2DESIGN OF A COMMERCIAL BUILDING
A seven-storey commercial building was to be designed on a square site 45.0m x 45.0m where agroup of piles forming the foundations of a previous building were discovered. Following additionalrequirements were also to be considered:
The facade at the south-east corner is to be inclined between level 2 and the roof. All otherfacades are to be vertical. All facades are required to be fully-glazed between level 2 and theroof.
To provide flexibility for building entry points, the clear distance between external columnson
Level 1 must be a minimum of 8.0m. External columns on level 2 and above, if required,must be
Evenly-spaced. No column is permitted on any level at the north-west corner of the building.
Neither external nor internal structural walls are permitted. A clear distance of at least 7.0mis required between an internal column and any other column or external enclosure. Theservice cores are to be structurally independent of the main building.
No foundations may extend beyond the site boundary.
Allowable structural floor zones are: Level 2: 1.7m ,Other levels and roof: 1.2m
A minimum fire resistance of 2 hours is required for all structural elements
Two solutions were proposed for client, one was a steel frame with bracing system and other was aconcrete rigid frame. According to the conditions of client, the concrete building was finalised. Forthe concrete frame structure, we chose 40MPa strength concrete. The strength was furtherincreased by using GGBS (ground granulated blast slag) and accelerators to speed up theconstruction process.Two-way slabs with 250mm depth were designed, resting on beams on all sides, and then thecolumns take their load down to the piles. The grid requirements of the client were met by changingthe layout after level 1. This resulted in using transfer beam on the first floor. The transfer beam wasdesigned as a continuous beam bearing the load of a column and a secondary beam and wasanalysed using SAP 2000. The transfer beam being the most critical element was also analysed toobtain its blast resistance. The cantilever part of the building at the north-west corner wassupported with cables attached to the internal column.All the members were additionally checked for tying forces, robustness and cracking while the lateralstability of the whole building was also checked for every column. The whole building lateral stabilitywas provided by the concrete frame itself to bear a strong wind of 23m/s as lift well were to beconsidered as separate structures. According to clause 5.18 EC2 second order analysis was alsochecked.Pile foundation was suggested as the cheapest and safest solution for the building because groundwater was encountered at 2.5m below ground level. Existing piles on the site were also utilised alongwith the new ones.