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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

S u c c e s s fu l T e s tso f A d a p tiv e O p tic s
N o.5 8-D ecem ber1 9 8 9
..
F .M E R K L E ,E S O
P .K E R N ,P .L E N A ,F . R IG A U T , O b s e rv a to ired e P a ris ,M eudon,F ra n c e .
'
J .C .FO N TAN E L L A ,G .R O U S S E T ,O N E R A ,C h itillo n - S o u s -B a g n e u x ,~ ra n c e
I
%
^
.
C . B O Y E R ,J .P .G A F F A R D ,P .JA G O U R E L,L A S E R D O T ,M a rc o u s s is ,F ra n c e
g
.
,.
I
A n
o ld
d re a m
o fg ro u n d -b a s e da s -
AB re a k -th ro u g hi nO p tic a l
T h e
e x te n s iv e
te s ts
show ed
th a ti t
tro n o m e rsh a s fin a lly com e tru e , th a n k s
T e c h n o lo g y
w asp o s s ib let oe ffe c tiv e ly" n e u tra liz e "
t oth ejo in t d e v e lo p m e n to f an e wte c h -
th e
a tm o s p h e r ic a llyin d u c e ds m e a r in g
n iq u ei na s tro n o m ic a lim a g in g-c a lle d
In
a
m a jo r
te c h n o lo g ic a l
b re a k -
o f
a
s te lla r
im a g e
b y
a
c lo s e d - lo o p
a d a p tiv eo p tic s- ,b yE S Oa n dO b s e r-
th ro u g hi ng ro u n d -b a s e d a s tro n o m yth e
c o rre c tio n
s y s te m .
In
th is
w ay
s te lla r
v a to ired e P a r is ,O N E R A (O ffic e N a tio n a l
V LTA d a p tiv eO p tic sP ro to ty p eS y s te m
im a g e s
w e re
o b ta in e d
a t
in fra re d
d 'E tu d e se td eR e c h e rc h e s A e ro s p a tia -
( a ls ore fe rre dt oa sC o m e -O n )h a sn o w
w a v e le n g th s w hose s h a rp n e s s w as o n ly
le s ) ,
L A S E R D O T
(fo rm e rly
C G E )
in
p ro v e di t sa b ilityt oo v e rc o m e th is n a tu r-
lim ite db yth e
te le s c o p ea p e rtu re ,i .e .
F ra n c e .
a l b a rrie rd u rin gas e r ie so fs u c c e s s fu l
d iffra c tio n lim ite dim a g e s .
I th a s
b e e n
d e m o n s tra te dth a tth is
te s tsi n th ep e rio d 1 2 -2 3
O c to b e r1 9 8 9 .
O n
e a c h
o fth e
te n
n ig h ts ,in fra re d
te c h n iq u ee ffe c tiv e lye lim in a te sth ea d -
T h e y
w e re
p e rfo rm e d
a t
th e
c o u d e
e x p o s u re s w e re m adeo fa b o u t1 0 b rig h t
v e rs e
in flu e n c eo f a tm o s p h e rictu rb u -
fo c u s
o fth e
1 .5 2 -m
te le s c o p ea tth e
s ta rsra n g in g fro mth ev is ib lem a g n itu d e
le n c e
o n
im a g e so fa s tro n o m ic a lo b -
O b s e rv a to ired e H a u te -P ro v e n c e (O H P ),
0 .7
t o
4 .7
( in c lu d in gC a p e lla ,D eneb,
je c ts ,y ie ld in gim a g e sa lm o s ta ss h a rp
F ra n c e .
B e te lg e u s e ,y '
A n d ,a n d
o th e rs ).T h e
a s
ifth e
te le s c o p e
w e re
s itu a te d
in
s p a c e .
W hy A d a p tiv eO p tic s ?
E v e rs in c e th ein v e n tio no f th ete le -
s c o p e
in
th e
e a rly
1 7 th
c e n tu ry ;
a s -
tro n o m e rsh a v eh a dt oa c c e p t th a tth e
q u a lityo f a s tro n o m ic a l im a g e so b ta in e d
w ith
g ro u n d -b a s e d
in s tru m e n ts iss e -
v e r e lylim ite db yafa c to r w h ic hi sb e -
y o n d th e ir c o n tro l, th a ti s th etu rb u le n c e
inth eE a rth 'sa tm o s p h e re .
F o ralo n g tim ei t w as th o u g h tim p o s -
s ib let oa v o id th isn a tu ra l lim it. N ow , fo r
th efirs t tim e , th iso ldp ro b le mh a sb e e n
d e m o n s tra b lys o lv e d .
F ig u re1:Im a g in go fD e n e bi nth e K -B a n dw ith o u ta n d w itha d a p tiv efe e d b a c k
lo o pa c tiv a te d .
T h e im a g ed ia m e te rs h r in k sfro m
1 .0a rc s e ct o0 .3 7a rc s e cw h ic hi sth ed iffra c tio n lim it inth e
K -B a n d(2 .2 pm ).
[a rc s e c ]
n
-
.
I
I
I
20
10
5
4
*C cm l
S e e in ga t v is ib lew a v e le n g th
p a rtia l. A re
th e

a p p lic a tio n c o n d itio n s a b o v e th e d a s h e d lin e , th e n n o im p ro v e - m e n t c a n b e a c h ie v e d , b e c a u s e th e te - le s c o p e ( in c a s e it is o f p e r fe c t q u a lity a n d w e ll a lig n e d ) is b y its e lf d iffr a c tio n lim ite d . A

fir s t a n a ly s is
o f th e

re s u lts c o n firm e d th e th e o re tic a l e x p e c ta tio n s . W henever

th e
o b s e r v in g

c o n d itio n s w e re in th e o p e ra tio n ra n g e o f th e s y s - te m , p e rfe c t im a g e q u a lity w a s re a c h e d , a s d e m o n s tra te d b y th e w e ll-k n o w n A iry rin g a ro u n d th e s ta r im a g e .

H owD oesi t W o rk ?
A d a p tiv eO p tic s is b a s e d o n a n o p ti-
c a l/e le c tr o n ic
fe e d -b a c k
lo o p .
In
it s
p h y s ic a l p r in c ip le s it is e q u iv a le n t t oa c -
tiv e o p tic sa s it is a p p lie d in th e E S O
N e w T e c h n o lo g y T e le s c o p e( N T ) (s e e
M essenger N o s . 5 3 a n d 5 6 ). B u t fo r th e
c o m p e n s a tio n o f th e a tm o s p h e ric tu rb u -
le n c e , th e s y s te m

h a s to c o rre c t m u c h fa s te r th a n in th e a c tiv e c a s e a n d th e re - fo re th e w a v e fro n t c o rre c tio n c a n n o t b e d o n e b y th e p rim a ry m irro r. T h e re fo re ,

F ig u re2 :T h e a p p lic a tio nra n g eo f th isp ro to ty p ea d a p tiv es y s te mi s
m a rk e da sth es h a d e d
z o n ei nth ed ia g ra m
fo rd iffe re n tw a v e le n g th sb a n d s( V is ib le ,J -,K -,L -,a n dM -b a n d ).T h e
c o h e re n c ele n g throfo rth ev a r io u s w a v e le n g th si sp lo tte da safu n c tio no f th es e e in g
d is k
d ia m e te ra t v is ib lew a v e le n g th . W henr oe x c e e d s a p p r o x im a te ly4 0cm , w h ic hc o rre s p o n d st o
th em eana c tu a to rs p a c in go nth e d e fo rm a b le m irro r, th e nfu ll c o rre c tio ni so b ta in e d . B e lo w
th isv a lu eo n lyp a rtia l c o rre c tio ni sp o s s ib le . W henr ore a c h e sth e
d ia m e te ro f th ete le s c o p e ,
th e nth ete le s c o p ei so n ly lim ite db yi t s o p tic a l q u a litya n d a d a p tiv e o p tic si sn o t re q u ire d .
in fra re dim a g e sh a v eb e e nta k e ni nth e
s iz e
inth e
v is ib le
a n d
th e
c o h e re n c e
J ,H ,K ,L ,a n dMb a n d s .S e v e ra l in te g ra -
le n g thr oa tin fra re dw a v e le n g th s .T h is
tio n s
w e re
m ade
th ro u g h
e a c h
filte r
a d a p tiv e
o p tic s
p ro to ty p e
s y s te m
is
w ith o u t
th e
a d a p tiv e
fe e d -b a c k ,
im -
c a p a b le to fu llyc o rre c t th ea tm o s p h e ric
m e d ia te lyfo llo w e db ya ne q u a lnum ber
tu rb u le n c ei fth es e e in gc o n d itio n sa re
w ithth ed e v ic ea c tiv a te d . D e p e n d in go n
s u c h th a t th ec o h e re n c ele n g thr oi nth e
th e
b rig h tn e s s
o f
th e
o b s e rv e d
s ta r,
in fra re dra n g ei sla rg e r th a n3 0t o5 0 cm .
e a c he x p o s u re la s te db e tw e e n1 0a n d
3 0t o5 0c m
c o rre s p o n d st oth em ean
1 0 0s e c o n d s .A t th is tim eth ep ro to ty p e
a c tu a to r
s p a c in g
o n
th e
d e fo rm a b le
s y s te mi s n o t o p tim iz e di nlig h t e ffic ie n -
m irro r.I fth eo p e ra tio n fa llsi na n rora n g e
F ig u re3 :T h e a d a p tiv e s y s te ma t th ec o u d 6
c y .
F o r
w a v e le n g th s
o f
3 .5y m
a n d
b e lo wth isv a lu e ,th ec o rre c tio ni so n ly
fo c u so f th e1 .5 2 -mte le s c o p ea tO H P .
lo n g e r,th ed iffra c tio n lim itw asa lw a y s
re a c h e d , irre s p e c tiv eo fth e a tm o s p h e ric
tu rb u le n c e . D u rin gth eo b s e rv a tio n s ,th e
T A B L E :T e c h n ic a l D a ta .
s e e in g
inth ev is ib lew a v e le n g th
b a n d
ra n g e dfro m
0 .7
a rc s e ct o
2 .5
a rc s e c
w ithe q u iv a le n ts e e in gc e lls iz e s(c o h e r-
e n c ele n g th s )r oo f1 4t o
4cm .D u rin g
th e
p h a s e s w ithb e tte rs e e in g , d iffra c -
tio nlim ite dim a g in gw ase v e nre a c h e d
a t 2 .2y m(0 .3a rc s e c o n d s )a n dan o tic e -
a b leim p r o v e m e n t w ass e e na t1 .2 pm .
F ig u re1show sa ne x a m p le .
F ig u re2
d is p la y s
th e
a p p lic a tio n
ra n g eo fth is
p ro to ty p es y s te m
u n d e r
v a r io u ss e e in gc o n d itio n s .T h ed ia g ra m
show sfo rth e
4
in fra re dw a v e le n g th s
ra n g e sth ere la tio nb e tw e e nth eim a g e
D e fo rm a b le
m irro r:
W a v e fro n ts e n s o r:
W a v e fro n t c o m p u te r:
C a m e ra :
1 9 p ie z o e le c tr ica c tu a to rs + /-7 .5
m icro m e tres tro k e
g im b a l m ount
p ie z o e le c tr ica c tu a to rs
S h a c k -H a rtm a n np r in c ip le
5x5a n d1 0x
1 0 s u b a p e rtu re s
1 0 0x1 0 0 in te n s ifie dR e tic o nd e te c to r
b u ilt-inre fe re n c e s o u rc e
a d d itio n a l fie lds e le c tio n m irro r
d e d ic a te de le c tro n ic s
h o s t c o m p u te rb a s e do nM o to ro la6 8 0 2 0
m odalc o rre c tio n schem e
m irro r e ig e n m o d e s
3 2x3 2 ln S ba rra yc a m e ra(S A Td e te c to r)
a d d itio n a l c h o p p in g m irro r
.I
I
la b o r a to w h a s b e e n d e s c rib e d e a rlie r in
~ e s s e n g e r
Nos. 52 and 57.
I
F u tu re P la n s
T h is
p ro to ty p e s y s te m
w ill s o o n
b e
in s ta lle d a t th e E S O 3 .6 -m

te le s c o p e a t L a S illa . T h e e n c o u r a g in g r e s u lts r e p r e - s e n t a firs t, m a jo r s te p o n th e w a y to - w a rd s a n a d a p tiv e s y s te m fo r th e 1 6 -m V e ry L a rg e~ e le s c o ~ e

(V L T ). A n u p g ra d e
o f th e
d e fo rm a b le
m irror to

a p p r o x i- m a te ly 5 0 a c tu a to rs , a w a v e fro n t s e n s o r w ith

1 0
b y
1 0 s u b -a p e rtu re s , a n d

a n e v e n fa s te r c o m p u te r s y s te m w ill b e th e n e x t s te p . S u c h a s y s te m c o u ld th e n b e d e s ig n e d a n d b u ilt fo r th e N T T .

T h e n e w te c h n o lo g y m a k e s it p o s s ib le to a c h ie v e th e th e o re tic a l lim its fo r o p ti- c a l im a g in g in th e in fr a r e d w a v e le n g th ra n g e b y m e a n s o f a m e d iu m -s iz e d te le -

1
s c o o e . F u rth e r d e v e lo o m e n ts w ill a im a t
F ig u re4 : T h e c o n tro l p a n e l o f th e a d a p tiv e p r o to ty p e s y s te m . T h e la rg e ra c k in th e u p p e ,: le ft
p t? tie ~ tin gt h e te c h n id u e fo r la rg e r te le -
c o n ta in s th e w a v e fro n t c o m p u te r. It is b a s e d o n d e d ic a te d p ro c e s s o rs fo r a fa s t w a v e fro n t
s c o p e s a n d a t s h o rte r w a v e le n g th s . N o t
a n a ly s is .
o n ly w ill p re s e n t-d a y te le s c o p e s b e n e fit,
th is
s y s te m
a n d
th e
s y s te m
in
th e
F ig u re5 : C lo s e - u p v ie w o f th e a d a p tiv e s y s -
te m
(u p p e r) a n d
s c h e m a tic s o f th e o p tic a l
la y -o u t (lo w e r). T h eF /2 8b e a m
e n te rs fro m

th e to p , a fo c a l re d u c e r c h a n g e s th e ra tio to F /8(fo r th eE S O 3 .6 -m te le s c o p e ), a n d a n o ff- a x is

p a ra b o la
in
fro n t
o f
th e

d e fo rm a b le m ir r o r c o llim a te s th e b e a m . A fte r th ed e fo rm - a b le m irro r, th e b e a m is re fle c te d a t a g im b a l m o u n te d m irro r fo r tilt c o rre c tio n a n d th e n a s e c o n d o ff-a x is p a ra b o la re fo c u s s e s it. T h e in fra re d a n d v is ib le p a rt a re s e p a ra te d b y a d ic h ro ic m irro r. T h e in fra re d p a rt is re la y e d to th elR a rra y c a m e ra , w h ile th e v is ib le p a r t is re fle c te d to th e w a v e fro n t s e n s o r.

b
hi
-
IR array cam era
th e o p tic a l s y s te m m u s t in c lu d e a n a d d i-
tio n a l,
s m a ll d e fo r m a b le
m irro r w h ic h
c a n
c h a n g e
it s
s u rfa c e
p ro file

fa s t e n o u g h in a w a y th a t e x a c tly c o m p e n - s a te s fo r th e d is to rtio n s o f th e w a v e fro n t a fte r it h a s p a s s e d th ro u g h th e a tm o - s p h e re .

In th e p re s e n t p ro to ty p e s y s te m
th e
m irro r s u rfa c e is d e fo rm e d b y1 9 p ie z o -
e le c tr ic
a c tu a to rs .
T h e

in fo rm a tio n a b o u t h o w to d e fo rm th e m irro r c o m e s fr o m a w a v e fro n t s e n s o r w h ic h a llo w s t o m e a s u re th e s h a p e o f th e d is to rte d lig h t w a v e fro n t s a m p le d in 5 b y 5s u b -a p e r- tu re s . It re q u ire s a v e ry fa s t a n d p o w e r- fu l c o m p u te r to

c a lc u la te h o w

th e a c - tu a to rs lo c a te d b e h in d th e d e fo rm a b le m irro r h a v e to p u s h a n d p u ll th e m irro r s u rfa c e . F ig u re s3, 4, and 5 show

th e
s y s te m

in s ta lle d a t th e c o u d e fo c u s o f th e 1 .5 2 -m te le s c o p e , its c o n tro l p a n e l, a n d

a
c lo s e - u p
v ie w
o f
th e
o p to -
-
-
m e c h a n ic s a n d its p r in c ip le . T h e
m a in
\
d ic h r o ic
d a ta o f th e p ro to ty p e s y s te m
a r e g iv e n
in th e T a b le . T h e m a jo r c o m p o n e n ts o f
\,
,
tip ltilt
\
m lrro r
L\
\
F IB

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