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messenger-no51

messenger-no51

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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02/01/2013

N o.5 1
-
M a rc h
1 9 8 8
K ey P ro g ra m m e so n
L aS illa : a P r e lim in a r y E n q u ir y
H .V A N
D E R
L A A N , D ir e c to r G e n e ra l, E S O
A llo c a tin g T e le s c a p e T im e

E S O 'sra is o n d 'e treis th e p r o v is io n o f te le s c o p e tim e , a s h o r th a n d e x p re s s io n fo r

a
c o m p r e h e n s iv e
p a c k a g e
o f s e r\ue000
v ic e s
o f w h ic h
h u n d re d s
o f E u ro p e a n
a s tro n o m e rs
a v a il
th e m s e lv e s
e v e ry
y e a r.T h e
c o re
o f th a t p a c k a g e
is
th e
n u m b e r o f n ig h ts d u r in g w h ic h th e v is it\ue000
In ga s tro n o m e rh a s c o n tro l o f o n e o fL a

S illa 's d o z e n o p tic a l te le s c o p e s .W ea ll k n o w th e p ro c e d u re fo r o b ta in in g th o s e n ig h ts , th e c o m p o s itio na n ds u b m is s io n o f

th e
p r o p o s a l,
th e
e v a lu a tio n
a n d
g ra d in g
b y th e
O P C ,th e
a llo c a tio n
b y
th e
D G .E S O
h a s ,in
its e ig h t m e m b e r
s ta te s ,
n e a rly
tw o
th o u s a n d
p o te n tia l

u s e rs w h o s e a c c e s s toL a S illa fa c ilitie s d e p e n d so nth e(re la tiv e ) s c ie n tific m e rit a n dth e te c h n ic a l fe a s ib ility o f th e ir o b \ue000 s e r v in g

p r o p o s a ls .
O b v io u s ly
th e
v e ry
la rg era tio
b e tw e e n
n u m b e r o f c o m p e t\ue000
In go b s e rv e rsa n d n u m b e r o f te le s c o p e s
m eans
th a t
te le s c o p e
tim e
is
a
v e ry

s c a rc e c o m m o d ity . If m a n y o f th e in te r\ue000 e s tin g p r o p o s a lsa reg r a n te d tim e , th e n a

lik e ly
r e s u lt
is
th e
fra g m e n ta tio n
o f
te le s c o p e
tim e
t o
s u c h
a n
e x te n t th a t
m o s t p ro p o s e rsr e c e iv e s o m e tim e m o s t
o f th e tim e .
In
a n
a c c o m p a n y in g
n o te ,

J a c q u e s B re y s a c h e r, h e a d o f E S O 's V is itin g A s \ue000 tro n o m e rs S e c tio n , illu s tra te s th is fra g \ue000 m e n ta tio n .H e a ls o p r o v id e s in fo r m a tio n

w hic h
show s
th a t
a
la rg e
fra c tio n
o f
th o s e
re q u e s ts fo r te le s c o p e
tim e
th a t
a re
s u c c e s s fu l,
a re
n e v e rth e le s s
c u r\ue000
ta ile d .T h etim e a s k e d fo r p e r p ro p o s a l
iso f c o u rs e b a s e do n p e rc e iv e d n e e d s
a sw e ila so n e x p e r ie n c e : ify o u r e q u e s t
fifte e n
n ig h ts
o n
th e
3 .6 -m
te le s c o p e
y o u
g e t n o th in g
a n d
lo s e
c r e d ib ility
in

th e b a rg a in .F o r m a n y u s e rs th e p re s e n t p r a c tic e w o rk s w e il, th e ir w o r k s ty le a n d p ro g ra m m e s c o p ea re a d a p te d to th e s e fa c ts o f life , th e reisn ore a s o n to c h a n g e a g o o d th in g .

O n
th e
o th e r
h a n d ,
th e
fo llo w in g
s c e n a r ioisa ls o a p a in fu l r e a lity fo r m a n y
a nE S O
u s e r.Y ou re q u e s tfiv e n ig h tsin
a
ju d ic io u s ly
b a la n c e d
tra d e -o ff
b e \ue000
tw e e n

m in im a l a s tr o n o m ic a l n e e d sa n d y o u r e s tim a te o f th e O P C 's ra n g e .T h e n y o u

g e t th re e
n ig h ts ,
o fw h ic h
o n e
is
p a rtly
c lo u d y ;
y o u r

a s tro p h y s ic a l g o a l s h ifts a n o th e r y e a ra n dth e s u b s ta n c e o f y o u rP h .D .s tu d e n t's th e s is e ro d e s p re \ue000 c a r io u s ly .T h e fo c u s o f y o u r o w n s c ie n \ue000 t if ic

a tte n tio n
is
b lu rre d ,
y o u
h a v e
to
w o rkins e v e ra la re a sa t o n c ea n d a r iv a l/
frie n do n a n o th e r c o n tin e n t ta k e s a d e c i\ue000
s iv ele a d .
T h e N T T ,a n O p p o rtu n ityin M o r e
W ays Than One
R e a d e rs
o f th e
M essengera re
w e il
fa m ilia r
w ith
E S O 's
N ew
T e c h n o lo g y
T e le s c o p e ,
n o w
n e a rin g
c o m p le tio n .
L a te
th is
y e a r
th e
N D
w ill
b e
com \ue000
m is s io n e d
o n
L a
S illa ;
in
P e rio d
4 3 ,
s ta r tin gin A p r il 1 9 8 9 , it w illb e a v a ila b le
fo r v is itin g
a s tro n o m e rs . W ith
th e
N D ,
E S O 's e ffe c tiv e " fo u r-m e tre c la s s tim e "
m o re th a n d o u b le s : b o th th e 3 .6 -m
a n d
th e
N D
w ill
b e
o p e r a tio n a lly
m o re
s ta b le
a n d
e ffic ie n t th a n
th e
3 .6 -m
is

n o w , g iv e n th e in e v ita b le , la r g e n u m b e r o f in s tr u m e n t c h a n g e s a n d th e ir a s s o c i\ue000 a te do v e rh e a da tp re s e n t.

Itisc le a r th a t th e e s ta b lis h e d m a n n e r o f d is tr ib u tin gE S Ote le s c o p e tim e a d e \ue000 q u a te ly s e rv e s a g o o d fra c tio n o f c u rre n t re s e a rc h

n e e d s .
Itseem s
e q u a lly
e v i-
d e n t th a t th e fra g m e n ta tio n
o f th e tim e
o n
in te rm e d ia te -s iz e
a n d
la rg e
te le \ue000
s c o p e s p r e c lu d e sE S Ou s e rs fro m
in itia \ue000
tin g
c e rta in
c la s s e s
o f
p ro g ra m m e s
s u c h
a s

a re ,fo r e x a m p le , s u c c e s s fu lly p u rs u e do n M o u n t P a lo m a r 'sH a ie te le \ue000 s c o p ea n ds o m e o th e r A m e ric a n u n iv e r\ue000 s itie s 'a n d

F o u n d a tio n s ' te le s c o p e s
o n
g o o d
s ite s . O u r c u rre n t p ro c e d u re s fo r
a llo c a tin g
te le s c o p e
tim e
d is c o u r a g e
th e s ta rt o f e ffo rts o f th e re q u ire d m a g \ue000
n itu d e .
T h e
g o a l
fo r
a n
in n o v a tio n
in
th e s e
p ro c e d u re s
is
t o
re m o v e
th is
h a n d ic a p fo r a s tro n o m yinE S Om em ber
s ta te s .T h eN D
m u s t s ig n a l a g ro w thin
q u a litya s w e ila s q u a n tity .
Itism yin te n tio n tou s e th e a d d itio n o f
th e
N D
t o
o u r te le s c o p e
p a rk

fo ra n e x p e r im e n tin th e a llo c a tio n o f te le s c o p e tim e . T h is e x p e r im e n t w ill a ffe c ta llo u r m a jo r te le s c o p e s(a n do u r s h a re sin th e M P G 's 2 .2 -ma n dth e D a n is h 1 .5 -m ). L e t m e

firs t s k e tc h
th e
fa c tu a l e s s e n c e
o f

th is in te n tio n , th e n p r o v id e a b r ie f m o ti\ue000 v a tio na n d a ls o re q u e s t a s tru c tu re d re \ue000 s p o n s e fro m

y o u , o u r re a d e rs /u s e rs .
R e g a rd
th e
net am ount of new
te le \ue000
s c o p e tim e g a in e da sa r e s u lt o f h a v in g
th e c o m m is s io n e dN D
o nL aS illa , d is \ue000
trib u te d
am ong
th e
fo llo w in g
s ix
te le -
T o g e th e r th e y fo rm
th e

M a n a g e m e n t T e a m /L a S illa . D a n ie l H o f s t a d tis th e c h a irm a n o f th e M T /L a S a n dh ere p o rts tom eo n b e h a lf o f th e O b s e rv a to ry 's M anagem ent Team .

M a n a g e m e n t C h a n g e so nL a S illa
F o r th e in fo r m a tio n o f v is itin g a s tro n o m e rs I a n n o u n c es om e c h a n g e sin th e
L a
S illa
m a n a g e m e n t.
E ffe c tiv e
M a rc h
1 ,1 9 8 8 , th e

m a n a g e m e n t re s p o n \ue000 s ib ilitie sa tL a S illa a re s h a r e d b y fiv e d e p a r tm e n t h e a d s /g r o u p le a d e rs . T h e s e a re :

H .E .S c h u s te r ,V L T S ite S e rv ic e s a n d S c h m id t T e le s c o p e

T o rb e n H \u00f6 \u00f6 g , M a in te n a n c e a n d C o n s tru c tio n D a n ie l H o fs ta d t, T e c h n ic a l R e s e a rc h S u p p o rt J o rg e M e ln ic k , A s tro n o m y D e p a rtm e n t

B e rn a rd D u g u e t, A d m in is tra tio n
s c o p e s :
N T T ,3 .6 -m ,C A T ,
E S O
1 .5 -m
a n d
E S O
s h a re s
o f M P G 's
2 .2 -m
a n d
th e
D a n is h
1 .5 -m . S o m e
o r a ll o f th is
n e w
c a p a c ity w illb e
a llo c a te d
in
a re\ue000
v is e d
m a n n e r,
s u c h
th a t a
num ber of
p ro g ra m m e s c a n
re c e iv e v e ry s u b s ta n \ue000
tia l
p o rtio n s
o f
te le s c o p e
tim e ,
t o
b e
m a d e a v a ila b le o v e r a o n e to f o u r y e a r
p e rio d .
T h e
net new
tim e
a v a ila b le
in
fo u r
y e a rs ,
a p p ly in g
w e ig h tin g
fa c to rs
fo r th e in te r m e d ia te - s iz e te le s c o p e sv is \ue000
a - v isth e
N T T ,a m o u n ts to a b o u t 2 ,0 0 0
n ig h ts , h a lf o fw h ic h
o n
th e
3 .6 -m
a n d

th eN T T .S o m e o ra ll o f th e s ea re tob e a llo c a te d to , s a y , b e tw e e n o n e a n d tw o d o z e n

k e y p ro g ra m m e s ;a llo c a tio n s
to
vary from
m in im a lly tw e lv e to m a x im a lly
fifty n ig h ts p e r y e a r p e r p ro g ra m m e .
E v id e n tly , th e
in tro d u c tio n
of such
a
s c h e m e w o u ld b e d iffic u lt to n e a rly im \ue000
p o s s ib le
u n d e r c irc u m s ta n c e s

of con\ue000 s ta n t to ta l te le s c o p e tim e .Itis th e m a jo r p o s itiv e in c re m e n t a ffo rd e d b y th e c o m \ue000 p ie tio n

o f th e
N TTw h ic h
p r o v id e s th is
n e w
o p p o rtu n ity
fo r
E u ro p e a n

a s \ue000 tro n o m y w ith o u t n e g a tiv e e ffe c ts fo r o n \ue000 g o in g

a c tiv itie s . W h e th e r s o m e
o r,u lti\ue000
m a te ly ,a ll o f th e
n e w
c a p a c ity
isa llo \ue000
c a te d
in
th e
n e w
m a n n e r m u s t c le a r ly
d e p e n d
o n
th e

p ro p o s a l p re s s u re . T h e h is to g ra m s fo r th e 3 .6 -m a n d 2 .2 -m a llo \ue000 c a tio n s , s h o w ninD r.B re y s a c h e r's a rti\ue000 c le , c a nin fu tu re a ls ob e b ro a d e n e d b y th e u s e o f s o m e o f th e a d d itio n a l tim e .

T h e G ro w th o f E S O
A s tro n o m y
In
th e
p r e v io u s
is s u e
o f
th e
M essenger
P ro fe s s o r W o ltje r
g a v e
a n
o v e r v ie w
o f d e v e lo p m e n ts
w ith in
E S O
d u rin g
th e
p a s t
d o z e n
y e a rs .
F ro m
a
p o s itio n
o f r e la tiv e
in s tru m e n ta l b a c k \ue000
w a rd n e s s ,
E u ro p e a n
a s tro n o m ic a l
fa c ilitie s
h a v e
a c h ie v e d
w o r ld - c la s s
s ta tu s .
W ith
th e
d e c is io n
to
p ro c e e d
w ith
th e
c o n s tru c tio n
o f th e
V LT ,

w e m u s t n o w a ls o p a y c lo s e a tte n tio n to th e fu rth e r

e n h a n c e m e n t o f th e
q u a lity
o f
o u r c o m m u n ity 's
p ro g ra m m e s
a n d
th e
d e v e lo p m e n t
o f
lo n g -te rm
E u ro p e a n
2
H .V A N
D E R
L A A N ,D ire c to r G e n e ra l
g o a lsina s tro n o m y .In th e n e x t d e c a d e it
ise s s e n tia l to p re p a re th e n e x t g e n e ra \ue000
tio n
fo r
a n
a ll
o u t
e x p lo ita tio n
o f th e
V L1 'su n iq u e p o te n tia l.
S c h e d u le s a n d
P ro c e d u re s
If w ea re to m a k e a g o o d s ta r t w ith th e
k e y
p ro g ra m m e s
in
p e rio d
4 3
(A p ril
th ro u g h
S e p te m b e r
1 9 8 9 ),
th e n
th e
s c h e d u leisa s fo lIo w s :
-
In itia l re s p o n s e to th is p r e lim in a r y e n \ue000
q u iry : b e fo re3 0 A p ril 1 9 8 8 .
-
D is c u s s io n
o f
p r in c ip le s
a n d
p ro \ue000
c e d u re s
a n d
o f re s p o n s e
t o

p r e lim i\ue000 n a ry e n q u iryinE S O 'sS T C a n dO P C : May 1988.

-
In fo rm a tio n
a n d
c a ll fo r p r o p o s a ls
in
th eM e s s e n g e r, N o .5 2 , J u n e 1 9 8 8 .
-
P ro p o s a l
d e a d lin e
fo r
p ro g ra m m e s
s ta rtin g
in
p e rio d
4 3 ,
1 5
O c to b e r
1 9 8 8 .
-
O u ts id e
re fe re e in g
in
N ovem ber
1 9 8 8 ;
tim e
a llo c a tio n
u p o n
re c o m \ue000
m e n d a tio n
b y th eO PC
in
D ecem ber
1 9 8 8 .
G iv e n
th e
la rg e
in v e s tm e n ts
in

te le \ue000 s c o p e tim e fo re s e e n , th e p r o p o s a ls re \ue000 q u ire

d e e p
a n d
c a re fu l a rg u m e n ta tio n .
T h e y
m ust
h a v e
m uch
a d d e d

v a lu e c o m p a re d to n o rm a l p ro p o s a ls , o p e n in g re s e a rc h

d o m a in s
n o t h ith e rto
a c c e s s \ue000
ib le
w ith
E S O
fa c ilitie s .
N o r m a lly

th e p ro p o s e rs w h o c o n s titu te th e o b s e rv in g te a m

w ill
re p re s e n t
s e v e ra l

in s titu te s ; h o p e fu lly th e te a m s w ill u s u a llyb em u lti\ue000 n a tio n a l.

S in c e
e c o n o m ic
s c h e d u lin g
w ill r e q u ir e
a good
fra c tio n
o f th e
o b \ue000
s e rv in g tob ed o n ein " s e r v ic e m o d e " , it
is
h ig h ly
d e s ir a b le
t o
in v o lv e
E S O
a s \ue000
tro n o m e rs
e m p lo y e d
o n
L a
S illa
in
th e
o b s e r v in g
te a m s .
(T h is
h a s
th e
a d d i\ue000
tio n a l
a d v a n ta g e
o f
in v o lv in g
th e s e
y o u n g
a s tro n o m e rs
in
c o m m u n ity
p ro \ue000
g ra m m e s , w h ic h
w ill m a k e
w o r k in g
o n
L aS illae v e n
m o re
in te re s tin g ,a n d
w ill
e a s eth e ir w a y b a c k in to c o m m u n ity e m -
p lo y m e n t.) A lte rn a tiv e ly , o b s e r v e r s m u s t
b e
p re p a re d
t o
s p e n d
s u b s ta n tia l
p e rio d so nL aS illa .
O ne
c a n
fo re s e e
th e m a tic
p r o p o s a ls
w hic h
s e t
o u t
a
p ro g ra m m e
o f
w o rk
c o v e r in g
u p
t o
fo u r o r fiv e

y e a rs . T h e in itia l p r o p o s a listo c o n ta in th e s c ie n tific ju s tific a tio na s w e ila s th e o b s e r v in g a n d th e in te r p r e tiv e s tra te g ie s . Itis to in c lu d e

a no v e r v ie w
o f th e o b s e r v in g n ig h ts re \ue000
q u ire da s a fu n c tio n
o f tim e
inth e to ta l
p ro g ra m m e p e rio da sw e il a ss p e c ify th e
te le s c o p e (s )
a n d
in s tru m e n t(s )
t o
b e
u s e d . T h e in s tru m e n ts m a yb e
e x is tin g
E S O
com m on
u s e r in s tru m e n ts , in s tru \ue000
m e n ts tob e p ro v id e d
b y th e o b s e rv in g
te a m
o r
in s tru m e n ts
p ro p o s e d
t o
b e
c o n s tru c te din c o lla b o ra tio n fo r th e p u r\ue000
p o s e .
( In
th e
la tte r c ir c u m s ta n c e s
th e
p la n n in g
m u s t ta k e p la c e
o nac as e b y
c a s e b a s is .)Ina d d itio n ,a n o v e r v ie w
o f
th e
te a m
m e m b e rs ,
th e ir
re s p e c tiv e

s p e c ia liz a tio n sa n dre le v a n t e x p e r ie n c e , a n dth e re s o u rc e s a v a ila b le fo r d a ta re \ue000 d u c tio n

a n d
a n a ly s is .
T im e
a llo c a tio n
w illb efo r th e w h o le p ro g ra m m ein p rin \ue000
c ip ie ,w ith
a n
in itia l a n n u a l in s ta lm e n t;
s u b s e q u e n t
in s ta lm e n ts
d e p e n d e n t
u p o n th e c o n te n ts o f p ro g re s s re p o rts .
R e a d e r s /u s e r s a r e h e r e w ith in v ite d
t o
s u b m it,
b e fo re
3 0
A p ril
1 9 8 8 ,
a
s ta te m e n t o f th e ir in te n tio n
t o
m ake
u s e
o f th is
n e w
p a rt
o f E S O 's
p ro -
gram m e.
F o rm s ,
s p e c ify in g
th e
fo r-

m a t o f y o u r r e s p o n s e a lo n g t h e lin e s o f th etw op re c e d in g p a ra g ra p h s , a re a v a ila b le u p o n r e q u e s t fr o m

th e V is it-
in g
A s tro n o m e rs
S e c tio n
a t th e
E S O
H e a d q u a rte rs .
F in a l R e m a r k s
K ey
p ro g ra m m e s
a re
n o t
m eant
t o
s im p ly
b e
lo n g -te rm
a c q u is itio n s
o f
la rg e
d a ta b a s e s , w h ic h
a re
th o u g h t to
b eg o o d fo r s e v e ra l p u rp o s e s ,s om e o f
w h ic h
a re
in itia lly s p e c ifie d
a n d
o th e rs
w h ic h
h a v e
n o t
y e t
b e e n
th o u g h t
o f.
S u c h
p ro g ra m m e sa re
o f c o u rs e
g o in g
o n , p e r fe c tly ju s tifia b ly ,o n th e S c h m id t
a n d
o n
s e v e ra l
o f
th e
s m a lle r
te le \ue000
s c o p e s .
A
s u c c e s s fu l
k e y

p ro g ra m m e p ro p o s a l w ill a d d re s s a m a jo r a s tro n o m \ue000 ic a l

th e m e ,
p r o v id e
(a )
v e ry

s p e c ific g o a l( s )a n do u tlin e a s tru c tu re d re s e a rc h s tra te g y .

K ey
p ro g ra m m e s
c a n
in v o lv e
p o s t\ue000
g ra d u a te s tu d e n ts fro m
s ta r t to fin is h o f
th e irP h .D .th e s is p ro g ra m m e , p r o v id in g
th e m
w ith
a c o h e re n t re s e a rc h
c o n te x t

a n d u s in g th e ir fu ll tim e e ffo r tsa sw e ila s a llo f th e ir y o u th fu l e n th u s ia s m . A n a lo \ue000 g o u s re a s o n in g m a k e s th e p a r tic ip a tio n o f p o s td o c to r a l fe llo w s v e ry a ttra c tiv e .

K ey
p ro g ra m m e s ,
a s
th e
te rm
s u g \ue000
g e s ts ,
m ust
o p e n
n e w
re s e a rc h
d o \ue000
m a in s . T h e y w ill r e q u ir e c a r e fu l p e e rre \ue000
v ie w
a n d
w ill
b e
s u b je c t
t o
p u b lic
s c ru tin y
b y
th e
E S O
u s e r c o m m u n ity .
S u c c e s s fu l
a p p lic a n ts
a re
lik e ly
t o
b e
re q u ire d to m a k e th e ir re s u lts , c a lib r a te d
a n d
d o c u m e n t e d , a v a ila b le
fo r g e n e ra l
u s ea fte r a p re s c rib e d p e rio d .
Ina s h iftin g p a tte rn o f o n e to fo u r y e a r
k e y
p ro g ra m m e s
it w ill
b e
p ru d e n t to
s ta r t w ith re la tiv e ly fe w
o f th e fo u r y e a r
v a rie ty ,
in
o rd e r
to
c o m m it
th e
tim e
a v a ila b le
g ra d u a lly , to
th e
m o s t a m b i\ue000
tio u s p ro g ra m m e s o f th e b e s t p re p a re d
te a m s .
In
a d d itio n
t o
y o u r
fo rm a l
re \ue000
s p o n s e
th ro u g h
th e
V is itin g
A s tro n o m \ue000
e rs
S e c tio n ,
g e n e ra l
c o m m e n ts
c o n \ue000
c e rn in g th is in te n tio n , a d d re s s e d tom e,
a rew e lc o m e .
S o m e S ta tis tic s a b o u t O b s e rv in g T im e D is trib u tio n
o nE S O
T e le s c o p e s
J .BREYSACHER, ESO
1 9 7 7
7 8
7 9
8 0
8 1
8 2
8 3
8 4
8 5
8 6
1 9 8 7
F ig u re1 :
T h e
n u m b e rso f o b s e rv in g p ro p o s a ls re s p e c tiv e ly re c e iv e d a n d a c c e p te db yE S O
d u r in g th e p a s t n in e y e a rs . A r r o w s in d ic a te w h e n n e w te le s c o p e s b e c a m e a v a ila b le .
th e
E S O
O b s e r v in g

P ro g ra m m e s C o m \ue000 m itte e a n d /o r d u r in g th e fin a l s c h e d u lin g p h a s e , h a d to s u ffe r fro m

a re d u c tio n o f
th e
num ber
o f
re q u e s te d
n ig h ts ,
th e
m eanp e rc e n ta g e s o b ta in e d fo r th e p a s t
fo u r y e a rsa rea sfo lio w s .A t th e 3 .6 -m ,
1 0 5 m
D anish
0 .9 m
D u tc h
I O c to b e r
1 9 7 9I
I
V I
Z
o
;:::
\u00ab
W::::;
0 ..
0 ..
\u00ab
0 0
w W
>
......
_ 0 ..
w W
w W
W
W
0 ::\u00ab
Ii
u ...
o0 ::
w
C D
L
::>
z
1 6 m
I O e to b e r1 9 7 7 )
j
6 0 0
2 0 0
7 0 0
3 0 0
4 0 0
5 0 0
1 0 0
T h e
a im
o f th is
n o te , w h ic h
isto
b e
re g a rd e d
a s
a n
a p p e n d ix to
th e

a rtic le w ritte nb y P ro fe s s o rv a n d e rL a a n ,is to g iv e

som e
s ta tis tic a l in fo rm a tio n
a b o u t
th e
o b s e r v in g
tim e
s c h e d u le d
a t
E S O
o v e r th e
p a s t fo u r y e a rs . O n ly th e
fiv e
la rg e s t te le s c o p e s
in s ta lle d
a tL a
S illa
w ill
b e
c o n s id e r e d
h e re ,
n a m e ly
th e
3 .6 -m , 2 .2 -m , 1 .5 -m , 1 .5 -m
D a n is h a n d
1 .4 -m
C A T .
N e e d le s s
t o
s a y ,
a t
E S O
a s
in
a n y
o th e r m a jo r g ro u n d -b a s e d o b s e rv a to ry ,
g iv e n
th e
h e a v y
o v e rs u b s c rip tio n
o f
te le s c o p e tim e , th e s e le c tio n o f th e o b \ue000
s e r v in g
p r o p o s a ls
is
ra th e r
s tric t.
F i\ue000
g u re1 ,
w hic h
is
ta k e n
fro m
th e
1 9 8 7
E S O
A n n u a l R e p o rt, a llo w s a c o m p a r i\ue000
s o nb e tw e e n th e to ta l n u m b e rs o f a p p li\ue000
c a tio n s
r e c e iv e d
a n d
fin a lly
a c c e p te d
e a c hy e a r, fo r a lm o s t a d e c a d e .
L e t
u s
n o w
tu rn
t o
th e
s u c c e s s fu l
p r o p o s a ls .T h eh is to g ra m s p re s e n te din
F ig u re 2
in d ic a te
h o w
th e
1 ,3 5 0

p ro \ue000 g ra m m e s a c c e p te d d u rin g th e p a s t fo u r y e a rsfo r th eu s e o f th e fiv e te le s c o p e s m e n tio n e d a b o v e , w e re d is tr ib u te d w ith re g a rd to th e n u m b e r o f n ig h ts a llo c a te d toth e m .

If
o n e
c o n s id e r s
o n ly
th e
7 0 5
p ro \ue000
g ra m m e s
s c h e d u le d
a tth e
3 .6 -m
a n d
2 .2 -m te le s c o p e s , th e re w e re2 4 3(3 4% )
o b s e r v in g
ru n s
of two
n ig h ts
a n d
2 6 9
(3 8% )ru n s o f th re e n ig h ts .T h e p e rc e n \ue000
ta g e o f p ro g ra m m e sw hic h w e re a llo tte d
fo u r
n ig h ts
w as
e x a c tly
th e
sam e
o n
th e s e tw o te le s c o p e s :1 4% .It m u s tb e
n o te d th a t a m o n g s t th e
r e m a in in g

p ro \ue000 g ra m m e s , m o s t o f th o s e g e ttin g fiv eo r m o re n ig h ts w e re n o t s e n s itiv e to m o o n \ue000 lig h t

a n d
c o n s e q u e n tly
c o u ld
b e
s c h e d u le d d u r in g b r ig h t tim e .
O nth e tw o 1 .5 -m te le s c o p e s ,4 2%
o f
th e
p ro g ra m m e s
w e re
a llo tte d
fo u r
o r
fiv e
n ig h ts . A t th e
1 .4 -m
C A T ,a s im ila r
p e rc e n ta g e
(4 0% )
is
o b ta in e d
fo r
th e
o b s e r v in g
ru n s
la s tin g
s ix
t o
s e v e n
n ig h ts .
O n
th e s e
th re e
te le s c o p e s
th e
v e ry
s h o rt
ru n s
a lm o s t
a lw a y s

c o rre \ue000 S p o n dto p ro g ra m m e s fo rw h ic h o b s e r\ue000 v a tio n so ntw o o r m o re te le s c o p e s w e re c o m b in e d .

W ith
re g a rd
to
th e
am ount
o f
p ro \ue000
g ra m m e s w h ic h , a fte r th e e v a lu a tio nb y
3

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Ozcan Aslan added this note|
http://www.vizyonhaber.org/30/339-donem-yedek-subay-sinav-sonuclari-339-donem-yedek-subay-siniflandirma-sinav-sonuclari/ Laura is a powerful, gifted storyteller. I saw her read in person and was truly moved. This is an important book for any family dealing with autism

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