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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

T H E
M E S S E N G E
No. 45 -
S e p te m b e r 1 9 8 6
N ew
In te r s te lla r M o le e u le D e te c te d
F ig u re1 :P lo to f th e s p e e tr u m
o fth e C N R(0 ) lin e s n e a r3 8 7 5A .T h eu p p e r p a n e l s h o w s ra n g e
o fin te n s itie s .T h e1 0 w e r p a n e l s h o w s a n e x p a n d e d v e r fie a l s e a lea n d in d ie a te s th e w e a k '3 C N
fe a tu re .
T h e to ta l in te g ra tio n tim e
o n
th e
s ta r
w asinexcess of2 5 hours.
T h e n e w ly d e te c te d fe a tu re o f1 3 C N
a llo w sa d e te rm in a tio n
o f th e
c a rb o n
3 8 7 9 .1 3 2
is o to p e ra tioin th e in te r s te lla r c lo u din

th e d ire c tio n o f~ O p h . T h e1 2 C /1 3 C ra tio d e te rm in e d fro m th e s e m e a s u re m e n tsis 50( + 13;-1 0 ). This can be com pared to

3 8 7 4 .7 8 4
W AV E L E N G T H
(\u00c4 l
1 2 C N
R IO I
3 8 7 4 .4 3 6
0 .9 7 0
1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
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t -
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Z
I.L J
t -
0 .9 9 0
~
I.L J
>
t -
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- J
I.L J
0 ::
0 .9 8 0
P .GRANE, ESO
T h e
m o le c u le
1 3 C N
h a s
b e e n
d e \ue000

te c te d fo r th e firs t tim einth e in te r s te lla r m e d iu m . T h is is o to p ic a n a lo g u e o f th e b e tte r k n o w n1 2 C Nm o le c u le w a s d is c o \ue000 v e re d s e r e n d ip ito u s lyind a ta w h ic h h a d b e e n ta k e nino rd e r to m e a s u re th e C o s \ue000 m ic B a c k g ro u n d R a d ia tio n te m p e ra tu re u s in g th eC N

m o le c u le . T h e E u ro p e a n
S o u th e rn
O b s e rv a to ry 's
1 .4

m e tre C o u d e F e e d T e le s c o p e a n d a s s o c ia te d C o u d e

E c h e lle S p e c tro g ra p h
w ith
th e
R e tic o n d e te c to r w a s u s e d fo r th is w o rk .
Ino rd e r to d e te c t v e ry w e a k fe a tu re sin
th e
s p e c tru m
o f th e
s ta r~

O p h iu c h i, h ig h r e s o lu tio n a n d h ig h s ig n a l to n o is e s p e c tra w e re o b ta in e d .Itwas subse\ue000 q u e n tly

r e a liz e d
th a t
th e
1 3 C N
lin e

s h o u ld b e v is ib leinth e s e d a ta . A fu rth e r a n a ly s is to s e a r c h fo r th is lin e w a s s u c \ue000 c e s s fu l.

F ig u re1s h o w s a p lo t o f a p o rtio n o f
th e
o b s e rv e d
s p e c tru m
a n d

in d ic a te s t h e n e w ly d is c o v e r e d lin e . T h is n e w lin e is the

R (O )lin e o f th e 0 ,0 b a n d o f th e
B2Z :-X2z: e le c tr o n ic
s y s te m
o f13C N ,

a n d its e q u iv a le n t w id this 0 .1 7 9\u00b1 0 .0 4 0 m \u00c4.F o r c o m p a r is o n th e lin e o f th e m o r e a b u n d a n t1 2 C Nm o le c u le h a sa n e q u iv a \ue000 le n t w id th o f 7 .6 4 6\u00b10 .0 9 1 m \u00c4 .

Ino rd e r to d e te c t th is lin e w ith c e r \ue000
ta in ty , o b s e rv a tio n s fro m

s e v e n n ig h ts w e re c o m b in e d to p r o v id e th e fin a l re \ue000 s u lts . T h e lin e w a s p r e s e n t a t a b o u t th e

2s ig m a s ig n ific a n c e le v e lin th e d a ta

fro m e a c h n ig h t b u t th e tr u e s ig n ific a n c e o fth e d e te c tio n w a s o n ly e v id e n t a fte r c o m b in in g th e d a ta fro m s e v e ra l n ig h ts .

1
th e
te rre s tria l
ra tio
o f
8 9
a n d

fu rth e r s u b s ta n tia te s th e o rie s o f th e e n r ic h m e n t o f1 3 Cinth e in te rs te lla r m e d iu m th r o u g h e v o lu tio n o f th e g a la x y s in c e th e fo r m a \ue000 tio n o f th e s o la r s y s te m . T h is v a lu e a ls o a g re e s w ith o th e r re c e n t d e te rm in a tio n s o f th e

1 2 C /1 3 C
ra tio fro m
th e m o le c u le s
1 2 C W /'3 C W
a n d
1 2 C O /'3 C O .
S in c e
it
h a d
b e e n
s p e c u la te d
th a t
1 3 C
m ig h t
p re fe re n tia lly fo rm
C Oc o m p a re d to12C ,
th e
a g re e m e n t
b e tw e e n
th e
C O ,
C N ,
a n dC W
a b u n d a n c e s in d ic a te s th a t th is
e fte c tis n o t v e ry im p o rta n t.
T h e
d e te c tio n
a n d
m e a s u re m e n t
o f
w eak
fe a tu re s
re q U in n g
h ig h
p r e c is io n
a n d
h ig h
s p e c tra l
r e s o lu tio n
s u c h
a s

th o s e re p o rte d h e re a re a ty p ic a l e x a m \ue000 p ie o f th e w a yin w h ic h th e n e w g e n e r a \ue000 tio n

o f
v e ry
la rg e
te le s c o p e s
w h ic h
s h o u ld
becom e
a v a ila b le
e a rly
in
th e
next decadec a nb ee x p lo ite d .
T h e W o rk o f th e E S O
O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
M .c .E .H U B E R , In s titu t f\u00fc r A s tro n o m ie , E T H Z \u00fc ric h , C h a irm a no f th e O P C
J .BREYSACHER, ESO
1 9 8 7
8 6
8 5
8 3
A p p lic a tio n s
is
n o t o n ly
a d e m a n d in g ,
b u t a ls o a v e ry tim e - c o n s u m in g
u n d e r\ue000
ta k in g . T h isisth e re a s o n
w hys o m uch
e m p h a s is
is
p u t
o n
c o n c is e
A p p lic a \ue000
tio n s !O PC
M e m b e rs s p e n d
m o re th a n
th e
e q u iv a le n t o f o n e
w o r k in g
w eek
in
fu lfillin g
th is ta s k . A n e w

M em ber(o r a S u b s titu te M e m b e r re p la c in g th e re g u la r M e m b e r) m a y fin d th a t u p to tw o w e e k s fu ll- tim e a re n e e d e d

to a rriv ea t a c o n \ue000 s is te n t ju d g e m e n t o fa llth e A p p lic a tio n s h e

h a s
t o
re fe re e .
F u rth e rm o re ,
th e
h a n d lin g
o f A p p lic a tio n s -
fro m
r e c e ip t
b y
E S O
u n til th e
m om ent w hen
a p p li\ue000
c a n tsa re in fo rm e do n
w h e th e r o b s e rv \ue000
in g
tim e
fo r
th e ir
p ro p o s a l(s )
c a n
b e
g ra n te d
or not -
fo llo w s
a
ra th e r tig h t

s c h e d u le , g iv in g th eO PC M e m b e r s o n ly a b o u t th re e w e e k s to e v a lu a te th e p r o \ue000 p o s a ls .

In
o rd e r to
a v o id
a n y
b ia s
in
ju d g e \ue000
m e n t, s o m e o f th e re fe re e s a s s ig n e d to
a
g iv e n
a p p lic a n t
(o r
g ro u p
o f
a p p li-
8 2
8 1
8 0
7 9
3 0 0
3 5 0 r-lr- - - - - - ,- - - ,- - - .,.---,---,- - - - r- - - ,- - - ..,- - - - r- - - - ,
R e fe r e e in g th e A p p lic a tio n s
2 0 0
T h e
e ig h t
O PC
M e m b e rs ,
to g e th e r
w ith o n eE S O
s ta ft m e m b e r (u s u a lly th e
H ead
o f th e
S c ie n tific
G ro u p ,
J .
D an\ue000
z ig e r )
re fe re e
th e
3 0 0
to
3 5 0
A p p lic a \ue000
tio n s
fo r O b s e rv in g
T im e
th a ta re
c u r\ue000
re n tly
s u b m itte d
fo r
e v e ry
s ix -m o n th
O b s e rv in g P e rio d(c f.F ig .1 ).

E a c hA p p lic a tio nis e v a lu a te db y th re e re fe re e s .A s a re s u lt, e a c hO PC M e m b e r h a s tore a d

a n d

ra te o v e r 1 0 0 A p p lic a \ue000 tio n s tw ic e ay e a r:h e m u s t'd e c id eo n a m a rk

fo r
e a c h
p ro p o s e d
p ro g ra m m e
a n d
re c o m m e n d
th e
n u m b e r o f n ig h ts
th a t -
in
h is
ju d g e m e n t -
s h o u ld
b e

m a d e a v a ila b le to th e a p p lic a n t( s ) , if th e p r o g r a m m e a c tu a lly re c e iv e s te le s c o p e tim e . T h e

ra tin g
s c a le
c o m p r is e s
n in e
g ra d e s (e x te n d in g fro m
" o u ts ta n d in g " to
"u s e le s s ") th a ta re
e x p re s s e d
b y
num \ue000
b e rs 1 to 5 w ith h a lf- in te g e r s te p s .
R a tin g
o v e r
o n e
h u n d re d
in d iv id u a l
2 5 0
1 5 0
F ig u re1 :N u m b e ro f A p p lic a tio n s s u b m iN e d toE S O d u r in g th e p a s t n in e y e a rs . A r r o w s in d ic a te
w h e n n e w te le s c o p e s b e c a m e a v a ila b le .
E S O
a s tro n o m e rs
d e v o te

c o n s id e r \ue000 a b le tim e to p r e p a r in g , a n d p u t o b v io u s c a re

in to
w ritin g
A p p lic a tio n s
fo r

O b\ue000 s e r v in g T im ea tL aS illa . M a n y ta k e ju s t i\ue000 fia b le

p rid e
in
th e
p re s e n ta tio n
o f th e ir
id e a s .
Y e t,
g iv e n
th e
h e a v y

o v e rs u b \ue000 s c r ip tio n o f te le s c o p e tim e , in e v ita b ly a s e le c tio n

o f
th e
p ro p o s e d
o b s e r v in g
p ro g ra m m e s m u s t b e m a d e . A n d
o fte n
th is s e le c tio nisd ra s tic :in e a c h O b s e rv \ue000
in g
P e rio d ,
th e
a p p lie d -fo r
number of
o b s e r v in g
n ig h ts
fo r
th e
v a r io u s
te le \ue000
s c o p e s e x c e e d s th e n u m b e r o f a v a ila b le
n ig h ts b y fa c to rs

o f tw o ,a tte le s c o p e s o f in te rm e d ia te s iz e , to fo u r,a t th e 2 .2 -m a n d 3 .6 -m

te le s c o p e s !
Itis
th e
ta s k
o f th e
O b s e r v in g
P ro \ue000

g ra m m e s C o m m itte e(O P G ) to e v a lu a te th e s c ie n tific m e rit o f th e s u b m itte d A p \ue000 p lic a tio n s . B a s e do n

th e O P C 's r e c o m \ue000
m e n d a tio n s ,E S O

th e n p re p a re sa n O b \ue000 s e r v in g S c h e d u le - e m p lo y in g th e a v a il\ue000 a b le te le s c o p e n ig h ts fo r th e b e s t- r a te d p r o p o s a ls .

In
th e
fo llo w in g
w e
w ill d e \ue000
s c rib e th e re fe re e in g s y s te m
o f th eO PC
a n d
e x p la in
th e
s te p s th a t le a d
t o
th e
fin a l
O b s e r v in g
S c h e d u le
o n
th e
E S O
te le s c o p e s .
T h e
h is to ry
a n d
p ro c e d u re s
o f
th e
O PC
h a v e
a lre a d y
b e e n
d e s c r ib e d
b y
th e p re v io u sO PC

c h a irm a n ,B . W e s te r\ue000 lu n d ,in 1 9 8 2 ( M e s s e n g e r N o .2 8 ).In th e m e a n tim e ,

th e
w o r k in g
p ro c e d u re s
o f
th e
C o m m itte e
h a v e e v o lv e d
c o n s id e r \ue000
a b ly , s o
th a ta n
u p d a te d
d e s c r ip tio n
is
w a rra n te d .
T h e
O PC
in
it s
c u rre n t
fo rm
e x is ts
s in c e
1 9 7 1 : th e re
is
o n e

M em ber and o n e S u b s titu te m e m b e r fro m e a c h o f th e e ig h t

E S O
c o u n tr ie s ',
th e y
a re
d e s ig \ue000
n a te d b y th e N a tio n a lE S O
C o m m itte e s
a n d s e rv e fo r fiv e -y e a r te rm s .
. T h is
y e a r 's
c o m p o s itio n
0 1
th e
O PC
is
(w ith
S u b s titu te
M e m b e rs
In
p a re n th e s e s ):
J .-M .
V re u x
(a n d
E .L .
v a n
D e s s e i) ,
B e lg iu m ;
E .H .O ls e n
(a n d
P .E . N is s e n ), D e n m a rk ;G .M o n n e t (a n d
J . B o u le \ue000
s te ix ), F ra n c e ;K .F ric k e (a n dI. A p p e n z e lle r), F e d e ra l
R e p u b lic
0 1G e rm a n y ;A . R e n z in i (a n d
F .
B e rlo la ),
Italy; P .C . van
d e rK ru it (a n d
K .A . van

d e r H u c h t), T h e N e th e rla n d s ;G .L y n g a (a n dL . N o rd h ), S w e d e n ; a n dM .C .E .H u b e r (a n dB . H a u c k ), S w itz e rla n d . T h e O PC

M e m b e r s (a n d th e ir te rm s ) a re Iis te d re g u la rly
in th e E S O
A n n u a l R e p O rl.
2
Inc o n ju n c tio n
w ith the
E S O -C E R N
S y m p o s iao n
C o s m o lo g y a n d F u n d a \ue000
m e n ta l P h y s ic s , C E R N
a n d
E S O
a re o r g a n iz in ga n
IN T E R N A T IO N A LS C H O O lO N
A S T R O -P A R T IC lE
P H Y S IC S
to b e h e ld a t th e " E tto re M a jo ra n a C e n tre fo r S c ie n tific C u ltu re ",E r ic e , S ic ily ,
in
th e
p e rio d
5 -2 5
J a n u a ry
1 9 8 7 .C o -s p o n s o rs a re th e
Ita lia n
M in is tr y o f
E d u c a tio n , th e Ita lia n M in is tr y o f S c ie n tific a n d T e c h n o lo g ic a l R e s e a rc h , a n d
th e S ic ilia n
R e g io n a l G o v e rn m e n t.
R e c e n t p ro g re s sinp a r tic le p h y s ic s , c o s m o lo g y a n d a s tr o p h y s ic s h a s g iv e n
b irth
t o
a
n e w
d is c ip lin e
th a t
encom passes
th e m
a ll.
T h e s e

e m b r y o n ic d e v e lo p m e n ts a re n o t o fte n c o v e re dina nin te r d is c ip lin a r y w a y . T h e p u r p o s e o f th is s c h o o listo fill th is g a p .

L e c tu re rs
w ill
in c lu d e
J .
B a rro w ,
R .
B ra n d e n b e rg e r,
B .
C a b re ra ,
A .
d e
R u ju la ,L .D ile lla ,J . E llis ,J .S . G a lla g h e r ,G . G e lm in i,D .C . K o o , L .M a ia n i,F .
M e lc h io r r i,D .V . N a n o p o u lo s ,K .A . O liv e ,B .E .J . P a g e l,M . R o w a n - R o b in s o n ,
A .S a n d a g e ,R . S a n d e r s ,J . S ilk ,L . S to d o ls k i, A .S z a la y , F .-K . T h ie le m a n n ,N .
T u ro k ,L . v a n
H ove.
P e rs o n s
w is h in g
t o
a tte n d
th e
c o u rs e
s h o u ld
w rite
t o
A S T R O P A R T IC L E
S C H O O L ,T H
S e c re ta ria t, C E R N ,1 2 1 1
G eneva
2 3 , S w itz e r la n d , s p e c ify in g
d a te
a n d
p la c e

o f b ir th , n a tio n a lity , a c a d e m ic q u a lific a tio n s , lis t o f p u b lic a \ue000 tio n s , a n d p r e s e n t p o s itio n . T h e to ta l fe e , in c lu d in g fu ll b o a r d a n d lo d g in g ,is S F1 ,4 0 0 . P a rtia l fin a n c ia l s u p p o r t c a n b e p r o v id e din s o m e c a s e s , w h e re th e n e e d

isc le a r ly ju s tifie d .T h e
c 1 0 s in g
d a te
to ra p p lic a tio n s
is1 Novem ber
1 9 8 6 .
c a n ts ) a re c h a n g e d fro m
o n e O b s e r v in g
P e rio d
t o
th e
n e x t.
G iv e n
th e
lim ite d
num ber of OPC

M e m b e rs , a p a rtic u la r A p p lic a tio nisth u s e v a lu a te d b y s p e c ia l\ue000 is t

a s
w e il
a s
n o n - s p e c ia l is t
re fe re e s .
A c c o r d in g ly ,
a p p lic a n ts
h a v e
t o
m ake
th e ir
p ro p o s e d
o b s e rv a tio n s
a p p e a lin g
t o
s p e c ia lis ts a n d

n o n - s p e c ia lis ts a lik e . T h e y m u s t b o th , d e m o n s tra te th e ir c o m \ue000 p e te n c e w ith in a s p e c ific a re a a n d s h o w th e im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro p o s e d w o rkin th e

b ro a d e r
c o n te x t.
S in c e
a n y
la rg e
d is c r e p a n c y
in
th e
ra tin g s
w ill be
d is \ue000
c u s s e d
a t th e
s e m i- a n n u a l O P C
M e e t\ue000
in g s , fa u lty
ju d g e m e n ts
o n
th e
s id e
o f
th e
n o n - s p e c ia l is t (o r s p e c ia lis t!) w ill b e
e lim in a te d .
P r e lim in a r y O b s e r v in g S c h e d u le
W hen
th e
ra tin g s a n d
re c o m m e n d e d
n u m b e rs o f n ig h ts fro m
th e re fe re e s a re
a v a ila b le ,
E S O
p ro d u c e s
a
lis t
o f
th e
O b s e r v in g
A p p lic a tio n s
fo r
e a c h

te le \ue000 s c o p e , w ith th e A p p lic a tio n s b e in g ra n k \ue000 e d

a c c o r d in g
t o
th e
a v e ra g e
ra tin g s o f
th e th re e
re fe re e s . T h e a v e ra g e re c o m \ue000
m ended
num ber
o f
n ig h ts
is
u s e d
t o
s u m
u p th e
o b s e r v in g
tim e
re q u ire d
a s
o n e g o e s d o w n th e lis t, a n d a c u t o f f lin e
is
d ra w n ,
w hen
th e
num ber
o f
n ig h ts
a v a ila b le
fo r a s tro n o m y
(te c h n ic a l tim e
b e in g
c o n s id e r e d
s e p a ra te ly )
is
re a c h e d . (A p p lic a tio n s w h e red o u b ta b \ue000
o u t th e fe a s ib ility w a s e x p r e s s e d
b y
a t
le a s t o n e
re fe re e
a re
lis te d
a p a rt.) T h e
in fo rm a tio n
c o n ta in e d
inth is lis tis a ls o
u s e d
t o
g e n e ra te
a s e t o f ta b le s
w h ic h
show s
th e
d is tr ib u tio n
o f
th e
p ro \ue000
g ra m m e s a b o v e th e c u to ff lin e o v e r th e
m o n th s a n d th e

m o o n p h a s e s fo r e a c h te le s c o p e . T h is s e t o f ta b le s a ls o s h o w s th e

r e s u ltin g
c h a n g e -o v e rs
o f

in s tru \ue000 m e n ts fo r e a c h te le s c o p e . T h e s e w o r k \ue000 in g

d o c u m e n ts ,
w h ic h
a c tu a lly
re p re \ue000
se nt
p re lim in a ry
o b s e r v in g
s c h e d u le s
fo r th e
v a r io u s
te le s c o p e s , a re
s ent to
th e m e m b e rs a fe w d a y s b e fo re th e y g e t
to g e th e rinth e O P C
M e e tin g .
O PC
M e e tin g s
T h e
O PC
m e e ts
tw ic e
a
y e a r
( i.e .,
o n c e fo r e a c h O b s e rv in g
P e rio d ) d u r in g
tw o
d a y s . M o s to f th e
m e e tin g
tim e
is
s p e n tin
c la r ify in g
d is c r e p a n c ie s
in
th e
ju d g e m e n t o f A p p lic a tio n s . T h e
d e lib e \ue000
ra tio n s ta k e p la c einth e p re s e n c e o f th e
D ire c to r G e n e ra l
a n d
th e
H ead
o f th e
S e c tio n
V is itin g
A s tro n o m e rs .
T h e

re \ue000 c o r d o f th e m e e tin gisk e p t b y M rs .e h r. E u le r. T h u s , a d o z e n

p e o p le a tte n d
th e
O PC
M e e tin g s . T h e
s iz e
o f th is
g ro u p
p e rm its a fra n k a n d
u n in h ib ite d
d is c u s \ue000
s io n .
It
is
im p o rta n t
t o
n o te
th a t
th is
d is c u s s io n
is
b a s e d
o n
th e
s c ie n tific
m e r it o f th e A p p lic a tio n s a lo n e : th e n a \ue000
tio n a l
o r ig in
o f
a n
a p p lic a n t
is
o f
n o
c o n c e rn to th e O P C .
O b v io u s ly , n o t a ll A p p lic a tio n s c a n b e
d is c u s s e d
a t
a
tw o -d a y
\u00b7m e e tin g .
N e v e rth e le s s , th e
p re lim in a ry
s c h e d u le
fo r e a c h te le s c o p e is c lo s e ly in s p e c te d .
F irs t,
th o s e
fe w
A p p lic a tio n s
w h e re
d o u b t
a b o u t
fe a s ib ility
h a d
b e e n
e x \ue000
p re s s e d
a re
s c r u tin iz e d , o n e
b y
o n e
\ue000
a n d , if ju s tifie d , a re
re in s ta te d
in to
th e
m a in lis t.
N e x t, A p p lic a tio n s w h e re th e re fe re e s
d is a g r e e
in
th e ir ra tin g s , a re
d is c u s s e d
in
d e ta il. T h e th r e e O P C
M e m b e rs w h o
h a d
e v a lu a te d
th e
A p p lic a tio n
in
q u e s \ue000
tio n
a re a s k e dt oe x p la in
why and
h o w
th e y
a rriv e d
a t th e ir
m a rk ;
a n d
in
th e
e n s u in g
d is c u s s io n ,
w h ic h
u s u a lly
in \ue000
v o lv e s th e o th e r O P C

M e m b e rs to o ,a n e ffo rtis m a d e to a rriv e a t a m o re u n ifo rm ju d g e m e n t.

In
som e
c a s e s ,
n e v e rth e \ue000
le s s ,
d is c r e p a n t
m a rk s
a re
le ft

u n a l\ue000 te re d ; th is th e n re fle c tsa nh o n e s t d iffe r\ue000 e n c e o f o p in io n b e tw e e n p e e rs !

T h e in flu e n c e o f th e s e d is c u s s io n so n
th e
s c ie n tific
ju d g e m e n t
o f
th e
O PC
M e m b e rs
(a n d ,
in
th e
e n d ,
th is
is

th e s c ie n tific p o lic y o f th e O P C !) c a n n o t b e o v e re s tim a te d .

F o r
th e s e
fra n k
a n d
s p o n ta n e o u s
in te rc h a n g e s ,
th e
lim ite d
s iz e
a n d
c o n fid e n tia l
n a tu re
o f
O PC
M e e tin g sise s s e n tia l.
T o fu rth e r fo s te r a " u n ite d e d o c trin e "
in
th e
O P C , th e
M e m b e rs
m ay
a s k fo r
d is c u s s io n
of any
A p p lic a tio n .
In
fa c t,
re fe re e s
w ill
o fte n
e a rm a rk

lo n g -te rm o b s e rv in g p ro g ra m m e s fo r a jo in t re v ie w o f p r o g r e s s . R e fe re e s w ill a ls o p o in t o u t s im ila r

p r o p o s a ls
w ith
th e
sam e
g o a l;
th e
O PC
w ill
th e n
s e e k
t o
a v o id
u n \ue000
n e e d e d d u p lic a tio n .
O PC
M e m b e rs
a re
a w a re
o f
th e
d a n g e r
th a t
th e y
m ay
(a s
c o m m itte e
m e m b e rs
u s u a lly
d o )
g iv e
p re fe re n tia l
T e n ta tiv e T im e -ta b le
o f C o u n c il S e s s io n s
a n d C o m m itte e M e e tin g s
in1 9 8 6
O c to b e r 3
S c ie n tific T e c h n ic a l
C o m m itte e , V e n ic e
N ovem ber1 7-1 8
F in a n c e C o m m itte e
N ovem ber1 8
S c ie n tific T e c h n ic a l
C o m m itte e
D ecem ber8 -9
O b s e rv in g P ro -
g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
D ecem ber1 1 -1 2
C o m m itte e o f C o u n c il
A ll
m e e tin g s
w ill
ta k e
p ia c e
a t
E S O
in
G a rc h in g u n le s s s ta te d o th e rw is e .
m a rk s
t o
"s a fe "
A p p lic a tio n s ,
w h ic h
p r o m is e
m in o r, b u t a lm o s t g u a ra n te e d
p ro g re s s . S u c ha n
a ttitu d e w o u ld
be to
th e d e tr im e n t o f b o ld e r A p p lic a tio n s th a t
c a n
le a d to le s s p re d ic ta b le , b u t p o te n \ue000
tia lly m u c h m o r e re w a rd in g fin d in g s -
o r
it m a y e v e n
" p r e v e n t " d is c o v e r ie s . T h is
te n d e n c y
is
b e in g
fo u g h t.
In
th e

p a s t, th e O P C h a s in d e e d g iv e n tim e to n o v e l, b u t ris k y p r o je c ts , e v e n if th e y o c c u p ie d o n e o f th e

la rg e te le s c o p e s fo r a b o u t a w eek(a s ,fo r e x a m p le , fo ra n a s tro s e is \ue000 m o lo g y

in v e s tig a tio n
o n
a
C en
A ).
M o re o v e r,
th e
O PC
h a s
g iv e n
s e v e ra l
m o n th s
o f
o b s e r v in g
tim e
o n
a
s m a ll
te le s c o p e
fo r
a n
o p tic a l
m o n ito rin g
o f
th e 1 9 7 9 M a rc h 5 y -ra y b u rs t e rro r b o x .
O n
th e
o th e r h a n d , th e
O PC
h a s
a ls o
re c o m m e n d e d
e x te n s iv e
tim e
fo r m o re
ro u tin e
s tu d ie s .
T h u s ,
th e
s m a ll
te le \ue000
s c o p e s h a v e b e e n m a d e a v a ila b le f o ra n3

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