Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
messenger-no48

messenger-no48

Ratings: (0)|Views: 2,994|Likes:

More info:

Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See More
See less

02/01/2013

A TIME
FO R
C H A N
\u2022O n
4
J u n e ,
C o u n c il
u n a n im o u s ly
a p p o in le d
P ro f.H .v a nd e rL a a n1 0 b e D ir e c lo r G e n e ra lto r
a tiv e -y e a r p e rio dtro m
1 J a n u a ry 1 9 8 8 .
M E S S E N G E R
7
No. 48 -
June 1987
o p e n su pa ne ra o f g re a t o p p o rtu n ity fo r
E u ro p e a n
a s tro n o m e rs ,
b u t
it
w ill
re \ue000
q u ire
a
m a jo r e ffo rt to
u tiliz e
th e
n e w
in s tru m e n tsina ne ffe c tiv e w a y w h ile th e
c o n s tru c tio n o f th eV LT p ro c e e d s .
A p a rtic u la rly im p o r ta n t a s p e c t o f th is
re la te s
t o
th e
fu n c tio n in g
o f
L a
S illa ,
w h ic h , o f c o u r s e , w ill h a v e t o r e m a in
a
to p
p rio rity . Itish e re , m o re
th a n
a n y \ue000
w h e re
e ls e ,
th a t
th e
E u ro p e a n
a s \ue000
tro n o m ic a l c o m m u n ity fin d s th e fru its o f
th e
la rg e
in v e s tm e n ts
th a t
h a v e
b e e n
m ade.

S e v e ra l y e a rs a g o ,w ed e c id e d tos e e if s ite s c o u ldb e fo u n d fo r th eV L T w ith a q u a lity s till h ig h e r th a n

th a t o fL a
S illa ,
e v e n
th o u g h
L a
S illa
ra n k s
am ong
th e
b e s t
s ite s
in
th e
w o rld .

S u b s e q u e n t s tu d ie sh a v es h o w n th a t P a ra n a lh a s a s u b s ta n tia lly lo w e r fr e q u e n c y o f c lo u d s a n d a v e ry m u c h lo w e r h u m id ity . S e e in g

L lB
...
+
t
-
~,.....
\u00ab r
i
a
.
~
\u00b7
.
'
0
. , .
C '
r
i
n
n
~
~
d e c a d e , th e
V L T
p ro je
~
J
~
n
d
l
y
a ffe c t
a ll
o f
E S O 's a c tiv itie sa sw e il a sits in te r a c tio n
w ith
th e
s c ie n tific
c o m m u n ity
in
th e
m e m b e r c o u n tr ie s . N o t o n lyisth eV LT a
la rg e p r o je c tin fin a n c ia l te rm s , b u t m o s t
E S Os ta ff m e m b e r s w ill h a v e to g iv eit a

la rg e p a r t o f th e ir tim e .T h es a m eis th e c a s e fo r m a n y s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e rs inth e m e m b e r c o u n tr ie s , s in c e itis fo r e \ue000 s e e nth a t m u c h o f th eV L T in s tru m e n ta \ue000 tio n

w illb e
d e v e lo p e d
inth e
E u ro p e a n
la b o ra to rie s .
W h ile
E S O

w ill h a v e t o d e v o t e m a n y o f its re s o u rc e s to th eV L T ,a tth e s a m e tim e

o th e r e s s e n tia l n e e d s w ill p r e s e n t
th e m s e lv e s :S E S T
is
ju s t b e g in n in g
to
fu n c tio n , th e
N D

isa lm o s t c o m p le te d a n d n e e d s to b e fu lly in s tr u m e n te d ,a n d h o p e fu lly th e

E C F
w ill h a v e th e
S p a c e
T e le s c o p e
t o
w o rry
a b o u t.
A ll
o f th is
TH E
A t its
D e c e m b e r m e e tin g
la s t y e a r, I
in fo rm e d
C o u n c il o fm y
w is h
t o
te rm i\ue000
n a te m y a p p o in tm e n ta sD ire c to r G e n e r\ue000
a lo fE S O
fo llo w in g
th e a p p ro v a l o f th e
V LT
p ro p o s a l, e x p e c te d

la te r th is y e a r. A lre a d y a t th e tim e o f m y r e a p p o in tm e n t th re e y e a rs a g o , C o u n c il w a s a w a re th a t I d id n o t in te n d to s e rv e o u t a fu ll th ir d fiv e -y e a r te rm , b e c a u s e o f th e d e s ire to h a v e m o re tim e fo r o th e r a c tiv itie s . N o w th a t th e

p re p a ra to ry
p h a s e
o f th e
V LT
h a s
b e e n
c o m p le te d
w ith
th e
fo rm a l
p re s e n ta tio n o f th e p r o je c t to C o u n c ilo n
3 1M a rc h a n d w ith a p p r o v a llik e ly b e fo re
th e
e n d
o f th e
y e a r,
1
J a n u a ry
1 9 8 8
seem s
t o
b e
th e
o p tim a l
tim e
fo r
a
c h a n g einth e m a n a g e m e n t o fE S O :
T h ero a d to P a ra n a l (F e b ru a ry1 9 8 7 ; p h o to :C . M a d s e n ).
m e a s u re m e n ts a re
under way, and
th e

fir s t re s u lts , th o u g ha s y e t in c o n c lu s iv e , lo o k p ro m is in g .It th e re fo re w a s d e c id e d th a t

th e
V LT
p ro p o s a l
s h o u ld
p re s e n t
P a ra n a la sth e m o r e lik e ly o p tio n , e v e n
th o u g h
a d e fin itiv e c h o ic e
n e e d
n o tb e
m a d e b e fo re th re e y e a rs fro m
now .
P a ra n a lisa re m o te p la c ein o n e o f th e
w o r ld 's
d r ie s t
d e s e rts .
W h ile
a

g o o d g ra v e l ro a d p a s s e se 1 0 s e b y , th e reis n o v illa g e o r a n y th in g w ith in

m a n y k ilo m e \ue000 te rs .S o th e c o m p le te in fra s tru c tu re w ill h a v e

t o
b e
b u ilt th e re
b y
E S O .A
d e \ue000
v e lo p m e n t o f P a ra n a l a lo n g th e lin e s o f
L aS illa w o u ld
b e c o s tly a n d
tim e -c o n \ue000
s u m in g ,
b u t
fo rtu n a te ly
a ls o
n o t
n e c e s s a ry .
R e m o te
c o n tro lis
b e in g
u s e d
a tL a
S illa
o n
a n

e x p e rim e n ta l b a s is .F o r th e V LT it w illb e th e p r in c ip a l m o d e o fu s e . R e m o te d ia g n o s tic s a n d tr o u b le s h o o t\ue000 in g

w ill u n d o u b te d ly
fo llo w . W ith
s u c h
te c h n o lo g ie s ,
it
w o u ld
s e e m
th a t
th e
P a ra n a l s ite m a yb eru n w ith a c o m p a r a \ue000
tiv e ly
s m a ll n u m b e r o f h ig h ly
q u a lifie d
s ta ft.
A n o th e r
fa c to r
w h ic h
re in fo rc e s
th is c o n c lu s io nis th a t th eV L T -
lik e th e
N D
-
w illb e
o p e ra te d
w ith
v e ry
fe w
in s tru m e n t e x c h a n g e s .
S u p p o s e th eV LT w e re p la c e da t P a \ue000
ra n a l, w h a t a b o u t th e
o th e rE S O
te le \ue000
s c o p e s ?
W ith
it s
1 6 -m
e q u iv a le n t
d ia m e te r, th eV L T w o u ld re p re s e n t n e a r\ue000
Iy
8 5%
o f th e
to ta l
p h o to n
c o lle c tin g
a re a
o f th e
E S O
te le s c o p e s .
Itw o u ld
s e e m
h a rd
to
im a g in e
th a tE S O
w o u ld
P r o fe s s o rH .v a n d e r L a a n , w h o w ill b e c o m e
D ire c to r G e n e ra l fro m
J a n u a ry1 , 1 9 8 8 .
c o n tin u eto o p e r a te a n o th e r s ite a t h ig h
c o s t fo r th e r e m a in in g
1 5% .In th e lo n g
ru n , th e re a p p e a rs tob e o n ly o n e s o lu \ue000
tio n :
if the
V LT
w e re
to
b e
p la c e d
a t
P a ra n a l,a ll o f E S O 's te le s c o p e s w o u ld
h a v e
to
b e
o p e ra te d
th e re . T h is
m ig h t
in v o lv e
th e
m o v in g
of som e
of the
L a
S illa te le s c o p e s . M o v in g th e 2 .2m ,C A T ,
1.5 m
D K
a n d S E S T w o u ld
n o t p re s e n t
m a jo r p r o b le m s ; th e
3.6 m
isto o

cum \ue000 b e rs o m e to m o v e , e x c e p t p e rh a p sa sa " z e n ith

te le s c o p e "
fo r
c o s m o lo g ic a l
s tu d ie s . W h a t re a lly w o u ld
b e u s e fu l to
m ove
m o re
th a n
a
d e c a d e
fro m
n o w
r e m a in s to b e s e e n a t th a t tim e .
T h eN D

p o s e s a p a r tic u la r p ro b le m . W ith in a y e a r, it w illb e r e a d y fo r in s ta lla \ue000 tio ninC h ile .If P a ra n a l w e re u ltim a te ly to b e c h o s e na s th eV L T s ite , w o u ld it n o t b e m o r e r a tio n a l to p la c e it th e re ? W h ile

th e a d v a n ta g e s o f le a rn in g to o p e ra te a m o d e rn te le s c o p eo nP a ra n a l b e fo re th e a rriv a l o f th e

V LT
w o u ld
b e
im p o rta n t,
th e re
a res e rio u s p r o b le m s w ith
re g a rd
t o
th e
tim e
s c a le ;
th e s e
a re
c u rre n tly
b e in g
a n a ly z e d .
S h o u ld

it a p p e a r th a t th e P a ra n a l lo c a tio n w o u ld c a u s e u n d u e d e la y s , th eN D

w o u ld s tillb e p la c e d a t
L aS illa .
A s tro n o m e rs h a v e
b e e n
a c c u s to m e d
t o
lo o ka t te le s c o p e sa s in s tr u m e n ts o f
a lm o s t e te rn a l
u s e . T h is
w as
p e rh a p s
r e a s o n a b le
a ta tim e
in
w h ic h

m a in te \ue000 n a n c e n e e d s w e re s m a ll a n d in s tru m e n \ue000 ta tio n re la tiv e ly s im p le . A t p r e s e n t, h o w \ue000 e v e r, th e a n n u a l c o s ts o f o p e ra tin g a n d in s tru m e n tin g

a m o d e rn
te le s c o p e
at a
r e m o te s ite a n d p r o c e s s in g th e re s u ltin g
d a ta fa r e x c e e d
th e
c a p ita l in v e s tm e n t
p ro ra te d
o v e r
o n e
or two
d e c a d e s .
It
fo llo w s th a t th e a c q u is itio n o f n e w te le \ue000
s c o p e s
m u s t a u to m a tic a lly
b e
accom \ue000
p a n ie d b y th e c lo s in g o f e x is tin g o n e s .

T h eV L T re p re s e n ts E S O 's lo n g ra n g e fu tu re . W ith o u t it th e O rg a n iz a tio n c o u ld n o t s u rv iv e v e ry lo n g . H o w e v e r, fo r m o re th a n

a d e c a d e ,L a S illa w ill c o n t in u e
to
p r o v id e th e d a ta e s s e n tia l fo r th e s c ie n \ue000
t if ic
w o rk
o f
a
la rg e
c o m m u n ity .
It
is
c 1 e a r,
th e re fo re ,
th a t
e v e n
if
P a ra n a l
w e re
t o
b e
d e v e lo p e d ,
e v e ry th in g
w ill
have tob ed o n e to

g u a ra n te e th e c o n \ue000 tin u a tio n o f th e fu n c tio n in g o fL a S illaa t its p r e s e n t h ig h

le v e l o f q u a lity .
L .W O LTJER
D ire c to r G e n e ra l
T h e S w e d is h -E S O
S u b m illim e tr e T e le s c o p e
R .S .B O O T H , O n s a laS p a c e O b s e rv a to ry , C h a lm e rs T e k n is k a
H \u00f6 g s k o la , G \u00f6 te b o rg ,S w e d e n
M .J .O E J O N G E , In s titu td e R a d io a s tr o n o m ie M illim e triq u e , G re n o b le , F ra n c e
P .A . S H AV E R , E u ro p e a n S o u th e rn O b s e rv a to ry
In tro d u c tio n
D ra m a tic
c h a n g e s
h a v e
ta k e n
p la c e
d u rin g th e p a s t tw o y e a rs a t th e s o u th \ue000
e rn
e n d
o f th e
te le s c o p e
rid g e
o n
L a
S illa
a n d
now ,
w h e re
o n c e
s to o d
a
m e te o r o lo g ic a l s ta tio n ,
s ta n d s
a
1 5 -m
s u b m illim e tr e te le s c o p e . T h e te le s c o p e ,
d e s ig n e d b yIR A M
e n g in e e r s , h a s b e e n
b u ilto n
b e h a lf o f th e
S w e d is h
N a tu ra l
S c ie n c e
R e s e a rc h
C o u n c il
(N F R )
a n d
E S O .Itw illb e o p e r a te d jo in tly b yE S O
a n d
N FR
(th ro u g h
th e
O n s a la
S p a c e
O b s e rv a to ry ) .
T h e
S w e d is h - E S O
S u b m illim e tr e
T e le s c o p e ,
a c ro n y m
S E S T ,
w h ile
n o t
a c tu a lly
b r e a k in g
n e w
g ro u n d
a tE S O ,
s in c e
som e
g ro u p s
h a v e
a lre a d y
u s e d
th e 3 .6 -m
a n d o th e r te le s c o p e sa t s u b \ue000
m illim e tre
w a v e le n g th s ,
re p re s e n ts
a
2
s ig n ific a n t b re a k th ro u g ha s a d e d ic a te d
s e n s itiv e
m illim e tr e - s u b m illim e tr e
in \ue000
s tru m e n t.Itis th e
o n ly te le s c o p e
o f its
k in d
in
th e
s o u th e rn
h e m is p h e r e
a n d
a m o n g th e firs t s u c h
in s tru m e n tsinth e
w o rld .
S E S T
w ill
e x te n d
th e
o b s e rv a tio n a l
p a rt o f th e ra d io s p e c tru m
to w a rd s th e
in fra re d
a n d
w ill e n a b le
E u ro p e a n
a s \ue000
tro n o m e rs
t o
p ro b e
th e
m o le c u la r
c 1 0 u d s
o f th e
s o u th e rn
M ilk y W a y
a n d
o th e r n e a rb y
g a la x ie s , p r o v id in g
in fo r\ue000
m a tio no ns te lla r e v o lu tio n a n d g a la c tic
d y n a m ic s . It w ill e n a b le th e m
to in v e s ti\ue000
g a te th e
ra d io
c o n tin u u m
p ro p e rtie s o f
th e
s ta rs ,
HI1
re g io n s
a n d
in te r s te lla r
d u s tinth is n e w w a v e le n g th re g io n , a n d
p r o v id e
v a lu a b le
n e w
d a ta
o n
q u a s a rs
a n d
ra d io
g a la x ie s
in
th e
s u b m illim e tr e
w a v e le n g th re g im e .S E S Tm a y a is o b e -
c o m ea n e x te n s io n o f th e e x is tin gV L B I
a rra y s fo r th e
s tu d y o f th e
s u b m illia r c \ue000
s e c o n d
p ro p e rtie s
o f
lo w
d e c lin a tio n
ra d io s o u rc e s .
B a c k g ro u n d
T h e id e a o f b u ild in g
a n
IR A M

d e s ig n te le s c o p eo nL aS illa w a s fir s t c o n c e iv e d b y th e a s tro n o m e rs o f IR A M

a n d O n s a la S p a c e O b s e rv a to ry , a n d e n th u s ia s tic a lly s u p p o rte d b yE S O . T h e o u tc o m e o f th e s u b s e q u e n t

n e g o tia tio n s
b e tw e e n
th e
p a rtie s a n d
th e ir fu n d in g
a g e n c ie s
w as
a n
a g re e m e n t
b e tw e e n
th e

S w e d is h N a tu ra l S c ie n c e s R e s e a rc h C o u n c il a n d E S O

t o
in s ta ll
a n d
o p e ra te
th e
1 5 -m
te le s c o p eo n
L aS illa a n d s h a r e th e e x \ue000
p e n s e a n d th e o b s e r v in g tim e o v e r a 1 5 \ue000
y e a r p e r io d .IR A M
a g re e d
t o
b u ild
th e
te le s c o p e u n d e r c o n tr a c t w ith
E S O .A s
p a rt
o f th e
a g re e m e n t,
O n s a la
S p a c e

O b s e rv a to ryh a s th e te c h n ic a l re s p o n s i\ue000 b ility fo r th e fir s t re c e iv e rs a n d th e o v e r\ue000 a llp ro je c t.

T h e
fo rm a l a g re e m e n ts
w e re
s ig n e d
at a
s m a ll c e r e m o n y
a t O n s a la

S p a c e O b s e rv a to ryo n J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 8 4 . U n d e r a s e p a ra te

N o rd ic
a g re e m e n t
re la te d
t o
th e
N o rd ic
O p tic a l
T e le s c o p e
(N O T ),
F in n is h
a s tro n o m e rs
w ill
b e n e fit
fro m
1 0 %
o f th e S w e d is h o b s e r v in g tim e .
T h e Im p o r t a n c e o fL a S illa
L aS illa
isa n
im p o r ta n t s ite fo rS E S T
o n
tw o c o u n ts .T h e firs tis its s o u th e rn
lo c a tio n ,
m a k in g
th e
te le s c o p e
u n iq u e

a sth e o n ly m a jo r te le s c o p ein th e s o u th \ue000 e rn h e m is p h e re to o p e ra te b e lo w 3m m w a v e le n g th .T h e

s e c o n d
isth e
lo w
a t\ue000
m o s p h e r ic
a tte n u a tio n
a b o v e
th is
d ry
m o u n ta in

s ite . F ig u re 2 s h o w s th e re la \ue000 tiv e tra n s m is s io n o f th e a tm o s p h e rea s a fu n c tio n o f fre q u e n c y fo r 1 a n d 4m m

o f

p r e c ip ita b le w a te r. T h e a tm o s p h e r ic w a \ue000 t e r v a p o u r c o n t e n t a b o v eL a S illais b e \ue000 lo w

4 mm
fo r n e a rly
o n e
h u n d re d
p e r
c e n t
o f
th e
tim e
d u rin g
th e
w in te r
m o n th s , w ith
som e
d a y s
b e lo w
1 mm.
T h e s e
a re
v e ry
g o o d
o b s e r v in g

c o n d i\ue000 tio n s , a n d e a rly e x p e r ie n c e w ith th e te le \ue000 s c o p e

show s
th e
e n o rm o u s
im p r o v e \ue000
m e n t o v e r a ty p ic a l s e a -Ie v e l s ite .
F ig u re1 :T h e
1 5 -m
S w e d is h - E S O S u b m illim e tr e T e le s c o p e .
1 0 0
2 0 0
3 0 0
4 0 0
5 0 0
6 0 0
F R E O .U E N e y
(G H z )
F ig u re2 :T ra n s m is s io n th ro u g h th e a tm o s p h e r e w ith 1a n d 4m mo fa tm o s p h e ric w a te r v a p o u r.
T h e T e le s c o p e
T h e
g e n e ra l s p e c ific a tio n s
fo rS E S T
a re
g iv e n
in
T a b le1 . T h e
te le s c o p e
is
d e s ig n e d
t o
a c h ie v e
a
re fle c to r p ro file
a c c u ra c y
o f5 0
m ic r o n s
r.m .s .,g iv in g
g o o d
(c o h e re n t)
p e rfo rm a n c e
dow n
t o
w a v e le n g th s:s0.8 m m
(3 7 5G H z).(T h e
R uze
c rite rio n
o n
p e rfo rm a n c e o f ra d io
te le s c o p e s
g iv e s
5 0%
e ffic ie n c y
a t
a
w a v e le n g th o f 1 6 x
r.m .s .e rro r).
T h e a n te nn a(d e s c rib e d
by Jean
D e\ue000
la n n o y a t th e
A s p e n \u00e4 s
E S O -IR A M -O n \ue000
s a la
W o rk s h o p
o n
(s u b )m illim e tre

a s \ue000 tro n o m y )isid e n tic a l to th re e o th e rs b e \ue000 in g

b u ilt
b y
IR A M
o n
th e
P la te a u
d e
B u re , F ra n c e ,a s
m o v a b le
e le m e n ts
o f
a n
in te rfe ro m e te r.
F ro m
th e
o u ts e t,
th e re fo re ,
a n
e s s e n tia l d e s ig n

re q u ire \ue000 m e n t w a s th e c a p a b ility to o p e ra te w ith \ue000 o u t a r a d o m e o r o th e r e n c lo s u re n o rm a l\ue000

Iy
a s s o c ia te d
w ith
te le s c o p e s
o f
th is
p r e c is io n . T h isiso n ly a c h ie v e d th r o u g h
n e w
te c h n o lo g y . T h e
n e w
concept be\ue000
h in d th e s e a n te n n a eis th e e x te n s iv e u s e
o f
c a rb o n
fib re ,
in
b o th
th e
b a c k in g
s tru c tu re a n d th e re fle c to r.T h e m a te ria l
is
lig h t- w e ig h t
a n d
th e re fo re
g ra v ita \ue000
tio n a l d is to r tio n
is
s m a lI,
a n d
ith a s
a
lo w
te m p e ra tu re
c o e ffic ie n t,
th e re b y
m in im iz in g
th e
e ffe c ts

o f te m p e ra tu re g r a d ie n tso n th e s u r fa c e p ro file . F in a lly , th e

te le s c o p e
is
d e s ig n e d
u s in g
v o n
H o e rn e r's
h o m o lo g y
p r in c ip le ,
w hic h
m eans
th a t itis
n o ta n
e x tre m e ly
s tiff
s tru c tu rea n d
isa llo w e d to d is to r ta s a
fu n c tio n
o f e le v a tio n
a n g le . T h e fle x u r e
is ,h o w e v e r, c o n s tra in e d
s u c h
th a t th e

r e fle c to r a lw a y s re ta in s a p a r a b o lic fo rm a n d , b y th e s im p le e x p e d ie n t o f m o v in g th e

s u b re fle c to r
a n
a p p ro p ria te
p re \ue000
d e te rm in e d a m o u n t, th e fo c u s
ism a in \ue000
ta in e d
a n d
w ith
it th e
e ffic ie n c y o f th e
p a r a b o lo id .T h e
te le s c o p e
c a n

o p e ra te w ith in th e s p e c ific a tio n sin w in d s u p to 14 m s-

1
a n d
u n d e r
te m p e ra tu re
g ra \ue000
d ie n ts
of up
t o
1 0 \u00b0C
a c ro s s
th e
s u r\ue000
fa c e .
1 ,0
> -
u
C II
CC II
< -
0 ,8
< -
C II
4
m
m
~
0
" , . c
Q
. Q
.
V I
V I
0 ,6
c
0
' "
E
< -
......
~
<
0 ,4
C II
C II
> .c
: ; :
.
.
.
.
.
0 ,2
'"
-
.....
C II
0
C l:
T h e
S E S T
re fle c to r
c o n s is ts
o f
1 7 6

p a n e ls , e a c h m o u n te da t 5 p o in ts ,a ll o f w h ic h h a v e s e rv o -c o n tro lle d m o to rs f\u00fc r a d ju s tm e n t.

T h e
te le s c o p e
h a s
b e e n
s u rv e y e d
b yA .G re v e o fIR A M
u s in g
a
d ir e c t (th e o d o lite
a n d
m e a s u r in g
ta p e )
m e th o d
in
th e
z e n ith
p o in tin g

p o s itio n . B y s u c c e s s iv e a d ju s tm e n t o f th e p a n e ls a

p a r a b o lic
p ro file
h a s
b e e n
a c h ie v e d
w ith
a n

r.m .s . a c c u r a c y o f8 0 m ic ro n s . F u r th e r s u c h a d ju s tm e n t, itis h o p e d , w ill re s u ltina n r.m .s . o f b e tte r th a n

7 0m i\ue000

c ro n s . F in a l tr im m in g o f th e s u rfa c e w ill b e a tte m p te d e ith e r u s in g th e te c h n iq u e o fh o lo g r a p h yo n a s a te llite tr a n s m is s io n3

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->