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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
No. 53 -
S e p te m b e r 1 9 8 8
A c tiv e O p tic s : th eN TT a n d th e F u tu re
R .N .W IL S O N ,F . F R A N Z A ,P . G IO R O A N O ,L . N O E T H E ,M . T A R E N G H I, E S O
1 .
B a c k g ro u n d to th e D e v e lo p \ue000
m ento f A c tiv e O p tic sa t E S O
A t a p re s s
c o n fe re n c e
o n
1 3
J u ly a t
G a rl
Z e is s ,
O b e rk o c h e n ,
jo in tly

o r- g a n iz e d b yE S Oa n d G a rl Z e is s , th e fin a l re s u lts

o f th e
m a n u fa c tu re
(fig u rin g ) o f
th e
N D
o p tic s
w e re
a n n o u n c e d . T h is
in c lu d e d
a
fu n c tio n a l te s to fth e
b a s ic
A c tiv e
O p tic s
c o rre c tio n
o f
th e
te le -
scope. The
re s u lts
w e re
s o
g o o d
th a t
th e y e x c e e d e d e v e n th e e x p e c ta tio n sQ f
b o thG a rl Z e is s a n dE S O
ina ll r e s p e c t s .
W ec o n s id e r th ist o
b e a m ile s to n e n o t
o n lyinth e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th eN D
a n d
th e h is to ry o fE S O ,b u t a ls oin th e e v o lu -
tio n
o f th e
a s tr o n o m ic a l re fle c tin g
te le -
s c o p eing e n e ra l.
T o u n d e rs ta n d th e s ig n ific a n c e o f th e
N D
o p tic s a n d th e q u a lity a c h ie v e d , w e
m u s t firs t re v ie w
th e b a c k g ro u n d o f th e
d e v e lo p m e n t
a n d
th e
p r in c ip le s
o n
w h ic h it is b a s e d .

Itisn o t th e p u rp o s eo f th is a rtic le to g iv e a fu ll s c ie n tific a c c o u n t o f th eE S O A c tiv e

O p tic s
s y s te m .
T h is
is
fu lly
d o c u m e n te d
inth e p u b lic a tio n s " A c tiv e
O p tic s
I" a n d
" A c tiv e
O p tic s
1 1 "
[1 ][2 ].
H e re
w e
w is h
t o
g iv e
th e
re a d e r a
re -
sum eo fth e e s s e n tia l fe a tu re s a n d

a d - v a n ta g e so fth e s y s te m , a n d th e p ra c ti- c a l re s u lts w ith th eN D

o p tic s .
T h e
firs t
id e a s
o n
a
g e n e ra l
a c tiv e
C o n tro l s y s te m
fo r th e o p tic a l q u a lity o f
te le s c o p e s
g o
b a c k
t o
th e
la te
s ix tie s
w hen
th e
firs t a u th o r w a s
in
c h a rg e
o f
o p tic a l d e s ig n
fo r
a s tro n o m ic a l
in s tru -
m e n ts
a tG a rlZ e is s .
H e re
h e
becam e
c o n s c io u s
o f th e
e x tre m e
d iffic u lty
o f
T h efin is h e d N T T p r im a r y m ir r o ra l G a rl Z e is sin J u ly1 9 8 8 . T h em ir r o ri s m o u n le d h e re o ni l s
fin a l N T T s u p p o r tini l s c e ll fo r le s lin gin th e s a m e s e t- u pa s w a s u s e d fo r m a n u fa c tu re .
1

c o rre c tio n , le a d s toa n o p tim u m le v e l o f q u a lity fa r s u r p a s s in g a n y th in g a c h ie v \ue000 a b le w ith p a s s iv e te le s c o p e s .

T o
u n d e rs ta n d
th is , w e
m u s t in tro \ue000
d u c e th e te rm
In trin s ie Q u a lity(th e1 0 o f

a te le s c o p e !) w h ic h w a s d e fin e din c o n \ue000 n e c tio n w ith th e s e t- u p te s tso fth e (p a s \ue000 s iv e )E S O3 .6 -m te le s c o p ein 1 9 7 6 . F ig \ue000 u re 1 s h o w s th e re s u ltso fth e s e (H a rt\ue000 m a n n ) te s ts fo r th e z e n ith p o s itio n a n d fo r z e n ith d is ta n c e s fro m

4 5 \u00b0to6 0 \u00b0 a t
th e
fo u r a z im u th s
s o u th ,
w e s t,
e a s t,

n o rth .Ine a c h c a s e , th e le ft-h a n d p o in t o f th e h is to g r a m s g iv e s th e a c tu a l im a g e q u a lityo fth e te le s c o p ea s m e a s u re din th e c o n v e n tio n a l w a y (im a g e d ia m e te rin a rc s e c c o n ta in in g 8 0 %o f th e g e o m e tri\ue000 c a l e n e rg y o f a s ta r im a g e ). N o te th a t th e re is a s ig n ific a n t v a ria tio n o f q u a lity w ith te le s c o p e a ttitu d e , th e q u a lity b e in g w o rs tinth e s o u th a n d b e s t inth e n o rth . T h e

p r in c ip a l re a s o n
fo r th is
isq u ite

s im p le : a re s id u a l o f d e c e n tr in g c o m ais in c re a s e din th e s o u th b y tu b e fle x u re (S e rru rie r) e rro r, w h e re a s itiscom pen\ue000 s a te dinth e n o rth . T h e h is to g ra m s s h o w th e

im p ro v e m e n t
th a t
w o u ld
b e
a c h ie v e d
i fth e e rro rs s h o w n w e re re \ue000
m o v e d . A lth o u g h th e h is to g ra m s m u s t
a llfa ll m o n o to n ic a lly to w a r d s th e
la s t
p o in t 5 o n th e rig h t, th e ir fo rm
v arie s

s ig n ific a n tly . H o w e v e r, w ith in th e e rro r o f m e a s u re m e n t, th e rig h t-h a n d p o in tis a c o n s ta n t fo r th is te le s c o p e , in d e p e n \ue000 d e n t n o t o n ly o f te le s c o p e a ttitu d e s b u t a ls oo ftim e . T h is is w h a t w e c a ll th e

n o r th
e a e .+
,
E S O P la c e s C o n tra c t F o r W o rld 's L a rg e s t M irro r B la n k s
A fte ra p e rio do f in te n s e
n e g o tia tio n , th e
E u ro p e a n S o u th e rn
O b s e rv a to rya n d S c h o tt
G la s w e r k e ,
M a in z
(F .R .
G e rm a n y ),
re a c h e d
a g re e m e n t a b o u t th e
d e J iv e ryo f fo u r g ia n t
m irra r b la n k s
fo r th e
E S O
V e ry
L a rg e
T e le s c o p e
(V L7 ).
T h e
b la n k s
w ill b e s p in - c a s to f
Z e ra d u r,a
c e r a m ic m a te ria l. E a c h
w ill h a v ea
d ia m e te ro f8 .2 m e tre s , a n
a re a
o f-
5 3
s q u a re m e tre sa n da th ic k n e s so f o n ly1 7 .5 c e n tim e tre s .
T h e
c o n tra c tw as s ig n e d o n
S e p te m b e r1 2 a t th e
E S O
H e a d q u a rte rsin
G a r c h in g b e i
M \u00fcnchen,b yP ro fe s s o r H a rryv a n d e r L a a n (rig h t), D ire c to r G e n e ra lo fE S O ,a n dM r. E ric h
S c h u s te r(Ie ft),M e m b e ro f th e B o a rdo f D ire c to rso f S c h o tt G la s w e rk e .
b a s ic s c h e m e fo ra n
a e tiv e
te le s c o p e
becam e
c le a r to
th e

firs t a u th o r, a l\ue000 th o u g h it w a s q u ite im p o s s ib le to re a liz e it w ith th a t te le s c o p e . S u c ha n

a e tiv e
te le s c o p e w o u ld m o n ito r its o w n im a g e
q u a lity
o n - lin e
a n d

c o rre c t a n y e rro rs (i.e . o p tim iz e its e lf) a u to m a tic a lly . T h e firs t a n d m o s t im p o r ta n t a s p e c t o fa n a c tiv e te le s c o p eis th e re fo re

a u to m a tie
m a in te n a n e eo f o p tim u m o p tic a l q u a lity .

L a te r it b e c a m e c le a r th a t th e re w a s a s e c o n d a s p e c t o f a c tiv e o p tic s w h ic his h a rd ly le s s im p o r ta n t th a n th e firs t: th e re la x a tio n o f c e rta in m a n u fa c tu rin g to l\ue000 e ra n c e s w h ic h , w ith s u b s e q u e n t a c tiv e

a
\
' ---...........
K E .Y
o
A ll
a b e rra tlo n -s
p re s e n -t
(e x c e p t
d
r
O
C
U
~
'
r
i
g
)
I
A
t2
D e c .e n 1 n n g
com a
r -e lT lo v e d
2 .
~
S e Id e l
o a st'9 m a tL e tr n
re m o v e o
(2 ..a J < e .& )
~
A
S p h e r lc a l
a b e rra h o n
rC m o v e d
4
~
T n ::a n g u la r
C om a
re m o v e d
( ' 3
.
3
)
(
~
)
~
A N Q
Q u a d r.a r.c
a s -tIg m a 1 'lS m
re m o " e o
(4 -a
)
(
e
~
)
s o u th
0 1
+- - - - - - - i
o
I\u00d6
-
.
-
_
,
,
-
-
-
-
-
-
,
o~
+
-
~
,
-
-
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-
-
-
j
0 4+
-
-
~
"
"
'............
. . .- - - - -<
0 :3+- - - - - =. . . . -\ue000
0 2+- - - - - - - - j
o
C \u00f6
,
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
,
o~+ -,,,- - - - - - - 1
o4 -+
-
~
'
c
-
-
-
_
_
_
_
1
0 :3
+---- = "-:= !-
.......- - - 1
l .
0 2
+- - - - - - - .- - - - 1
J!
0
I
+- - - - - - - 1
~
I 'l
"\u00dc
#o
1 Il
0 1 2 3 4 5
0 1 2 3 4 5
0 1 2 3 4 5
0
1
2
~
4
5
F ig u re1 :R e s u ltso f H a r tm a n n te s tso f th e p a s s iv eE S O
3 .6 -m
te le s c o p ein
1 9 7 6[3 J ,s h o w in g
th e th e o re tic a l im p r a v e m e n t th a t w o u ld b e a tta in e db yc o rre c tin g lo w s p a tia l fre q u e n c y te rm si f
th e te le s c o p e w e re a c tiv e .T h e m e a n r ig h t- h a n d p o in to f th e fu n c tio n s g iv e s th ein lr in s ic q u a lily
(1 0 ).
re s p e c tin g c e n trin g to le ra n c e s w ith c o n \ue000
v e n tio n a l la rg e
te le s c o p e s ,
i.e .
m a in \ue000
ta in in g
th e
p rim a ry
a n d

s e c o n d a ry m ir r o r o p tic a l a x e s s u ffic ie n tly c o lin e a r. V e ry fe w te le s c o p e s m a in ta ininp ra c ti\ue000 c a l u s e th e c e n trin g to le ra n c e s re q u ire d fo r h ig h im a g e q u a lity a n d th is le a d s to a n

u g ly ,
a s y m m e tric a i
im a g e
e rro r
k n o w n te c h n ic a llya s
d e e e n trin g
eom a.

S in c e th is is th e c o m m o n e s t a n d m o s t s e rio u s o p tic a l " illn e s s " o f C a s s e g ra in te le s c o p e s (th e s ta n d a rd m o d e rn fo rm b e c a u s e

it
is
e ffe c tiv e ly
a
p o w e rfu l
m irro r te le p h o to s y s te m
g iv in g a tu b e
le n g th
m uch
s h o rte r
th a n
it s
fo c a l
le n g th ),
th e
firs t
a u th o r
c a lle d
it
" C a s s e g ra in itis " .Inth e e a rly s e v e n tie s
h ec o n c lu d e d
th a t it w a s h o p e le s s t o
e x p e c t to
m a in ta in
s u c h

a b s o lu te to \ue000 le ra n c e sinap a s s iv e s y s te m , a n d s o m e sort ofa e tiv e e o rre e tio n was necessary. W h ile s till a t C a r l Z e is s ,h ea ls o le a r n e d fro m a c o lle a g u e , G e rh a rd S c h w e s in g e r, th e

b a s ic
p r in c ip le s
o f th e
d e s ig n
o f
m irro r s u p p o rts . T h e s e p rin c ip le s w e re
a n
e s s e n tia l p r e r e q u is ite
fo r th e
la te r
d e v e lo p m e n to f a c tiv e o p tic s a tE S O .
W eh a v e in tro d u c e d a b o v e tw o fu n \ue000
d a m e n ta l te rm s ,
p a s s iv e
a n d
a e tiv e ,

w hic h m u s t n o w b e d e fin e d .A n o rm a l, c o n v e n tio n a l te le s c o p e isp a s s iv ein th e s e n s e th a t it is s e t u p b y s o m e a d ju s t\ue000 m ent procedure and can only be m ain\ue000 ta in e d o r m o d ifie d b y a s u b s e q u e n to ff\ue000

lin e
m a in te n a n c e
o p e ra tio n .
B e tw e e n

s u c h o p e r a tio n s , th e a d ju s tm e n t w ill d e \ue000 g r a d e a n d w ill a n y w a y b e in flu e n c e d b y th e te le s c o p e a ttitu d e . A fu rth e r p ro b le m

isth a t o ff-lin e a c c e s s to te le s c o p e s is
a lw a y s d iffic u lt a n dinc o n flic t w ith th e
o b s e r v in g s c h e d u le s . T h e c o n s e q u e n c e
isth a t te le s c o p e s a re ,in p ra c tic e , v irtu \ue000

a lly n e v e rina n o p tim u m s ta te o f o p tic a l p e rfo rm a n c e : o fte n th e y a re s h o c k in g ly b a d

a n d
n o w h e re
n e a r
th e
q u a lity
a c h ie v e d b y th e o p tic ia n .
D u rin g th e s e t- u p a n d a lig n m e n t o f
th eE S O3 .6 -m te le s c o p ein 1 9 7 6[3 ], th e
2
F ig u re2 : A c liv e o p lic s
fo r/o w
fre q u e n c y b a n d p a s s c o rre c tio n : p rin c ip /eo fth eE S O
c /o s e d \ue000
lo o p c o n tr a / te c h n iq u e fo r o p tim iz in g im a g e q u a /itiy .
in tr in s icq u a lityo f th e te le s c o p e , th e v a l\ue000
u efo r th e 3 .6 -m
b e in g8 0%
g e o m e tric a l
e n e rg yin 0 .2 7 a rc s e c .
I tisim p o rta n t to re a liz e th a t th e p r o \ue000
c e s s
show n
a b o v e
fo r th e
3 .6 -m
te le \ue000
s c o p e
w as
a
p u re ly

m a th e m a tic a l a b \ue000 s tra c tio n .Inp r a c tic e , th is te le s c o p e h a s n o

p h y s ic a l
m eans
fo r
s y s te m a tic a lly
c a rry in g
o u t
th e
p ro c e s s
show n.

T h e sam eistr u e o fa ll c o n v e n tio n a l, p a s s iv e te le s c o p e s . T h e b e s t o n e c a n d ois fro m tim e to tim e to try to c o rre c t one o r m o re o f th e s e

e rro rs
in
a
la b o r io u s
o ff-lin e
o p e ra tio n .
In
p ra c tic e ,
th e
le ft-h a n d
p o in to fth e
h is to g ra m
o fte n
h a s
a far
W o rs e
q u a lity
th a n
th a t s h o w n
a b o v e ,
b e c a u s e
o f d e te rio ra tio n
o f th e
a d ju s t\ue000
m en1.

T h ed iffe re n c e w ith th eN D ,a na c tiv e te le s c o p e ,is th a t th e c o rre c tio n p ro c e s s show n

in
th e
h is to g ra m s
c a n
b e
p e r\ue000
fo rm e da tw ill o n - lin es oth a t th e1 0 c a n
b e
r e a liz e d
a llth e
tim e .
T h e
le ft-h a n d
p o in to fth e
h is to g ra m s
is
th e n
o fn o
im p o rta n c e , s o th a t re la x e d m a n u fa c tu r\ue000
in g
to le ra n c e s fo r th e te rm s s h o w n
a re
P o s s ib le .
H ence
w e
h a v e
th e
tw o
a d \ue000
v a n ta g e s :
-
R e la x a tio n
o f
lo w
s p a tia l
fre q u e n c y
(Io n g -w a v e )
m a n u fa c tu rin g
to l-
e ra n c e s .
-
A u to m a tic m a in te n a n c e
inre s p e c to f
a ll
e rro rs
w h ic h
c a n
v a ry
th ro u g h
m a la d ju s tm e n ts , e tc .
2 .
P r a c tic a l A p p lic a tio n
to th eN TI
H o w , th e n ,is th is p r o c e s s re a liz e d
in
th eN D ? T h isis s h o w n s c h e m a tic a llyin
F ig u re2 . T h e o ffs e t g u id e s ta r im a g eis
"b o rro w e d "
fro m
tim e
t o
tim e
fo r
th e
im a g e
a n a ly s e s
w hose
m e a s u re m e n ts
a re
p ro c e s s e d
in
th e
c o m p u te r.
U s in g
p re s to re d
in fo rm a tio n
a n d
a s im p le

a l\ue000 g o r ith m , s ig n a ls a re s e n t to th e s e c o n \ue000 d a ry

m irro r a n d
t o
th e
p rim a ry
m irro r.
T h e
s e c o n d a ry
is
th e n
ro ta te d
s lig h tly
a b o u t its c e n tre o f c u rv a tu re( toc o rre c t
d e c e n trin g
com a)
o r
s h ifte d
a lo n g
it s
a x is (to c o rre c t d e fo c u s ).T h es ig n a ls t o
th e
p rim a ry
m irro r
m o d ify
th e
a x ia l
s u p p o rt fo rc e s
a n d
th e re b y
c o rre c ta ll
th e
o th e r e rro rs
w hic h
a re
t o
b e
c o n \ue000
tro lle d .It s h o u ld b e n o te d th a t th e fo rm
o f th e
p rim a ry m irro risn o t d e te rm in e d
b y
d ir e c t
p o s itio n
c o n tro l
s in c e
th is
w o u ld
re q u ire
a n
im p o s s ib ly
s tiff
s u p p o rtin gG e ll.T h e m ir r o ris lo c a te d b y
th re e
fix e d
p o in ts
a n d
it s
fo rm

d e te r\ue000 m in e d b y th e fo rc e s e x e rte d b y7 5a s ta \ue000 t ic( i.e .flo a tin g ) s u p p o rts . A p a r t fro m

th e
im p o rta n t d iffe re n c e th a t th e fo rc e sc a n
b e
m o d ifie d
in
a
c o n tr o lle d
w ay,

th e s u p p o r t o p e r a te s e s s e n tia llyinth e s a m e w a ya s th e a s ta tic le v e r in v e n te d b y th e E n g lis h

e n g in e e r
L a s s e Il
in
1 8 4 2
a n d
u s e d
in
in n u m e r a b le
te le s c o p e s
s in c e
th e n .
T h e
a lg o rith m
fo r th e c o rre c tio n
p ro \ue000
c e s sisb a s e do n th r e e la w s o f p h y s ic s :
-
T h e
lin e a rity
la w :
T h is
is
s im p ly

H o o k e 's la wine la s tic ity th e o r yw h ic h s a y s th a t th e s tra in (d e fo rm a tio n )ina s y s te m

isIin e a rly p ro p o rtio n a l to th e
s tre s s (fo rc e ).
-
T h ec o n v e rg e n c e la w :T h is a r is e s o u t
o f th e p r in c ip le o f8 1 . V e n a n tin e la s \ue000
tic ity
th e o ry .
T h e
im p o rta n t
c o n s e \ue000
q u e n c e
fo r a c tiv e
o p tic s
is
th a t o n ly
r e la tiv e ly
fe w
lo w
s p a tia l
fre q u e n c y
( i.e .
"Io n g -w a v e ")
te rm s
n e e d
t o
b e
c o rre c te d to a c h ie v e th e1 0 .
-
T h e
o rth o g o n a lity
la w :
T h is
re s u lts
fro m

th e d e fin itio n o f th e e rro r te rm s a n d s ta te s th a t th e y c a n b e c o rre c te d in d e p e n d e n tly .

T h e
im a g e
a n a ly z e r
re q u ire s
a
m in im u m
o f3 0
s e c o n d s , p re fe ra b ly
6 0

s e c o n d s , to o b ta in th e b a s ic d a ta . T h is in te g ra tio n tim eisn e c e s s a ryin o rd e r to e lim in a te th e e ffe c ts o f th e a tm o s p h e r e w h ic h

w o u ld
o th e rw is e
fa ls ify
th e
re \ue000
s u lts . (C o rre c tio no fd is tu rb a n c e s d u e to
th e a tm o s p h e re re q u ire s a s y s te m
w ith
re s p o n s e
t o
h ig h e r
tim e

fre q u e n c ie s . T h isisth e fie ld o fa d a p tiv eo p tic sw h ic h is

e n o r m o u s ly
m o re
d iffic u lt
a n d
s till
re p re s e n tsa n u n s o lv e d p ro b le m
a t v is i\ue000
b le w a v e le n g th s .) A
fu rth e r6 0
s e c o n d s
is
s u ffic ie n t fo r th e
c o m p u t e r a n a ly s is
a n d
a c tu a l
c o rre c tio n
p ro c e s s .
T h is
w h o le
p ro c e s s
o f
d e te c tio n ,

a n a ly s is a n d c o rre c tio n d o e s n o t d is tu rb th e o b \ue000 s e rv a tio n

in
a n y
w ay:
in d e e d , th e
a s \ue000
tr o n o m e r w ill b e u n a w a re th a t itis ta k in g
p la c e !T h erh y th m
w ith w h ic h itis d e s ir \ue000
a b le to p e rfo rm

c o rre c tio n s w ill h a v e to b e d e c id e d b y p ra c tic a l e x p e rim e n ts b u t itisu n lik e ly t o

b e
m o re th a n
o n c e
p e r
hour or once per change ofo b je c 1 . The
N D
is d e s ig n e d to tr a c k w ith in
0 .1
a rc \ue000
s e c
w ith o u t
g u id in g
fo r
a t
le a s t
1 5
m in u te s ,
fa r
Io ng e r th a n
th e
1 -m in u te
in te g ra tio n tim e .
3 .
E x p e rim e n ta l C o n tirm a tio n
tro m
th e1 -m
E x p e r im e n t
O ur
a c tiv e
o p tic s
c o n c e p t
is
a n
e s s e n tia lly s im p le a n d

n a tu ra l d e v e lo p \ue000 m ent out of norm al passive support sys\ue000 te m s . N e v e rth e le s s ,a sw itha ll n e w d e \ue000 v e lo p m e n ts , it w a s d e s ir a b le t o te s t itin

F ig u re3 :
T h e
1 -m
test m irror(th e
th in
r im
s h o w sth e h ig h a s p e c t r a tioo f5 6 ).
3

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