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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

M ESSENG ER
No. 54 -
D ecem ber1 9 8 8
E S O 'S E A R L Y H IS T O R Y ,1 9 5 3 -1 9 7 5
I.S T R IV IN G T O W A R D S T H E C O N V E N T IO N
A D R IA A N B L A A U W *, K a p te y n L a b o ra to ry , G ro n in g e n
L 'a s tr o n o m ie e s t b ie n I'e c a le d e la p a tie n c e .
F ro m
a le tte r b yA . D a n jo n toJ .H . O o rt,2 1
S e p te m b e r 1 9 6 2 .
A H is to ric a l S ta te m e n t
O n
J a n u a ry
2 6 ,
1 9 5 4
tw e lv e
le a d in g
a s tra n o m e rs
fra m
s ix
E u ro p e a n
c o u n \ue000
trie s
is s u e d th e h is to ric a l s ta te m e n t w e
re p ro d u c e
h e re
[1 ].
It c a rrie s
th e

s ig \ue000 n a tu re s o f O tto H e c k m a n n a n d A lb re c h t U n s \u00f6 ld o f th e G e rm a n F e d e ra l R e p u b lic , P a u l

B o u rg e o is
fra m
B e lg iu m ,
A n d re
C o u d e r a n d A n d re D a n jo n fra m
F ra n c e ,
R o d e r ic k
R edm an
fra m
G re a t
B rita in ,
J a n
O o rt,
P ie te r O o s te rh o ff a n d
P ie te r
v a n
R h ijn
fro m
th e
N e th e rla n d s ,
a n d
B e rtil
L in d b la d ,
K n u t
L u n d m a rk
a n d
G u n n a r M a lm q u is t fra m
S w e d e n .
T h e
s ta te m e n t
(d ra fte d
b y
D a n jo n ,
O o s te rh o ff a n d
R e d m a n ) e x p re s s e s th e
w is h
th a t th e
s c ie n tific o r g a n iz a tio n s
in
th e
re s p e c tiv e
hom e
c o u n trie s
re c o m \ue000
m endt oth e a u th o ritie s c o n c e rn e d , th e
e s ta b lis h m e n to fa jo in t o b s e rv a to ry
in
S o u th A fric a , e q u ip p e d w ith a te le s c o p e
o f
3
m e tre s
a p e rtu re
a n d
a
S c h m id t
te le s c o p e o f 1 .2 m e tre s a p e rtu re .Inth e
p a ra g ra p h s
p r e c e d in g
th is
e x p re s s e d
w is h ,
th e y
p re s e n t
th e
c o n s id e r a tio n s
th a t
le d
th e m
t o
th is
s ta te m e n t.
T h e ir
w is h
w o u ld
u ltim a te ly
le a d
to the
C on-
.T h e a u lh o r w a s S e c re ta ry
0 1
lh eE S O
C o m m itle e
(w h ic h
p re c e d e d
th e
C o u n c il) Ir o m
M ay
1 9 5 9
to
F e b ru a ry
1 9 6 3 ,
S c ie n tific
D ire c to r
0 1
E S O
(p a rt
tim e ) d u r in g th e y e a rs 1 9 6 8 a n d 1 9 6 9 , a n d D ir e c to r
G e n e ra llro m
J a n u a ry 1 9 7 0
1 0J a n u a ry 1 9 7 5 .H e
w asa C o u n c il m e m b e r fo r lh e N e th e r la n d s d u r in g
th e y e a rs 1 9 7 9 th ro u g h 1 9 8 2 .
v e n tio n b e tw e e n fiv e o f th e s e s ix c o u n \ue000
tries -

G re a t B rita in w e n t its o w n w a y \ue000 s ig n e d o n 5 O c to b e r 1 9 6 2 . B y th a t tim e a lm o s t te n

y e a rs
h a d
p a s s e d
s in c e th e
n o tio n
o fa jo in t E u ra p e a n
o b s e rv a to ry
h a d
b e e n
e x p re s s e d
fo r th e
fir s t tim e .
A n o th e r y e a r a n d
th re e
m o n th s
w o u ld
h a v e to e la p s e u n til th e im p a tie n t h a n d s
o f th e a s tra n o m e rs w o u ld
b e fre et ola y
th e fir s t s o lid
fo u n d a tio n s
fo r th e
e re c \ue000
tio n
o f
th e
o b s e rv a to ry .
T h e
d a te
is
J a n u a ry
1 7 , 1 9 6 4 w h e n , w ith
th e

com \ue000 p le tio n o fa s e rie so f p a rla m e n ta ry ra tifi\ue000 c a tio n s , n o t o n ly th e m o ra l, b u t a ls o th e fin a n c ia l c o m m itm e n tso fth e re s p e c tiv e g o v e rn m e n ts h a d b e e n e n s u re d .

In
th is
s e r ie s
o f a r tic le s
I s h a ll
firs t
d e s c r ib e
th e
d e v e lo p m e n ts
o f th e
firs t

d e c a d e , th a tisth e p e rio d p re c e d in g th e s ig n in g o f th e C o n v e n tio n a n d th e R a tifi\ue000 c a tio n s , a n d , h o p e fu lly , n e x t tr yt oc o v e r som eo fth e la te r d e v e lo p m e n ts u n til th e year 1975 when I passedo nth e G e n e ra l D ire c to ra te

o f th e
o r g a n iz a tio n
t o
m y
s u c c e s s o r L o d e w ijk W o ltje r.
T h e
e a r lie s t d e c a d e
w as
o n e
of ups
and dow ns -
m any downs! -
ina s tru g \ue000
g le
w h ic h
m ay
s e e m
s u r p r is in g
t o
th e
p re s e n t y o u n g
g e n e ra tio n
o f a s tra n o m \ue000
e rs ,
a n d
c a n
b e
fu lly
u n d e rs to o d

o n ly when seen against the background of a dam aged

E u ra p e ,
a
d e c a d e
o n ly
a fte r
d e v a s ta tin g W o rld W a r11.T r a d itio n a l n a \ue000
tio n a lis m
a n d
m u tu a l m is g iv in g
h a d
t o
b e
r e p la c e d
b y jo in t e ffo rt.A s
m y c o l\ue000
le a g u e
a n d
frie n d
C h a rle s
F e h re n b a c h
u s e d
t o
s a y :
"1 1
fa u t fa ire
I'E u ra p e ."
It
a ls o
w as
a tim e
a t w h ic h
som e
o fth e
E u ra p e a n
c o u n trie s . h a d
t o
d e a l
w ith

s e rio u s in te rn a l p ro b le m s . G o v e rn m e n ts a sw e il a sa s tro n o m e rs h a dt o fa c e th is . I tis

p e rh a p s
n o t s u rp ris in g , th e n , th a t
th e
firs t
in s tig a tio n
to w a rd s
th e
jo in t
e ffo r t w h ic h w o u ld b e c o m eE S O ,h a dt o
c o m e fro m
o n e w h o , a lth o u g h ro o te din
E u ro p e a n
a n c e s try ,
h a d
b e e n
a n
o n \ue000
lo o k e ro nE u ro p e a n a s tra n o m y fo r m a n y
y e a rs
fra m
o v e rs e a s :
W a lte r B a a d e
o f
th e
M o u n t W ils o n
a n d
P a lo m a r O b s e r\ue000
v a to rie s .
B a a d e , re n o w n e d
e x p e rt o n
g a la c tic
a n d
e x tra g a la c tic
re s e a rc h ,
h a d
b e e n
in v ite d b y O o r tt os p e n dtw o m o n th s a t
L e id e n
O b s e rv a to ry
in
th e
s p r in g
o f
1 9 5 3 , fo r le c tu rin g a n d fo r c o lla b o r a tin g
in
th e
p re p a ra tio n
of a
c o n fe re n c e
o n
g a la c tic
re s e a rc h
t o
b e
h e ld
n e a r
(C o n tin u e d o n p a g e3 )
T O
A llR E A D E R S
P le a s e
m ake
s u re
th a t th e
c a rd
w h ic h
a c c o m p a n ie s
th is
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M essengeris
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P ro f.
K .
G .
M a lm q u ls t
D ira c te u r
d u
l'O b s a rv a to irs
d '\u00fc p p s a la
O nJ a n u a ry26, 1954 a s tro n o m e rs fro m
s ix E u ro p e a n c o u n trie s g a th e re din th e s ta te ly S e n a te R o o m
o fL e id e n U n iv e r s ity fo ra d is c u s s io no f th e
re c e n tlyb yB a a d e a n d O o r t s u g g e s te d jo in t E u ro p e a n O b s e rv a to ry . U n d e r th e c h a irm a n s h ipo f B e rtil L in d b la do f S a lts j\u00f6 b a d e n th e y fo rm u la te d
a n dd u ly s ig n e d th e s ta te m e n t r e p r o d u c e d h e re , m e a n t to s tre n g th e n th e ir e ffo rts fo r g o v e rn m e n t s u p p o r tin th e re s p e c tiv e c o u n trie s .
2
S e ttin gU p th e E S O H is to ric a l A rc h iv e s
E S O
H IS T O R IC A L A R C H IV E S
In v e n to ry p e r D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 8 ; O v e ra ll C o n te n ts
I.D o c u m e n ts re c e iv e d fro m
o u ts id eE S O .
L A .A rc h iv e sJ .H . O o rt.
1 .A .1 .D o c u m e n ts d o n a te d b y O o rt tol . W o ltje r, fo rm e r D ire c to r G e n e ra l o fE S O .
I.A .2 . D o c u m e n ts d o n a te d b y O o r t toA . B la a u w a ro u n d th e y e a r 1 9 7 6 a n d tra n s fe r\ue000
re db y h im
t oE S O
H is to r ic a l A rc h iv e s .
I.B . A r c h iv e sJ .H .B a n n ie r.

D o c u m e n ts d o n a te din1 9 8 7 toH .v a n d e r L a a n b y th e D u tc h o r g a n iz a tio n Z W O fo r s p o n s o rin g s c ie n tific re s e a rc h , p e rta in in g to th e d ir e c to r s h ip o fJ .H .B a n n ie r o f th is o r g a n iz a tio n .

I.C .A r c h iv e sA . B la a u w .
I.C .1
D o c u m e n ts
p e rta in in g
to
th e
S e c re ta ria t o f th e
E S O
C o m m itte e
(w h ic h
p re \ue000
c e d e d
th e
E S O
C o u n c il) w ith
th e
e x c lu s io n
o f th o s e
c o n c e r n in g
th e
s ite -te s tin g
e x p e d itio n s .
I.C .2 . D o c u m e n ts
p e rta in in g
t o
th e
S e c re ta ria t o f th e
E S O
C o m m itte e , c o n c e r n in g
th e s ite - te s tin g e x p e d itio n s .
I.C .3 . D o c u m e n ts c o n c e r n in g lI leE S O
W o r k in g G r o u p fo r B u ild in g s , 1 9 6 3 - 1 9 6 5 .
I.C A . O th e r d o c u m e n ts b e fo re 1 9 6 8 .
I.C .5 . D o c u m e n ts p e r ta in in g to th eE S O
S c ie n tific D ir e c to r s h ip , 1 9 6 8 - 1 9 6 9 .
I.C .6 . D o c u m e n ts p e r ta in in g to th eE S O
G e n e ra l D ire c to rs h ip , 1 9 7 0 th ro u g h 1 9 7 4 .
11.D o c u m e n ta tio n o rig in a tin g fro m
in s id eE S O .
II.A .D o c u m e n ts fro m
the file m arked "ESO
A llg e m e in " , o f th e p e r io d 1 9 6 1 - 1 9 6 4 .
N ow
th a tE S O
h a s
re a c h e d
th e
a g e
a n d
s ta tu s a t w h ic h
in te re s tin

its e a rly b e g in n in g sisg r o w in g , it isd e s ira b le to s e t

u p
a n
o r g a n iz e d
s y s te m
o f

d o c u m e n ta tio n th a t s h o u ld a llo w h is to r i\ue000 c a ls tu d ie s . F o r th a t re a s o n , s te p s h a v e b e e n

ta k e n
b y
th e
D ire c to r G e n e ra l to
e s ta b lis h
th e
E S O
H is to r ic a l A rc h iv e s ,
h e n c e fo rth
t o
b e
a b b re v ia te d
E H A .
T h e s e a rc h iv e s a re
m e a n t to
s e rv e tw o
p u rp o s e s :
-
t ofo rm
a n a tu ra l fra m e w o rk fo r th e
in c o rp o ra tio n
a n d
c la s s ific a tio n
o f
d o c u m e n ta tio n
th a t m a y b e
re le v a n t to
th e s tu d y o f th e h is to ryo fE S O ;a n d
-
t o
p r o v id e
s tu d e n ts
o f E S O 's
h is \ue000
to ry
w ith
th e
n e c e s s a ry
b a s ic
re fe r\ue000
e n c e s ,
a c c e s s ib le
a t th e
d is c r e tio n
o f
th eE S O
D ire c to ra te .
A t th is m o m e n t -
fa ll 1 9 8 8 -

a b e g in \ue000 n in g h a s b e e n m a d e w ith th e c re a tio n o f th e

E H A

b y m e a n s o f s o m e q u ite v a lu \ue000 a b le c o lle c tio n s o f d o c u m e n ta tio n , p e r \ue000 ta in in g

m o s tly
t o
th e
e a r lie s t d e c a d e s ,
th a tis
fro m
th e
year 1953. They
o r ig i\ue000
n a te fro m
p e rs o n s w h o
have been
in ti\ue000
m a te ly
in v o lv e d
in
th e
c re a tio n

o f th e O rg a n iz a tio n . T h e o rig in s a n d th e n a tu re o f

th is
d o c u m e n ta tio n
c a n
b e
re c o g \ue000
n iz e d
in
th e
g lo b a l d e s c r ip tio n s
in
th e
b o x
E S O
H is to r ic a l
A r c h iv e s
accom \ue000
p a n y in g th is n o te .
F o r th e a rra n g e m e n t a n d n u m b e rin g I
h a v e
c h o s e n
a
s y s te m
w h ic h

c le a r ly s h o w s th e o rig in o f th e d o c u m e n ts a n d w h ic h , m o re o v e r, h a s a s tru c tu re a llo w \ue000 in gina n a tu ra l w a y th e in c o rp o ra tio n o f a d d itio n a l d o c u m e n ts

w ith o u t a n y
m a\ue000
n ip u la tin g . E v e n tu a lly , a m o r e

s o p h is ti\ue000 c a te d s y s te m m a y h a v et ob e in tro d u c e d , b u t fo r th e m o m e n t th e p re s e n t, s im p le o n e s h o u ld s u ffic e . T h e a r r a n g e m e n t a ls o a llo w s th e d e s c r ip tio n o f th e d o c u m e n ta \ue000 tio ninth e in v e n to ry to b e d o n e ina sm uch d e ta ila sa p p e a r s d e s ir a b le .

T h is
a rra n g e m e n t
d is c r im in a te s
firs t
o f a ll b e tw e e n
d o c u m e n ta tio n
o rig in a t\ue000
in g
fro m
o u ts id e
E S O ,c a te g o ry
I,
a n d
d o c u m e n ts fro m
w ith inE S O ,c a te g o ry
11.
A sth in g s s ta n d a t th e m o m e n t, it w o u ld
s e e m
th a t c a te g o ry
I w ill be
th e
r ic h e r
o n e . W ith in
c a te g o ry
I,I h a v e d is c r im i\ue000
n a te d
a c c o r d in g
t o
th e
s o u rc e
o f th e
d o c u m e n ts :
c a te g o ry
I.A .
re fe rs
t o
(C o n tin u e d tra m
p a g e
1 )
G ro n in g e n fro m
J u n e2 2t o 2 7[2 ]. It w a s
d u rin g
th is
s ta y
th a t,
b e tw e e n
B a a d e
a n d O o rt, th e id e a a ro s e o f a jo in t e ffo r t
b y s o m e E u ro p e a n c o u n trie s w ith
le a d \ue000
e r s h ipina s tro n o m y[3 ].
T h e
s u g g e s tio n
w as
fo llo w e d
u p
b y
O o rt
im m e d ia te ly .
A t
h is
in v ita tio n
a
g ro u p
o f a s tro n o m e rs
d is c u s s e d
i to n
d o c u m e n ts
o r ig in a lly
b e lo n g in g
t o
J .H .
O o rt, c a te g o ry
I.B .to th o s e
o r ig in a tin g
fro m
th e
D u tc h
o r g a n iz a tio n
ZW O ,
c a te g o ry
I.C .t od o c u m e n ts tra n s fe rre d
fro m
m y
a r c h iv e s
a t
th e
K a p te y n
L a b o ra to ry
a t
G ro n in g e n
t o
th e
E H A .
C le a r ly
th is
a rra n g e m e n t in v ite s
e x te n \ue000
s io n s
I.D .,
I.E .,
e tc .
fo r
d o c u m e n ts
w h ic h , h o p e fu lly , m a y b e r e c e iv e d
fro m
o th e r p e rs o n s o r a g e n c ie s th a t w e re in \ue000
v o lv e d
inth e e a rly h is to ry o fE S O .
W ith in
e a c h
o f th e s e
c a te g o rie s , fu r\ue000
th e r
s u b d iv is io n
in tro d u c e s
m o re
a n d
m o re
re fin e d
c la s s ific a tio n .
T h e
firs t
s ta g e s
o f
th e s e
a re
in d ic a te d
in
th e
a c c o m p a n y in g
In v e n to ry .

F u rth e r o n e s a re u s e dinth e m o re e x te n s iv e d e s c r ip \ue000 tio n s o f th eE H An o w

inth e m a k in g .A s
a n
illu s tr a tio n , le t m e m e n tio n
th e
s u b \ue000
d iv is io n
I.C .2 .8 .
w h ic h
p e rta in s
t o
th e
d e a lin g s
o f th e
S e c re ta ry
o fth e
E S O
C o m m itte e
(w hic h
p re c e d e d
th e
E S O
C o u n c il)
w ith
th e
M a r s e ille s
o b je c tiv e \ue000
p ris m
ra d ia l v e lo c ity
p r o je c ta s
p a rto f
th e s ite te s tin g o p e r a tio n s , a n d o f w h ic h
th e
s u b d iv is io n
I.C .2 .8 .a . c o n ta in s
th e
c o rre s p o n d e n c e w ith C h . F e h re n b a c h .
In
c o n n e c tio n
w ith
c a te g o ry
11,
i t
J u n e
2 1 ,
1 9 5 3 ,
th e
d a y
b e fo re
th e
G ro n in g e n
c o n fe re n c e
[4 ].
T h e y
w e re
B a a d e , B o u r g e o is , D a n jo n , H e c k m a n n ,
L in d b la d ,
O o rt,
O o s te rh o ff a n d
m y s e lf.
M ost
o f
th e m
p a rtic ip a te d
in
th e
G ro n in g e n
c o n fe re n c e
[5 ].A ls o
p re s e n t
o nJ u n e2 1
w a sJ .H . B a n n ie r, d ire c to r o f
th e
D u tc h
n a tio n a l
s c ie n c e
fo u n d a tio n
(Z W O )a n d a t th a t tim e P re s id e n t o f th e
s h o u ld
b e
m e n tio n e d
th a t,
o f
c o u rs e ,
a p a rt fro m
th e
c o n te n ts
o f th is
p a rt o f
th e
E H A ,
th e re
a re
in
th e
E S O
H e a d q u a rte rs
(a n d
p e rh a p s
a ls o
in
C h ile ? ) m a n y d o c u m e n ts o f in te re s t fo r
th e
s tu d y
o f
th e
E S O
h is to ry
w h ic h ,
h o w e v e r,
s till
a re
p a rt o f th e
b o d y
o f
d o c u m e n ta tio n
o c c a s io n a lly
u s e d
fo r

th e re g u la r o p e ra tio n o fE S O .O f p a rtic u \ue000 la r s ig n ific a n c e a p p e a r to b e th e e x te n \ue000 s iv e file s k e p t b y th e

E S O
Head of Ad\ue000
m in is tr a tio n ,
w h ic h
c o n ta in
v ir tu a lly
c o m p le te s e ts o f th e m in u te s o f th eE S O
C o u n c il a n d
it s
p re d e c e s s o r, th e
E S O
C o m m itte e ,
m in u te s
o f F in a n c e
C om \ue000
m itte e ,
th e
s erie s
o f
C o u n c il- M e e tin g
D o c u m e n ts ,
e tc .
N a tu r a lly ,
a c c e s s
t o
th e s e
d o c u m e n tsis
a ls o
a t th e
d is c r e \ue000
tio n
o f th e
E S O
D ire c to ra te .In
m y arti\ue000
e ie s o n th e e a rly h is to ry o fE S O
I re fe rt o
th e s e d o c u m e n tsa s F H A (F ile s H e a d o f
A d m in is tra tio n ).
F in a lly ,
m e n tio n
s h o u ld
b e
m ade
o f
th e
c o lle c tio n
o f o ld
p h o to g ra p h s
a n d
s lid e s
b e lo n g in g
t o
th e
P h o to g ra p h ic
D e p a rtm e n t o fE S O ,w h ic h
a ls o
a re
o f
h is to r ic a l
in te re s t,
b u t
s till
t o
b e
c la s s ifie d .
A .B L A A U W
C o u n c il
o f
C E R N ,
th e
jo in t
E u ro p e a n
e ffo rt
in
n u e le a r
re s e a rc h .
O ver
th e
y e a rs ,
th e
E S O
e ffo rt
w o u ld
g re a tly
b e n e fit fro m
B a n n ie r 's

e x p e r ie n c e . T h e p a rtic ip a n ts a t th e m e e tin g re p re s e n te d fiv e

" c o n tin e n ta l"
c o u n trie s .
A fte r
th e
m e e tin g S ir H a r o ld S p e n c e r J o n e s , A s \ue000
tro n o m e r
R oyal
o f
G re a t
B rita in ,
a n d
R ic h a r d
S to y o f th e C a p e O b s e rv a to ry ,
3

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