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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/11/2014

T H E
M E S S E N G E R
No. 57 -
S e p te m b e r 1 9 8 9
I
S E S T - th e F irs tY e a ro f O p e ra tio n
R .s .B O O T Ha n dL .E .B . J O H A N S S O N , O n s a la S p a c e O b s e rv a to ry , C h a lm e rs T e k n is k a
H \u00f6 9 s k o la , S w e d e n
P .A .S H AV E R , E S O
T h e
S w e d is h - E S O
S u b m illim e tr e
T e \ue000

le s c o p e(S E S T )c o m p le te d o n e fu ll y e a r o f s c h e d u le d o b s e r v a tio n s a t th e e n d o f M a rc h

th is
y e a r.
I t s
p e rfo rm a n c e
h a s
S u rp ris e d a n d d e lig h te d m a n y -
its tro u \ue000
b le -fre e o p e ra tio n a n d th ec 1 e a rs k ie s o f
L a
S illa
c o m b in in g
t o
e ffe c t la rg e
v o l\ue000
um eso f d a ta . F e w
u s e rs o f S E S T h a v e
re tu rn e d
hom e
d is a p p o in te d .
T h a t th e
te le s c o p e h a s fille da nim p o rta n t n e e dis
s e e nc le a rlyin th e d e m a n d fo r o b s e rv in g
tim e :
it s
o v e r-s u b s c rip tio n ,
a v e ra g e d
o v e r th e y e a r a n d o v e rE S O
and Swed\ue000
ts hu s e rs , a m o u n te dt o a fa c to r o f a b o u t
2 .5 .T h is is s u e o f th e
M essengerisd e \ue000
V o te dinp a rt to s u m m a rie s o f w o rk d o n e
w ith
th e
n e w
te le s c o p e .
Som e
o f th e

w o rk d e s c rib e disa lr e a d y p u b lis h e d b u t m ostiss till u n d e r g o in g a n a ly s is ; w e a re g ra te fu l

t o
th o s e
p e o p le
w ho
h a v e
W n tte nth e s u m m a rie s a n d to th o s e w h o
h a v ep r o v id e d d a ta p r io rt o p u b lic a tio n .
T h e T e le s c o p e a n d O b s e r v in g
S y s te m
.

M o s t v is ito r st oL a S illa a re n o w fa m il\ue000 la rw ithS E S T , o r a t le a s t w ith its h ig h ly re fle c tiv e s u r fa c ew hic h o fte n p r o v id e s a re m a rk a b le

s p la s h
o f re fle c te d
s u n lig h t
fro m
th e s o u th e rn e n d
o f th e te le s c o p e
n d g e .
T h e
te le s c o p e
h a s
b e e n
d is \ue000
cU S sede a rlie rin th e s e p a g e s (B o o th , d e
J o n g e
a n d
S h a v e r,
1987) and
a
m o re
d e ta ile d te c h n ic a l d e s c r ip tio n o f th e a n -
6 \u00b7'
\ue000
T h eS w e d is h - E S O S u b - m illim e tr e T e le s c o p e(S E S T ).
A n te n n a
S u rfa c e a c c u ra c y
=
0 .0 7 m m
(rm s)
R a d ia l p o in tin g a c c u r a c y (in c l. s y s te m a tic o ffs e ts )
4 "(rm s)
M a in b e a m
e ffic ie n c y
0 .7 1
(1 1 5G H z)
0 .5 0
(2 3 0G H z)
F H P B W
4 4 "
(1 1 5 G H z )
2 3 "
(2 3 0G H z)
R e c e iv e r s (d u a l p o la riz a tio n S c h o ttk y m ix e rs )
R e c e iv e r te m p e ra tu re s
2 4 0 -5 0 0K
(7 0 -1 2 0G H z)
6 0 0 -1 2 0 0K
(2 1 0 -2 6 0G H z)
B a c k e n d s( s p lit m o d e a v a ila b le )
H ig h r e s o lu tio nAO S
100 M Hz
2 0 4 8 c h a n n e ls
L o w
r e s o lu tio n A O S
1 GHz
1 7 2 8 c h a n n e ls
P o s s ib le o b s e r v in gm odes
T o ta l p o w e r
up to 60 M Hz
F re q u e n c y s w itc h in g
1 2 ' (w id e )
B e a m
s w itc h in g (s in g le , d u a l)
3 ' (n a rro w )
L o a d s w itc h in g
S k y s w itc h in g
te n n a a n d its o b s e rv in g s y s te m
h a s re \ue000
c e n tly
a p p e a re d
in
A s tro n o m y a n d A s -
tro p h y s ic s(B o o th e ta l., 1 9 8 9 ). H e re w e
re m in d y o u th a tS E S Tisa jo in t p ro je c t,
fu n d e d
a n d
o p e ra te d
o n
a 5 0 /5 0 b a s is
b y
th e
S w e d is h
N a tu ra l
S c ie n c e

R e\ue000 s e a rc h C o u n c il(N F R ) a n dE S O a t a to ta l c o s t

o f
D M9.8 M
(A u g u s t
1 9 8 7 ).
A
s e p a ra te N o r d ic a g re e m e n t e n title s F in \ue000
la n dt o
1 0 %
o fth e

S w e d is h tim e . T h e 1 5 - m C a s s e g ra in a n te n n a w a s d e s ig n e d b y

e n g in e e rs
o f th e
In s titu t d e
R a d io
A s tro n o m ie
M illim e tr iq u e
(IR A M )
a n d
b u ilt u n d e r th e ir s u p e r v is io n

b y F re n c h a n d G e rm a n in d u s try . Itis s im ila r to th e te le s c o p e s

w h ic h
fo rm
th e
IR A M
in te r\ue000
fe ro m e te r
o n
P la te a u
d e
B u re
a n d
in
s o m e w a y s h a s b e c o m e th e o p e ra tio n a l
p ro to ty p e
o f th o s e
a n te n n a s .
S E S T
is
o p e ra te d b y a d e d ic a te d g ro u p o f s e v e n
e n g in e e rs /a s tro n o m e rs ,
s u p p le m e n te d
b y o th e rE S O
s ta ff. G e n e ra l (te c h n ic a l)
m anagem ent
o f th e
p r o je c t
is
in
th e
h a n d s
o f
O n s a la
S p a c e
O b s e rv a to ry ,
u n d e r th e
d ir e c tio n
o fR oy
B o o th
w ith
P e te r S h a v e r re p re s e n tin g
E S O
o n
b e \ue000
h a lf o f th eD ire c to r G e n e ra l.

T h e te le s c o p e w a s h a n d e d o v e r to th e S E S Tte a m o n M a rc h1 3 , 1 9 8 7 a n d itis a tr ib u te to th e re a d in e s s a n d e n th u s ia s m o f

e v e ry o n e
in v o lv e d
th a t
"firs t
lig h t"
w a s o b ta in e d ju s t e le v e n d a y s la te r w ith
th e d e te c tio no fth e8 6 G H zS iO
m aser
inO rio n . T h e re th e n fo llo w e d a o n e -y e a r
c o m m is s io n in g p h a s e d u r in g w h ic h th e
te le s c o p e
a n d
firs t
re c e iv e rs
w e re
th o ro u g h ly
te s te d ,
th e
s u rfa c e
a d ju s t\ue000
m e n t re fin e d
a n d
a p o in tin g

m odel es\ue000 ta b lis h e d . A t th e e n d o f th is p e rio d , e x \ue000 p e r ie n c e d

m illim e tre
a s tro n o m e rs
fro m
th e E u ro p e a n c o m m u n ity w e re in v ite d to
m a k e o b s e r v a tio n s w ith th e s y s te m
a n d
p ro v id e s u g g e s tio n s fo r im p ro v e m e n ts .
S c h e d u le d
o b s e rv a tio n s
b e g a n
o n
A p r il1 , 1 9 8 8 .
T h e
te le s c o p e /r e c e iv e r s itu a tio n
h a s
re m a in e d
e s s e n tia lly
u n c h a n g e d
th ro u g h o u t th is
firs t o p e ra tio n a l p h a s e
a n d th e
s a lie n t p a ra m e te rs o f th e
s y s \ue000
te m
a re
show n
in

T a b le1 . P a in s ta k in g d ir e c t (th e o d o lite ) m e a s u re m e n ts o f th e re fle c to r

s u rfa c e
b y
A lb e rt
G re v e ,
a s s is te d
b y
L a rs
J o h a n s s o n ,
h a v e
re \ue000
s u lte d
ina na d ju s tm e n t o f its p r o file to
w ith in
s o m e7 0 m ic ro n rm s o f th e b e s t
p a r a b o lo id .
T h is
p ro b a b ly
re p re s e n ts
th e
b e s t w h ic h
c a n
b e
o b ta in e d
u s in g
th e
d ir e c t
te c h n iq u e ,
a c c u ra c y
b e in g
lim ite d b y th e e rro rs o f m e a s u re m e n t o f
th e
ra d ia l
d is ta n c e s
t o
th e
s u rfa c e
ta rg e ts
s ig h te d
b y th e
th e o d o lite .

F u r\ue000 th e r im p ro v e m e n tsinth e s u rfa c e a c c u \ue000 ra c y

a w a it
h o lo g r a p h ie
m e a s u re m e n ts
w hic h a re re fe rre d to la te r.

T h ep o in tin g a c c u r a c y re m a in s o f th e o r d e r 3 a r c s e c r m so n e a c h a x is , fa llin g s lig h tly s h o r t o f th e d e s ig n s p e c ific a tio n of 2

a rc s e c .
B lin d
p o in tin g
is
c h a ra c \ue000
te riz e d
b y
s y s te m a tic
o ffs e ts
of about
2
1 0a res e c ra d ia lly b u t th e s e a re s ta b le a t
th e
a rc s e c
le v e l
o v e r
tim e - s c a le s
o f

h o u r s . A lth o u g h th e m o s t lik e ly c a u s e o f th e s e o ffs e tsisth e rm a l, n o c le a r p a tte rn ise v id e n t. B e c a u s e o f th e h ig h ly r e fle c t\ue000 in g

s u rfa c e ,
th e
te le s c o p e
h a s
b e e n
c o n s tra in e d
t o
n e v e r p o in tc 1 0 s e rth a n
6 0 \u00b0to the sun.

T h eS E S T re c e iv e rs w e re b u ilt a t O n \ue000 s a la S p a c e O b s e rv a to ry , D e p a rtm e n t o f R a d io

a n d
S p a c e
S c ie n c e ,

C h a lm e rs U n iv e r s ity o f T e c h n o lo g y , S w e d e n , a n d th e a c o u s to -o p tic s p e c tro m e te rs(A O S ) w e re

b u ilt b y th e
m illim e tre

a s tro n o m y g r o u p o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f C o lo g n e . T h e re c e iv e rs w e re d e s ig n e d w ith th e p o s s i\ue000 b ility

o f re m o te
o b s e r v in g
in
m in d
a n d
th e re fo re
in c o rp o ra te
a
re m o te
tu n in g
c a p a b ility , o p e r a te d v ia a s im p le m e n u \ue000
d r iv e n
in te rfa c e .
It
h a s
p ro v e d
t o
b e
e x tre m e ly
e ffic ie n t a n d

fo o l-p ro o f, a n d m o s t v is itin g a s tr o n o m e r s c a n tu n e th e re c e iv e rs

w ith o u t
c a llin g
in
th e
te le \ue000
s c o p e s ta ff.
S o m e im p ro v e m e n ts h a v e b e e n m a d e
t o
th e
re c e iv e rs
d u rin g
th e
y e a r.

T h e re c e iv e r b a n d w id thh a sb e e n in c r e a s e d a n d

n o w
a fu ll 5 0 0 M H z
isa v a ila b le
in

b o th c h a n n e ls . A ls o th e tu n in g ra n g e o f th e 2 3 0 G H z re c e iv e r, p r e v io u s ly lim ite d b y th e la c k o f a lo c a l o s c illa to r m u ltip lie r a t th e h ig h fre q u e n c y e n d o f th e b a n d , n o w

e x te n d s
t o
2 6 0 G H z , a lth o u g h
it s
n o is e
te m p e ra tu re
is
h ig h
a t th is
fre \ue000
q u e n c y .
F u rth e r im p ro v e m e n ts
in
p ro \ue000
g re s s a re th e s u b s titu tio no f th e c u rre n t
in te rm e d ia te
fre q u e n c y
a m p lifie r s ,
w h ic h
u s e
fie ld
e ffe c t
tra n s is to rs ,
t o
u n its
e m p lo y in g
h ig h
e J e c tro n
m o b ility
tra n s is to rs
(H E M T ),
w h ic h
w ill
re d u c e
th e to ta l s y s te m
n o is e .
T A B L E1 :S E S T s y s te m
(s ta tu sb y M a y1 9 8 9 ).
T h e firs t y e a r o fS E S T o p e ra tio n s h a s
b e e n
re m a rk a b ly
tro u b le -fre e
a n d
le s s
th a n
1 0 %
o f th e
s c h e d u le d

o b s e r v in g tim e h a s b e e n lo s t, e v e n in c lu d in g tim e lo s t b e c a u s e o f b a d w e a th e r. S c h e d u le d m a in te n a n c e

a m o u n te d
t o
1 7
h o u rs
a
w e e ko n a v e ra g e , a n d e v e n w ith o n e fu ll
m o n th
in
O c to b e r/N o v e m b e r
e n tire ly
d e v o te d
t o
m a in te n a n c e
a n d
d e v e lo p \ue000
m e n t, a b o u t7 5 %
o f th e to ta l tim e w a s
u s e d
fo r o b s e rv a tio n s . R e m e m b e r, th is
m eans som e
1 8h o u rs a d a y a v e ra g e d
o v e r th e
w h o le
y e a r
fo r
a
ra d io
te le \ue000
s c o p e . T h e te le s c o p e
h a sth u s
p ro v e n

t o b e h ig h ly e ffic ie n t a n d a la rg e a m o u n t o f h ig h q u a lity d a tah a sb e e n p ro d u c e d . W ea ttrib u te th isin p a rt to th e c o m b in a \ue000 tio n

of good
te le s c o p e ,
re c e iv e rs
a n d
s ite b u t m o s t v is ito r s w ill a ls o a g re e th a t
th e
e n th u s ia s tic
a n d
w illin g
s ta ff
a t
S E S T
c o n trib u te d
m o re
th a n
a
little to
th is p e rfo rm a n c e .
P ro b le m s
A lth o u g h
S E S T
h a s
b e e n
v e ry

s u c \ue000 c e s s fu l, ith a s n o t b e e n w ith o u t its p r o b \ue000 le m s . Ir o n ic a lly , a lth o u g h th e s y s te m

in \ue000
v o lv e s m u c h a d v a n c e d te c h n o lo g y , th e
m ost
s e r io u s
lo s s
o f
tim e
h a s
b e e n
c a u s e d
b y
th e
fa ilu re
o f lig h t b u lb s
\ue000
s p e c ific a lly
th o s e
in
th e
p o s itio n a l e n \ue000
c o d e rs .
T h e
firs t in c id e n to f th is
k in d

o c c u rre d o n ly a fe w d a y s b e fo re th e firs t s c h e d u le d p r o je c t, w h e n a b u lb fa ile din th e in c r e m e n ta l e le v a tio n e n c o d e r. S u c h fa ilu re s

re q u ire
th e
c o m p le te
r e p la c e \ue000
m e n t o f th e
e n c o d e r;
in
th is
c a s e
re \ue000
p la c e m e n t
w as
a c h ie v e d
a n d
a
n e w
p o in tin g
m o d e l d e te rm in e d
ju s tintim e
fo r th e
o b s e rv a tio n s
t o
s ta rt.
A
m o re
s e rio u s in c id e n t o c c u r r e din J u ly w h e n a
s im ila r fa ilu r e
re s u lte d
in
th e
r e p la c e \ue000
m ent
e n c o d e r
b e in g
in a d v e rte n tly
b o l te d d o w n t o o tig h tly . T h is re s u lte d
in
a
6 0 "
o ffs e t
in
e le v a tio n ,
th e
s ig n
o f
w h ic h
d e p e n d e d
o n
p o s itio n
r e la tiv et o
tra n s it. T h e s e o ffs e ts w e re n o t im m e d i\ue000
a te ly
a s s o c ia te d
w ith
th e
e n c o d e r
c h a n g e
a n d
it to o k

som e tim e to track d o w n th e p r o b le m . T h is fa ilu re a c c o u n ts fo r

th e
m a jo r
lo s s
o f
o b s e r v in g
tim e .
F u rth e r p r o b le m s
h a v e
o c c u rre d
in
th e
c o m p re s s o rs
w h ic h
d riv e
th e
r e c e iv e r
c o o le r s a n d
inth e 2 3 0 G H z re c e iv e r1 0 -
c a lo s c illa to r m u ltip lie r s , b u t th e s e h a v e
c a u s e d o n ly m in o r h o ld - u p s .
O b s e rv a tio n s
O b s e rv a tio n s w ith S E S T h a v e c o v e re d
a w id e ra n g e o f s u b je c ts w ith m o le c u la r
h n es tu d ie s o f g a la x ie s d o m in a tin g , p a r \ue000
tlc u la r ly if w e in c lu d e th e S E S T k e y p r o \ue000
je c t to
m ap
th e
C O
d is tr ib u tio n
in
th e

M a g e lla n ic C lo u d s .A sth e s e n s itiv ity o f m illim e tre te le s c o p e s h a s im p r o v e d , th e v o lu m e

o f
th e
u n iv e r s e
a v a ila b le
t o
m o le c u la r
lin e
o b s e rv a tio n
h a s
in \ue000
c re a s e d
d r a m a tic a lly a n d
C O
has been
d e te c te d
in
g a la x ie s
w ith
re d s h ifts ,
z ,
g re a te r th a n
0 .1 5 .
T h e
c u rre n t
re c o rd
w ith S E S TisZ=
0 .0 9 . T h e la rg e m o le c u \ue000
la r
m ass
o f
th e s e
h ig h - Iu m in o s ity
in \ue000
fra re d
g a la x ie s
a n d
th e
p o s s ib le
e v o lu tio n a r y
lin k
o f th e s e
m e rg in g
s y s \ue000
te m s w ith q u a s a r siso f g re a t in te re s t.
Inth e n e a re s t s y s te m
o f g a la x ie s im \ue000
p o rta n t
re s u lts
a re
a ls o
e m e rg in g
a s
S E S To b s e rv a tio n s c o n firm
e a r lie r s u g \ue000
(e s tlon s
th a t th e
C O
: H2
ra tio
is
le s s
h a nth a tIn th e M ilk y W a y b y a fa c to r o f
a?O ut
5 ,
p ro b a b ly
a s
a
r e s u lt
o f
th e
d lffe re n c e
in
m e ta llic ity .
A n
a d d itio n a l
~
,
~
u
l
to fs o m e in te r e s tis th e lo w le v e l o f
o
Inth e L M C .
.T h e
o th e r
m a jo r
a re a s
o f m o le c u la r
lin e
re s e a rc h
h a v e
b e e n
w e il
re p re -
s e n te d
in
th e
S E S T

o b s e rv a tio n a l p ro \ue000 g ra m m e . O b s e rv a tio n s o f re g io n s o f s ta r fo rm a tio n h a v e re s u lte dinth e d is c o v e ry o f

m any
n e w
b ip o la r
flo w s ,
som e
o f
th e m
a s s o c ia te d
w ith
s p e c ta c u la r o p ti\ue000
c a l in d ic a to r s
o f je ts
a n d
b o w
s h o c k s .
S y s te m a tic
w o rk
o n
e v o lv e d
s ta rs
is
p r o v id in g
b e tte r
s ta tis tic s
o n
th e
c h e m is tr y a n d p h y s ic s o f th e s te lla r e n \ue000
v e lo p e s
a n d
a
d a ta
b a s e
o f m o le c u la r

p ro p e rtie so fe v o lv e d s ta rs d e te c te d b y IR A S s h o u ld h ig h lig h t in te re s tin g ta r g e ts fo r IS O

o b s e rv a tio n s .
F in a lly , a s m a ll p e r c e n t a g e o f tim e h a s
b e e n
d e v o te d
t o
c o n tin u u m
o b s e rv a \ue000
tio n s . T h e s e
h a v e
c o n c e n tra te d
in
th e
m a in
o n
q u a s a rs
a n d
A G N s,t o
e x te n d
s p e c tra l d a ta a n d to s e a rc h fo r v a ria b ili\ue000
ty . A g ro u p fro m

th e M a x -P la n c k -In s titu t f\u00fc r R a d io a s tr o n o m ie , h o w e v e r , in s ta lle d a

1 -m m
b o lo m e te ro n
S E S T
in
A u g u s t
1 9 8 8 a n d o b s e r v e d in te r s te lla r d u s t a n d
e m is s io n fr o m
e a rly s ta rs . T h e y a ls o d e \ue000
te c te d e m is s io n fro m
S N R
1 9 8 7 A u s in g
th is s y s te m .
T h e S ta tt
A t th e
b e g in n in g
o f 1 9 8 7 , th e o p e ra \ue000

tio n o f S E S T w a s c a rrie d o u t b y a te a m c o m p ris in g tw o s o ftw a re s c ie n tis ts , tw o m ic r o w a v e

e n g in e e rs
a n d
a
te le s c o p e
s c ie n tis ta s
te a m
le a d e r.
A
d ig ita l e n \ue000
g in e e r jo in e d th e te a m
in
M ay and
la te r
r e p la c e d
o n e
o f
th e
m ic r o w a v e
e n \ue000
g in e e r s , c a lie d b a c k t o
S w e d e n to
le a d
th e
r e c e iv e r
d e v e lo p m e n t
g ro u p .
T h e
te a m

w a s fin a lly b r o u g h t u p to s tre n g th b ya na s s is ta n t a s tro n o m e r a n d a nE S O fe llo w .

T h e
a s s is ta n t
a s tro n o m e r
is
fu n d e d
b y
O n s a la
S p a c e
O b s e rv a to ry
o r,
o c c a s io n a lly ,
b y
th e
F in n is h
A cadem y
o f
S c ie n c e .
A ll
m e m b e rs
o f
th e
o r ig in a l
S E S T
te a m
w e re
o n
tw o /
th re e -y e a r
c o n tra c ts
in
C h ile
a n d
b y
J u n e
1 9 8 9 th e y
h a d
a ll b e e n
r e p la c e d .
H o w e v e r, m o s t o f th e m
n o w
h a v e p o s i\ue000
tio n s
a t
O n s a la
a n d
h e lp
t o
fo rm
a
k n o w le d g e a b le
S E S T
lia is o n
g ro u p
a t
th e
o b s e rv a to ry .
T h e
n e w
te a m
h a s
b e e n
b u ilt u p
o v e ra p e r io d
s o
th a t a
h ig h
le v e l o f e x p e r tis e
h a s
b e e n
m a in \ue000
ta in e d . T a b le 2 g iv e s a s u m m a r y o f th e
s ta ff s itu a tio n a tS E S T .
T h e
S E S T
te a m
is
b a s ic a lly
d iv id e d
in totw os h ifts , e a c h s h ift w o r k in g a lte r \ue000
n a te
s ta n d a rd
E S O
s c h e d u le s
fro m
T u e s d a y t o T u e s d a y . H o lid a y a n d
s ic k \ue000
n e s s p e r m ittin g , e a c h s h ift c o m p r is e sa n
a s tro n o m e r, a
r e c e iv e r e n g in e e r a n d
a
s o ftw a re
s p e c ia l is t.
N o
o p e ra to rs
a re
p r o v id e d a tS E S T ,th e o b s e rv in g s y s te m
h a v in g
b e e n
d e s ig n e d
fo r e a s y
o p e ra \ue000
tio n b y th e a s tro n o m e r, w h ic h h a s b e e n
v e ry
s u c c e s s fu l.
S in c e
o p e ra tio n s
a re
c o n d u c te d
a ro u n d
th e
c lo c k , in tr o d u c \ue000
tio n s
t o
th e
s y s te m , u s u a lly
p e rfo rm e d
b y
th e
te le s c o p e
s c ie n tis t o r
E S O

a s \ue000 tro n o m e r, h a v et ooccupy some observ\ue000 in g tim e , b u t s in c e th e s y s te m

isra th e r
u s e r-frie n d ly , little tim eislo s t.
F u tu re D e v e lo p m e n ts
T h e S E S T te a m

isc o n tin u o u s ly w o r k \ue000 in gt oim p ro v e th e o b s e rv in g s y s te m , to s im p lify

a n d
s tr e a m lin e
it .
A
m enu\ue000
d riv e n in te rfa c e fo r th e c o n tro l s y s te m
is
a lm o s t
c o m p le te ,
th e
r e c e iv e r
tu n in g
s o ftw a re h a s b e e n im p ro v e d a n da no n \ue000
lin e
d a ta
re d u c tio n
s y s te m
is
n o w
in
o p e ra tio n .In a d d itio n ,a n
a la rm
s y s te m
t o
w a rn
th e
s ta ffo fth e
m o re
s e r io u s
m a lfu n c tio n sisino p e ra tio n a n d u n d e r\ue000
g o in g
fu rth e r d e v e lo p m e n t. M o re

in te r\ue000 n a lm e m o ry ,a s w e ila s e x tra d is k s p a c e , h a s

b e e n
in s ta lle d
o n
th e
H P
A 900.
N ew
s o ftw a re
m a k e s it p o s s ib let o
u s e
b o th
w id e
a n d
n a rro w
b a n d
A O S 's
s im u lta n e o u s ly (b o thins p lit m o d e if re \ue000
q u ire d ),
a n d
th e y
m ay
b e
c e n tre d
a t
d iffe r e n t fr e q u e n c ie s o r v e lo c itie s .
3

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