s e r v in g
c a m p a ig n
is
u n d e rw a y
a t
th e
E u ro p e a n
S o u th e rn
O b s e rv a to ry
in
a n
a tte m p t
t o

u n ra v e l s o m e o f th e m y s te r ie s o f m a s s iv e s te lla r e x p lo s io n s ,

know n
a s
s u p e rn o v a e .
It
h a s
b e e n
trig g e re d
b y
th e
s u d d e n
a p p e a ra n c e
o f
a
c o m p a r a tiv e ly
b rig h t
s u p e rn o v a
in
th e
p e c u lia r
g a la x y
N G C 5 1 2 8 , lo c a te dinth e s o u th e rn c o n \ue000
s te lla tio n
C e n ta u r u s . T h is g a la x yiso n e
o f th e
s tro n g e s t
ra d io
e m itte rs
in

th e s o u th e rn s k y a n disa ss u c h d e s ig n a te d C e n ta u ru s A(C e nA ).

T h e
s u p e rn o v a ,
w h ic h
h a s
r e c e iv e d
th e
o ffic ia l
d e s ig n a tio n
1986 G
b y
th e
In te rn a tio n a l
A s tro n o m ic a l
U n io n ,
w as
d is c o v e r e do nM a y 3 .5U T b y R e v e re n d
R .
E v a n s ,
a n
a m a te u r
a s tro n o m e r
in
A u s tr a lia
w ho
h a s
m o re
th a n
a
d o z e n
e a r lie r
d is c o v e r ie s
t o
h is
c re d it.
It
a p p e a re da s a "n e w
s ta r", s o u th e a s t o f
th e
c e n tre
of Cen A
a n d
a lm o s tin
th e
m id d le o f th e b ro a d
d u s t b a n d th a t g ir \ue000
d ie s th is
u n u s u a l g a la x y(s e e
F ig u re1 ).
T h e m a g n itu d e w a s e s tim a te da s1 2 .N o
supernovae have been
d e te c te d
in
th is
g a la x y b e fo r e . T h is e v e n tiso f p a r tic u la r
in te re s t,
b e c a u s e
c o m p a r a tiv e ly
b rig h t
s u p e rn o v a e a re ra th e r ra re a n d a ls o b e \ue000
c a u s e o f th e
p e c u lia r n a tu re o f th e
p a \ue000
re n t g a la x y . T h e m o s t re c e n t s u p e rn o v a
o f a s im ila r m a g n itu d e
w as
in
1 9 8 0 ,in
th e n o rth e rn , s p ira l g a la x y N G C
6 9 4 6 .
S u p e rn o v a e a re b e lie v e d to re p re s e n t
a
la te
e v o lu tio n a r y
s ta g e
o f

m a s s iv e s ta rsinw hic h th e s ta r ru n s o u t o f a to m ic fu e i.

Itc a n
n o
lo n g e r s u p p o r t its
ow n
w e ig h t
a n d
c o lla p s e s .
Im m e d ia te ly
th e re a fte r
fo llo w s
a
d ra m a tic
th e r\ue000
m o n u c le a r e x p lo s io n
d u rin g
w h ic h
th e
o u te r
la y e r s
a re
b lo w n
in to
th e
s u rro u n d in g
s p a c e .
A
s m a ll
a n d
v e ry
com pact
o b je c t
m ay
re m a in
a t
th e
c e n tre . T h e b e s t k n o w n h is to ric a l s u p e r\ue000
nova was seen
inth e y e a r 1 0 5 4 , g iv in g
b irth to th e C ra b N e b u la a n da n a s s o c i\ue000
a te d
n e u tro n
s ta r,w hic h
w a s d e te c te d
a s a r a d io p u ls a rin1 9 6 7 . M o s t , if n o t a ll,
h e a v y
e le m e n ts
in
th e
U n iv e r s e
h a v e
b e e n
g e n e ra te d
in
th e
e x c e e d in g ly h o t
in te rio rs
o f
s ta rs
in
th e
s u p e rn o v a
phase. Supernovae
a re
v e ry
ra re ly

d is \ue000 c o v e re d b e fo re th e y re a c h th e ir m a x im a l b r ig h tn e s s a n d littleisk n o w n a b o u t th e e a rly

p h a s e s .
C u rre n tly ,
a b o u t
2 0 -2 5
s u p e rn o v a e a re d e te c te d p e r y e a rin e x -
te r io r g a la x ie s ; th e
la s t o n e
in

our own g a la x y , th e M ilk y W a y , a p p e a r s to b e th e o n e fo u n d b y K e p le rinth e c o n s te lla tio n O p h io c u sin1 6 0 4 .

O b s e rv a tio n s
a t
E S O
w ith
th e
1 -m
a n d
5 0 -c m
p h o to m e trie

te le s c o p e s h a v e s h o w n th a t s u p e rn o v a 1 9 8 6 G w a s s till

b rig h te n in g
a t
a
ra te
o f
a b o u t
0 .0 5 m a g /d a y o n
M a y 1 1 .2U T .O nth is
d a te ,
th e
V -m a g n itu d e
w as
1 1 .4
a n d
c o lo u r in d e x
(B -V )w as
1 .1
m a g n itu d e .
C C O
im a g e s
in
d iffe re n t c o lo u rs
w e re
e x p o s e d a t t h e O a n is h
1 .5 -m
te le s c o p e
(c f.
th e
n o te
b y
G a lle tta
in
th is
M e s s e n g e f).
L o w - d is p e r s io n
lO S
a n d
C C O
s p e c tra
h a v e
b e e n
o b ta in e d
w ith
th eE S O
1 .5 -m s p e c tro s c o p ic te le s c o p e
a n d
w ith
th e
2 .2 -m
te le s c o p e
(c f.
th e
n o te b y d i S e r e g o A lig h ie ri). T h e y s h o w a
ty p ic a l T y p e
I s u p e rn o v a
s p e c tru m
b e \ue000
fo re
m a x im u m ,
s ig n ific a n tly
re d d e n e d

b y a b s o rp tio ninC e nA . O f s p e c ia l in te r \ue000 e s t a re v e ry h ig h d is p e rs io n s p e c tra l o b \ue000 s e rv a tio n s , o b ta in e d

w ith
th e
C A S P E C
s p e c tro g ra p h
a t
th e
E S O
3 .6 -m
te le \ue000
scope. The
C a
11
H and
K Iin e s a n d th e
N aI 0
lin e s s h o w
a c o m p lic a te d
s tru c \ue000
tu re
w ith
n o
le s s
th a n
s ix
v e ry
d e e p
a b s o r p tio n c o m p o n e n ts . F ro m a p re lim i\ue000
n a r y a n a ly s is , it w o u ld

a p p e a r th a t fo u r o fth e s e a re c a u s e d b y a b s o r p tio n o f th e lig h t fro m th e s u p e rn o v ain fo u r s e p a ra te in te r s te lla r c lo u d sinC enA . O neis due t om a tte rin th e M ilk y W a y a n d o n e m a y b e lo n g

t o
a n
in te r g a la c tic
c lo u d
b e \ue000
tw e e n
Cen A
a n d
th e
M ilk y
W ay,
th e
e x is te n c e
o f w h ic h
w a s s u r m is e d
ina n
e a r lie r
E S O
s tu d y
o f
th is
g a la x y
(O 'O d o ric o
e t
a l.,
1 9 8 5 ,
A p.J
2 9 9 ,
p .8 5 2 ).
T h e s e o b s e rv a tio n s , a n d th e
p o s itio n
n e a r th e
m id d le o f th e

d u s t b a n d , in d i\ue000 c a te th a t th e s u p e rn o v ais s itu a te d w e il in s id e

th e
g a la x y
a n d
th a t
it s
lig h t
is
d im m e d
b y a b o u t 4 m a g n itu d e s d u e to
o b s c u r in g
d u s t. H a d
it b e e n s itu a te d
in
a n
u n o b s c u re d
re g io n ,
it s
m a g n itu d e
w o u ld
h a v e
b e e n
a b o u t 7 .5 , m a k in g
it
th e
b rig h te s t s u p e rn o v a
inth is c e n tu ry .

O ueto C e n A 's p e c u lia r s tru c tu re (s o m e a s tro n o m e rs c o n s id e r it to b e th e re s u lt o fa c o llis io n a m o n g t w o g a la x ie s ) , it h a s

not yet
b e e n
p o s s ib le
t o
m e a s u re
a n
a c c u ra te
d is ta n c e to
th is
g a la x y . H o w \ue000
e v e r, if th e in tr in s ic b r ig h tn e s so f 1 9 8 6 G
is
th a t
of a
n o rm a l T y p e I s u p e rn o v a ,
th e n
th e
d is ta n c e
t o
Cen A
w o u ld
b e
a ro u n d
2 -3
M e g a p a rs e c
(7 -1 0
m illio n
lig h t-y e a rs ),
o r
o n ly
3 -4
tim e s
fa rth e r
a w a y th a n th e A n d r o m e d a N e b u la . C e n
A
m ay
th e re fo re
e v e n
b e
a n
o u tly in g

m e m b e r o f th e L o c a l G r o u p o f G a la x ie s . A t a d is ta n c eo f3 M e g a p a rs e c , th e to ta l ra d io e n e rg y w o u ld b e a ro u n d 1 0

5 8
e rg s ,
c o rre s p o n d in g
t o
1 0
4
s o la r

m asses. C le a rly , a m o s t e n e rg e tic e v e n t h a s ta \ue000 k e n

p la c e
in
Cen A
ra th e r re c e n tly ; th e
v e lo c ity
d is p e r s io n
o f
th e
in te r s te lla r
c lo u d s m a y b e a r e lic t o f it.
T h eE S Oo b s e r v a tio n s a re c o n tin u in g .
T h e fo llo w in g
E S O
s ta ff a n d v is itin g a s \ue000
tro n o m e rs
h a v e
p a rtic ip a te d
s o
fa r:
I.B u e s ,P .R . C h ris te n s e n ,S .d i S e re g o
A lig h ie r i,
H .
O u e rb e c k ,
G .
G a lle tta ,
L .K o h o u te k ,
P .
M a g a in ,
P .E .
N is s e n ,
O .R e im e r s ,
R .
S c h u lte
L a d b e c k
a n d
J .S o m m e r-L a rs e n .
T h ee d ito r
C C D
O b s e rv a tio n s o f S u p e rn o v a 1 9 8 6 G
inCen A
G .G A L L E T T A ,A s tr o n o m ic a l In s titu te , U n iv e r s ityo f P a d o v a , Ita ly
F ig u re
1 :A
s a n d w ic ho f tw o p h o to g r a p h so fG enA , o n e ta k e n
b e fo re
th ee x p lo s io no f th e
s u p e rn o v a a n d o n e a fte r.T h es m a " p o in t a t th e c e n tr eo f th e w h ite c ir c leis th e p o s itio no f
1986G, as
m e a s u re d
o n
a
G G O
fra m e ,
o b ta in e d
w ith
th e
O a n is h
1 .5 4 -m
te le s c o p e .
T h e
d ia m e te ro f th e w h ite c ir c leis a b o u t1 8 a r c s e c o n d s .
A C C O im a g e o f th e n e w ly d is c o v e r e d
s u p e rn o v a
in
N G C
5 1 2 8
w as
o b ta in e d
w ith
th e
O a n is h
1 .5 2 -m
te le s c o p e
o n

M a y8 , 1 9 8 6 . B y c o m p a r is o n w ith p r e v i\ue000 o u s im a g e s o f th e s a m e a re a it a p p e a r s th a t th e s u p e rn o v aislo c a te din a lu m in \ue000 o u s p o rtio no fth e d u s t b a n d , s im ila r t o a h o lein

th e
d is k o f g a s s u rro u n d in g
th e
g a la x y(F ig .1 ).
T h is d is k a n d th e r e la te d d u s t la n eis
p r o b a b ly th e r e s u lt o fa re c e n t c o llis io n
w ith
a g a s
c lo u d
o r a g a s -ric h

s y s te m , w h o s e a g e h a s b e e n e s tim a te d to a b o u t 3x1 0

8
y e a rs (T u b b s ,A .0 ., 1 9 8 0 ,Ap. J
2 4 1 ,9 6 9 ). A
c o n v in c in g
p r o o f o f th is
is
th a t th e
ro ta tio n
a x is
o f th e
g a s

c o in \ue000 e id e s w ith th e m a jo r a x is o f th e u n d e r ly \ue000 in g

g a la x y
(G ra h a m ,J .A .,1 9 7 9 ,A p.J
2 3 2 ,6 0 ; M a r c e lin ,M . e t a l., 1 9 8 2 ,N a\ue000
tu re ,2 9 7 ,3 8 )w h ile th e s ta rs w ith in th e
g a la x y
s h a re
a
c y lin d r ic a l
ro ta tio n
a ro u n d
th e
m in o r
a x is
(B e rto la
e t
a l.,
1985, Ap.J ,
2 9 2 ,
L5 1 ), i.e . p e r p e n d i\ue000
c u la r to th e g a s ro ta tio n a x is .
O n th e b a s is o f th e s e in v e s tig a tio n s , it
a p p e a rs
th a t,
in
th e
re g io n
w h e re
th e
s u p e r n o v a is lo c a te d , th e m e a n g a s m o \ue000
tio n s
r e la tiv e
t o
th e
s u n
a re
a ro u n d
3 4 0 -3 8 0km s-
1
,
b u t th a t th e s te lla r m o \ue000
tio n s ,
e x tra p o la te d
t o
th e
sam e
p o in t,
w o u ld
b e
a ro u n d
500 km s-
1
o r
m o re .
A c c o r d in g ly ,
th e
s u p e rn o v a
in
th is
p e c u lia r g a la x y(w hic h
isn o t o b la te b u t
tria x ia l) m u s t b e lo n g to th e o ld
p o p u la \ue000
tio n
o f th e
u n d e r ly in g
s te lla r s y s te m , if
it s
v e lo c ity
is
h ig h e r
th a n
450 km s-
1
\u2022

H o w e v e r, th e v e lo c ity o f th e c e n tra l o b \ue000 je c t o f th e s u p e rn o v a c a n o n ly b e m e a \ue000 s u re d

at a
la te r s ta g e ,
w hen
itis
w e il
p a s t m a x im u m . T h e
in te rs te lla r a b s o r p \ue000
tio n
lin e sw hic h
w e re o b s e rv e d
a tE S O
a t h ig h
r e s o lu tio n
th e n

re p re s e n t d iffe \ue000 re n t la y e rs (c lo u d s )inth e d u s t b a n d .O n th e c o n tra ry , if th e s u p e rn o v a b e lo n g s to th e s ta rs c o n n e c te d to th e g a s d is k , its v e lo c ity m u s t b e lo w e r, b u tinth a t cas e w e s h a ll b e o b lig e d to re v is e th e a g eo f th e c o llis io n p h e n o m e n o n (c f. th e a r tic le b y

T u b b s ).
T h is
h y p o th e s is
is
a ls o
in
c o n tra d ic tio n
w ith
th e
T y p e
I a p p e a r\ue000
ance of 1986G.
C le a r ly ,
itis
o fg re a t
im p o rta n c e
t o
c o n tin u e
th e
o b s e rv a tio n s o f th is
in te r\ue000
e s tin g o b je c t.
2
L o w
R e s o lu tio n S p e c tro s c o p y o f th e S u p e rn o v a 1 9 8 6 G
N e a r M a x im u m
B rig h tn e s s
s .0 1S E R E G O A L IG H IE R I,* S T -E C F , E S O
7 4 7 1
lS lL- - - - - - - - - r- - - - - - - - r- - - - - - - ,- - - - - - l- - - - - - .J
4 7 3 5
5 4 1 9
6
1
~
3
6 7 8 7
W a v e le n g th
C A )
F ig u re1 :T h es p e c tru m
o fth e s u p e rn o v a
1 9 8 6 G
ta k e n o n M a y7 a t0 3 :5 6 U r .
\u2022 A ffilia le d1 0 I h e A s lr o p h y s ic s D iv is io n , S p a c e S c i\ue000
e n c e D e p a rtm e n l, E u ro p e a n S p a c e A g e n c y .
" "
-<
B e in g
a t
L a
S illa
s h o rtly
a fte r
th e
) _r
.
:
.
.
:
#
~
=
~
=
~
2
:
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
S
N
~
1
.
:
:
:
9
8
=
6
G
:
.
.
.
.
.
:
.
u
r
:
.
-
-
~
=
3
:
:
.
:
1
5
=
6
-= 2 .:..:2::::.m + -= 8 & ::C....:+ C = cD iI= 5 .-:S ::S::::.A..:.7 -.:::.5....:-8 :::6
- - ,
s u p e rn o v a
1986 G
w as
d is c o v e r e d ,
I
N re
h a d th e o p p o r tu n ity to ta k e tw o s p e c tra
(E \ue000
b e fo re
it r e a c h e d
m a x im u m
b rig h tn e s s
\u00fc
' \ue000
a n d q u a s i s im u lta n e o u s ly w ith u ltr a v io le t
(J )
m
s p e c tra
ta k e n
w ith
IU E .M y firs t s p e c -
L g (!
tru m
(F ig .1 )
w as
ta k e n
o n
M ay
7
a t
(D m
0 3:5 6
U T
w ith
th e
B o ile r
&
C h iv e n s
~
s p e c tro g ra p h a n d C C D
#
5 a t th e 2 .2 -m
, I
te le s c o p e . w ith
a r e s o lu tio n
o f1 0A .It
(S I
show s
th e
fe a tu re s
ty p ic a l
o f
ty p e
I
s u p e rn o v a e
-
e .g .
th e
b ro a d
o n e
a t
6 1 2 0A .T h e s o d iu m
D d o u b le ta t 5 8 9 0 /
9 6A .w h ic h
w as
s o
n ic e ly
r e s o lv e d
in
L L
th e
C A S P E C
s p e c tr a .is v is ib le
h e re
in
b le n d .
lS lL- - - - - - - - - r- - - - - - - - - - ,- - - - - - - - .- - - - - - l.L- - - -
lS lL -
- - r-
- - -,-
. - - -_ _
- l . . -
_
_
- - - - -.J
A u g u s t2 6
F in a n e e C o m m itte e
O e to b e r 3
S e ie n tilie T e e h n ie a l
C o m m itte e . V e n ie e
N ovem ber1 7-1 8
F in a n e e C o m m itte e
N ovem ber1 8
S e ie n tilie T e e h n ie a l
C o m m itte e
D eeem ber8 -9
O b s e rv in g P ro -
g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
D eeem ber1 1 -1 2
C o m m itte e0 1 C o u n e il
A ll
m e e tin g s
w ill ta k e
p la e e
a t
E S O
in
G a re h in g u n le s s s ta te d o th e rw is e .
T e n ta tiv e T im e -ta b le
o f C o u n c il S e s s io n s
a n d C o m m itte e M e e tin g s
in1 9 8 6
T h es e c o n d s p e c tru m
(F ig .2 )w a s ta \ue000
k e n
o n
M ay
8
a t0 5: 0 8
U T
w ith
th e

s a m e in s tru m e n ta tio n b u t a r e s o lu tio n o f 3A .T h ec o m p a ris o n o f th e tw o s p e c tra s h o w s th a t th e

s e c o n d
is
b rig h te r -
in
a g re e m e n t w ith th e fa c t th a t th e s u p e r\ue000
n o v a
w as
s till
r is in g
-
a n d
is
s h ifte d
s lig h tly to th e
re d .B ya p p ly in g to
ita n
in te n s ity
c o rre c tio n
o f0 .1 1

m a g n itu d e a n d a v e lo c ity s h ift o f2 3 0k m /s o it o v e r \ue000 la p s

v e ry
weil to
th e
s p e c tru m
o f th e
p r e v io u s
n ig h t.
a s
show n
in

F ig u re3 . T h e v e lo c ity s h ift c a nb e in te rp re te da s d u e to th e fa c t th a t.a s th e e m ittin g s h e ll d u e t o th e e x p lo s io n e x p a n d s a n d g e ts th in n e r.w es e e d e e p e r in to ita n d th e r e \ue000 fo re

o b s e rv e
m a te ria l m o v in g
to w a rd s
u s
w ith
s m a lle r
v e lo c ity .
It
w o u ld
b e
in te re s tin g
t o
fo llo w
th is
b e h a v io u ra s
th e
s u p e rn o v a
re a c h e s
m a x im u m
b rig h tn e s s
a n d
b e y o n d . I w o u ld
th e re \ue000
fo re
v e ry
m uch
w e lc o m e
c o lla b o r a tio n
w ith la te r o b s e rv e rs to th is e n d .
- - , -
.
.
.
.
2 .2m +8& C +C C O #5.
S S A
7 .8 -5 -8 6
2 .2m +8& C+ C C D il5 .
S S A
8 -5 -8 6
4 7 8 4 .~
~
~
5
~
4
~
.
5
~
~
5 2 9
\u2022~
~
~
5 5 5
\u20225
~
~
5
8
1
~
.
~
~
~
W a v e le n g th
C A )
F ig u re2 :T h es p e c tru mo fth e s u p e rn o v a 1 9 8 6 G ta k e n o nM ay8 a t0 5 : 0 8U T ( c o n tin u o u s lin e )
to g e th e r w ith th e o n eo fth e p r e v io u s n ig h t (d a s h e dfin e ).
4 7 8 4 .2
5
~
5
~
4
\u20227
5
~
5 2 9
\u20222
5
~
5 5 5
\u20227
5
~
5
8
1
~
.
2
5
~
W a v e le n g th
C A )
F ig u re3 :T h es p e c trao f th e s u p e rn o v a 1 9 8 6 G ta k e n o n M a y 7a n d8 , c o rre c te da s d e s c rib e din
th e te x t.
" "
- <
' -(J )
#
~
~
~
5
S N1 9 8 6 G
Z R E 8
IC O
'-lS l
N re
,-
E
\u00fc
' -(J )
mLlS l
(
D
~
( Q
" "
-<
' -(J )
#
~
~
~1
S N19 8 6 G
u r
~
5
,
~
8
'-lS l
N re
(
-
E
\u00fc
' \ue000(J )
m~
\u00a7
l
( QI
,(S I
.......
'- " 'g ( !
x....
: l
L L
3

Activity (2)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->