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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

N o.6 1-S e p te m b e r1 9 9 0
P o rtu g a l a n d E S O S ig n C o o p e ra tio n A g re e m e n t
T o
som e
o f th e
e x p e rie n c e d

d ip lo - m a ts in th e a tte n tiv e a u d ie n c e , th e fe s - tiv e

c e re m o n y o n
J u ly
1 0 ,1 9 9 0 , m ay

h a v e b e e n ju s t a n o th e r o f th e s te p s to - w a rd s E u ro p e a n in te g ra tio n , n o w b e in g ta k e n a ll o v e r th e c o n tin e n t. B u t fo r th e a s tro n o m e rs fro m

P o rtu g a l a n d
E S O ,
th is
o ffic ia l a c t w a s
m uch
m o re th a n
th a t; it w a s a jo y o u s e v e n t th a t m a rk e d
th e b e g in n in g o f a n e w , in te ra c tiv e e ra
w ith h ig h e x p e c ta tio n s .

O n a h o t s u m m e r 's d a y in L is b o n , t h e R e p u b lic o f P o rtu g a l a n d th e E u ro p e a n S o u th e rn O b s e rv a to ry s ig n e d a C o o p e r- a tio n A g re e m e n t w h ic h is a im e d a tfu ll

m e m b e rs h ipo f P o rtu g a li nE S O
w ith in
th e n e x t te n y e a rs .
D u rin g
th is
p e rio d , th e
P o rtu g u e s e
1
G o v e rn m e n t"w ill,a llo c a te
a n
am ount
e q u iv a le n tt oap e rc e n ta g eo fth ea n n u a l
c o n trib u tio n
P o rtu g a lw o u ld
h a v e
t o
p a y , ifi t w as a lre a d yam em ber o fE S O ,
t oth e
d e v e lo p m e n to fre s e a rc hi nth e
fie ldo f c o n te m p o ra ry A s tro n o m y ,s oa s
t o
p e rm ita
fu tu re
e ffic ie n tu s a g e
o f
E S O 's
fa c ilitie s
b y
P o rtu g u e s e
a s -
tro n o m e rs ".T h isam ount w illb es p e n t
I
,.
A t th es ig n in gc e re m o n yi n L is b o n . F ro mle ftt orig h t:P ro fe s s o rT e re s aL a g o ( A s tr o p h y s ic a lC e n tre , P o rto ), P ro fe s s o rH a rryv a nd e rL a a n(E S O
D ire c to rG e n e ra l), P ro fe s s o r J o s e P e d roS u c e n a P a iv a(P o rtu g u e s e S e c re ta ryo f S ta te fo rS c ie n c ea n dT e c h n o lo g y ), P ro fe s s o r C a rlo sS a le m a
(P re s id e n to f J N IC T ), M r. F e rn a n d oG o n q a lv e s(C h ie fo f C a b in e to f th e
S e c re ta ryo f S ta te ).
A
1
o n
a
num ber
o f
in fra s tru c tu re s
n e c e s s a ry fo r th e

d e v e lo p m e n t o f A s - tro n o m y in P o rtu g a l a n d o n te c h n o lo g i- c a l a n d s c ie n tific tr a in in g a c tio n s r e la te d t oE S O 's a c tiv itie s .

In re tu rn , P o rtu g u e s e a s tro n o m e rs w ill
have access
t o
E S O 's fa c ilitie s
d u rin g
th e
p re -a c c e s s io n
p e rio d
u n d e r s c ie n -
t if ic
c o n d itio n s
s im ila r
t o
th o s e
o f

M e m b e r C o u n trie s . It is e x p e c te d th a t th e O P C w ill s o o n re c e iv e th e firs t p r o - p o s a l ( ~ ) f r o m

P o rtu g a l, a n d
th a t s o m e
jo in t
p ro g ra m m e s
w ith
a s tro n o m e rs
fro m
E S O
m em ber
c o u n trie s
w ill
b e
w o rk e d o u t b e fo re th e e n d o f th e y e a r.
A
J o in t
P o rtu g u e s e /E S O
A d v is o r y
B o d y
is
b e in g
s e t
u p
t o
m o n ito r
th e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f P o rtu g u e s e a s tro n o m y
a n d its in te ra c tio n w ith E S O .
T h e A g r e e m e n t w a s s ig n e d o n b e h a lf
o f th e
P o rtu g u e s e G o v e rn m e n t b y

H is E x c e lle n c y , S e c re ta ry o f S ta te fo r S c i- e n c e

a n d
T e c h n o lo g y ,

P ro f. D r. J o s e P e d ro S u c e n a P a iv a , a n d fo r E S O b y its D ire c to r G e n e ra l, P ro f. D r. H a rry v a n d e r Laan. Am ong

th e
in v ite d
g u e s ts
w e re
h ig h
g o v e rn m e n t o ffic ia ls , q u ite
a
fe w
P o rtu g u e s e
s c ie n tis ts
re p re s e n tin g
o th e r s c ie n tific

fie ld s , a s w e ll a s m a n y m e d ia re p re s e n ta tiv e s w h o re p o rte d e x - te n s iv e ly

a b o u t th is e v e n t inT V ,ra d io
a n d n e w s p a p e rs .
J o in in g th e S e c re ta ry o f S ta te a n d th e
D ire c to r G e n e ra l o n th e
p la tfo rm
w e re
th e
P re s id e n t o f J u n ta
N a c io n a l d e
In -
v e s t i g a ~ s o C ie n tific a
e

T e c h n o lo g ic a (J N IC T : N a tio n a l B o a r d fo r S c ie n c e a n d T e c h n o lo g ic a l R e s e a rc h ), P ro f. D r. C a r- lo sS a le m a , a n d P ro f. D r. T e re s a L a g o , A s tro p h y s ic a l C e n tre o f th e U n iv e rs ity o f P o rto , b o th o f w h o m

p la y e d k e y r o le s
d u rin g
th e
e x te n s iv e

p re p a ra tio n s th a t p r e c e d e d th e c o n c lu s io n o f th is A g re e - m e n t, w h ic h w a s a p p ro v e d b y th e E S O

C o u n c il in D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 9 .
T h e
c e re m o n y c o m m e n c e d w ith
th e

s h o w in g o f a s h o r t v id e o film a b o u t E S O a n d its ro le in E u ro p e a n a s tro n o m y . P ro - fe s s o r

L a g o
th e n
c o m m e n te d
o n
th e
p re s e n t
s itu a tio n
in
P o rtu g u e s e
a s -
tro n o m y .
I t
is
in
a
c r itic a l
p e rio d
o f
g ro w th , fo r w h ic h
th e
a s s o c ia tio n
w ith
E S O
w ill
b e
a
g re a t
s u p p o rt
a n d
s tim u lu s . T h e fu ll te x t o f th e s p e e c h
is
re p ro d u c e d o n th e n e x t p a g e ; s e e a ls o
th e s u m m a ry o n p a g e4 .
F o llo w in g th e s o le m n a c t o f s ig n a tu r e ,
P ro fe s s o r v a n
d e rL a a n e x p re s s e d
h is
g re a t p le a s u re
in
c o n n e c tio n
w ith
th e
n e w a s s o c ia tio n
b e tw e e n
P o rtu g a l a n d
E S O . H e e x p re s s e d h is c o n v ic tio n th a t
th e
a n c ie n t
a s tro n o m ic a l
tra d itio n
in

P o rtu g a l, p a rtic u la rly e v id e n t a t th e fa - m o u s n a v a l in s titu te fo u n d e d b y H e n ry th e

N a v ig a to r a n d o f s u c h
a g re a t im -
p o rta n c e
fo r
th e
fa r-re a c h in g
e x p e d i-
tio n s o f th a t tim e , w ill c o n tin u e a n d b e
s tre n g th e n e d
b y
th e
in te ra c tio n

w ith E S O . H e s u rv e y e d th e E S O fa c ilitie s a n d th e im p o rta n c e o f a s tro n o m y , n o t ju s t a s a s c ie n c e in its o w n r ig h t, b u t a ls o a s a d riv e r fo r n e w a n d a d v a n c e d te c h n o lo g y w h ic h m a y b e o f g r e a t u s e in m a n y o th e r fie ld s a s w e ll. H e lo o k e d fo rw a rd t o th e d a y

w hen
a
n e w

g e n e ra tio n o f P o rtu - g u e s e a s tro n o m e rs w ill b e a b le t o m a k e fu ll u s e o f th e ir n e w o p p o rtu n itie s w ith in th e

E u ro p e a n a s tro n o m ic a l c o m m u n ity
a n d
w hen
P o rtu g a l
w ill
becom e
a
M e m b e r S ta te o f E S O .
I n
h is
d is c o u r s e
( E n g lis h tr a n s la tio n
h e re a fte r), th e
S e c re ta ry
o f S ta te
em -
p h a s iz e d
th e
ra p id
p ro g re s s
in
a s -

tro n o m y , in p a rtic u la r b e c a u s e o f m o d - e rn te c h n o lo g y . H e s tre s s e d th e im p o r- ta n c e

a tta c h e d
b y
h is
c o u n try
t o
th e
fu rth e rin g o f s c ie n tific a n d te c h n o lo g ic a l
p r o je c ts w ith in
a
E u ro p e a n fra m e w o rk .
S p e e c hb y P ro fe s s o r J o s e P e d ro S u c e n a P a iv a
I t
is
in d e e d
a
g re a t
p le a s u r e

a n d p r iv ile g e fo r m e t o s ig n o n b e h a lf o f th e P o rtu g u e s e

G o v e rn m e n t th e

C o o p e ra - tio n A g re e m e n t b e tw e e n th e R e p u b lic o f P o rtu g a l a n d th e E u ro p e a n O rg a n iz a tio n fo r A s tro n o m ic a l R e s e a rc h in th e S o u th - e rn H e m is p h e re-

E S O- ,
a p r e s tig io u s
in te rn a tio n a l
o r g a n iz a tio n
d e v o te d
t o
s c ie n tific
re s e a rc h
in
th e
fie ld
of As-
tro n o m y .
I firm ly

b e lie v e th a t th is A g re e m e n t, w h ic h s e ts th e c o n d itio n s fo r P o rtu g a l's a d h e s io n

t o
E S O
w ith in
a

te n -y e a r p e r io d , w ill p r o v e t o b e a d e c is iv e m ile - s to n e fo r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f A s tro n o m y a n d A s tro p h y s ic s in th is c o u n try .

D u rin g th is
p e rio d
P o rtu g a l w ill re in -
fo r c e its s c ie n tific c a p a b ility in th is fie ld ,
n a m e ly
th ro u g h
a d v a n c e d
tra in in g

o f h u m a n re s o u rc e s , s o th a t th e n u m b e r o f P o rtu g u e s e

a s tro n o m e rs
becom es,
in
p r o p o r tio n t o th e s c ie n tific
c o m m u n ity ,
c o m p a ra b le to th a t o f th e E S O M e m b e r'
S ta te s . E S O
w ill p r o v id e
access to
it s
fa c ilitie s
t o
P o rtu g u e s e
s c ie n tis ts
a n d
g ra d u a te s tu d e n ts u n d e r s c ie n tific c o n -
d itio n s s im ila r t o th o s e o f th e
M em ber
S ta te s .
M an
h a s
a lw a y s
e n d e a v o u re d
t o
s tu d y th e
o b je c ts
o u ts id e

p la n e t E a rth a n d its im m e d ia te e n v ir o n m e n t, in c lu d - in g

th e
M oon,
S u n ,
p la n e ts ,
s ta rs ,
th e
G a la x y
a n d
s im ila r
e x te rn a l
s ta r s y s te m s , in te rp la n e ta ry a n d
in te r-
s te lla r
m a tte r, a n d
th e
U n iv e r s e a s
a
w h o le .
In th is c o n n e c tio n , s ig n ific a n t s u p p o r t is
n o w
b e c o m in g
a v a ila b le ,

e s p e c ia lly a fte r P o rtu g a l b e c a m e a fu ll m e m b e r o f th e E u ro p e a n C o m m u n ity . In its p re s e n t q u e s t

fo r
d e v e lo p m e n t,

P o rtu g a l c a n d ra w in s p ira tio n fro m th e G re a t M a ritim e D is c o v e r ie s in e a rlie r c e n tu r ie s .

In th e a fte rn o o n , th e D ire c to r G e n e ra l
a n d
h is s m a ll E S O
d e le g a tio n
w e n t to
P o rto t o v is it th e U n iv e rs ity a n d its C e n tre
fo r
A s tro p h y s ic s ,
w h ic h
w as

o ffic ia lly s ta rte d h e re la s t y e a r. S in c e 1 9 8 4 , w h e n a

p ro g ra m m e fo r a s tro n o m ic a l s tu d ie s w a s firs t d e v e lo p e d in P o rto , th e re h a s b e e n a n in c r e a s in g in te r e s t a n d a s te a d i- ly g r o w in g

n u m b e r o f s tu d e n ts
in this
d is c ip lin e .
S e v e ra l
M a s te r's
d e g re e s

h a v e b e e n g a in e d a b ro a d a n d p re s e n tly , a num ber of P h D s a re w e ll u n d e r w a y . In a

fe w
y e a rs , th e
P o rto
g ro u p
c a n
b e
e x p e c te d
t o
re a c h
th e
c r itic a l
m ass,
n e e d e d
t o
in tro d u c e
m o re ,
h ig h - le v e l
c o u rs e s . F o r th e tim e b e in g , th e re
is a
s p e c ia l
in te r e s t in
s te lla r
s tu d ie s
a n d
c o s m o lo g y .
T h e
A s tro n o m y
C e n tre
is
n e ig h b o u r t o th e U n iv e r s ity 's C o m p u tin g
C e n tre a n d m a n y o f th e s tu d e n ts
h a v e
becom e
in v o lv e d in

im a g e p r o c e s s in g ; M lD A S is b e in g im p le m e n te d . S o m e s tu - d e n ts h a v e a lre a d y m a d e s h o rt v is its t o th e E S O H e a d q u a rte rs .

It
is
o b v io u s
th a t
P o rtu g u e s e
a s -
tr o n o m y is in a p h a s e o f r a p id a n d w e ll
c o n s id e r e d
e x p a n s io n . W ith
access to
th e
E S O
te le s c o p e s ,
m ore
y o u n g
a s -

tro n o m e rs in th is c o u n try w ill b e d ra w n to w a rd s o b s e rv a tio n a l s tu d ie s a n d th e ir p o s s ib ilitie s

fo r fru itfu l
in te ra c tio n
w ith
a s tro n o m e rs
in
o th e r
p la c e s
w ill
in -
c re a s e .
A nd
in
te n
y e a rs '
tim e ,

o r p e rh a p s e v e n b e fo re , th e fo rm a l a d h e r- e n c e

o f
P o rtu g a l to
E S O
w ill
fo llo w
n a tu ra lly , w ith th e fu ll, m u tu a l b e n e fits .
T h e E d ito r
U n til th e 1 7 th c e n tu ry , a s tro n o m y w a s
la r g e ly
c o n c e rn e d
w ith
th e
m e a s u re -

m e n t o f th e p o s itio n s a n d m o tio n s o f th e S u n , M o o n , p la n e ts , a n d a p p a re n tly fix - e d s ta r s v is ib le t o th e u n a id e d e y e . T h e n th e

la w s o f p la n e ta ry m o tio n w e re d is -
c o v e re d , th e
te le s c o p e
w as
in v e n te d ,
a n d
th e
la w s
u n d e r ly in g
m o tio n
a n d
g ra v ita tio n w e re fo rm u la te d .
I n
th e
1 8 th
c e n tu ry
th e
firs t
id e a s

b a s e d o n e x te n s iv e o b s e rv a tio n s o f th e s tru c tu re o f th e G a la x y th a t c o n ta in s th e ,E a rth a n d o f th e U n iv e rs e w e re p u t fo r- w a rd .

T h e
1 9 th
c e n tu ry
b ro u g h t th e

in tro - d u c tio n o f t w o b a s ic te c h n iq u e s , s p e c - tro s c o p y a n d p h o to g ra p h y , w h ic h le d t o n e w

a n d
q u a n tita tiv e
m e th o d s
fo r
m e a s u r in g
th e
q u a n tity
a n d
q u a lity
o f
lig h t a n d e n a b le p h y s ic a l s tu d ie s t o b e
m ade
o f th e
b rig h tn e s s , te m p e ra tu re s
a n d
c h e m ic a l n a tu re o f th e
s ta rs
a n d
n e b u la e .
T h e o re tic a l a n a ly s is o f th e
c o n trib u -
tio n
o f th e s ta rs a d v a n c e d e n o rm o u s ly
in th e 2 0 th
c e n tu ry th ro u g h
th e d e v e l-
opm ent
o f
q u a n tu m
th e o ry
a n d
o th e r
b r a n c h e s o f p h y s ic s , le a d in g t o
a new
d is c ip lin e : a s tr o p h y s ic s .
A s tro n o m y
n o w
flo u r is h e s
a s
n e v e r
b e fo re : q u a s a rs a n d p u ls a rs h a v e b e e n
d is c o v e r e d
a n d
th e re
a re
h o p e s
th a t
a n s w e rs to p ro b le m s s u c h a s th e o rig in
o f th e
U n iv e r s e , o f c h e m ic a l e le m e n ts ,
o f th e
E a rth , a n d
of life
its e lf m a y b e
fo u n d .
T h e
p re s e n t
d e v e lo p m e n t
o f
A s-

tro n o m y is t o a la rg e e x te n t d u e to th e u s e o f m o d e r n te c h n o lo g y , n a m e ly a d - v a n c e d

te le c o m m u n ic a tio n s , e le c tr o n ic
c o m p u te rs ,
p r e c is e
tim e k e e p in g
a n d
ro c k e try .
T h is is a ls o t h e c a s e in o th e r a re a s o f
fu n d a m e n ta l re s e a rc h , th e
a d v a n c e
o f

w h ic h in e ffe c t m a n y tim e s re q u ire s th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a d v a n c e d te c h n o lo g ie s , w h ic h c a n p a rtly ju s tify th e h e a v y in v e s t- m e n t n e c e s s a ry to p ro v id e th e a d e q u a te fa c ilitie s .

T h e r is k s in v o lv e d in b ig s c ie n c e p r o -
je c ts
a re
n o t n e g lig ib le , a s th e
re c e n t
m is h a p
w ith
th e
H u b b le
S p a c e
T e le -

s c o p e w e ll d e m o n s tra te s . H o w e v e r, th e p o te n tia l re w a rd s a re e n o rm o u s , s in c e t h e in tr in s ic v a lu e o f k n o w le d g e its e lf is in v a lu a b le a n d p r ic e le s s .

T h e s ig h t o f o u r b e a u tifu l p la n e t fro m
s p a c e
h a s
m ade
u s fu lly

a w a re o f its s m a lln e s s a n d fr a g ility . T e c h n o lo g y c a n in s o m e w a y b e d e fin e d a s th e m e a n s th r o u g h w h ic h m a n m a n ip u la te s th e e n - v ir o n m e n t. T h is d e fin itio n c le a r ly s h o w s th a t,

d e s p ite
it s
tre m e n d o u s
a c h ie v e -
m e n ts , te c h n o lo g y
m ust be
u s e d
in a
w ay
c o m p a tib le
w ith
th e
s u r v iv a l
o f

E a rth fo r th e b e n e fit o f o u rs e lv e s a n d th e fu tu re g e n e ra tio n s . N o g e n e ra tio n h a s a fr e e h o ld o n th is p la n e t, a ll w e h a v e is a life te n a n c y , w ith a fu ll r e p a ir in g le a s e .

S c ie n c e a n d T e c h n o lo g y a re n o w b e - in g s e r io u s ly c o n s id e r e d in th is c o u n tr y a t t h e p o litic a l le v e l. A fte r m a n y y e a rs o f r e la tiv e n e g le c t, o u r s c ie n tific c o m m u n i- t y

is
n o w
th e
o b je c t
o f

c o n s id e r a b le a tte n tio n a n d c a re . C o n d itio n s fo r s c ie n - t if ic

re s e a rc h
a n d
te c h n o lo g ic a l
d e -

v e lo p m e n t h a v e c o n s id e r a b ly im p r o v e d in r e c e n t y e a rs , e s p e c ia lly s in c e P o r tu - g a l's in te g ra tio n in th e E u ro p e a n C o m - m u n ity in 1 9 8 6 .

A t th e tu rn in g
p o in t th a t

P o rtu g a l is n o w , S c ie n c e a n d T e c h n o lo g y a re k e y in g r e d ie n ts fo r o u r d e v e lo p m e n t a n d fu ll p a r tic ip a tio n

in
th e
c o n s tru c tio n
o f
E u ro p e .
In te rn a tio n a l
c o n ta c ts
a re

b e in g s tre n g th e n e d ra p id ly a n d o u r s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e r s a re in v o lv e d in a s iz a b le n u m b e r o f m u ltin a tio n a l R&D p ro je c ts , n a m e ly in th e c o n te x t o f th e

E u ro p e a n
C o m m u n ity F ra m e w o rk P ro g ra m m e .

T h e s c ie n tific c o m m u n itie s o f th e d if- fe re n t c o u n trie s a re c e rta in ly a m o n g th e m ost

in te r n a tio n a liz e d
b o d ie s
o f
th e
s o c ie ty , fo r
o b v io u s

re a s o n s . S c ie n c e h a s a lw a y s c u t a c ro s s b a rrie rs a n d fro n - tie rs

a n d
in te rn a tio n a l
c o n ta c ts
a re

in s tru m e n ta l fo r its d e v e lo p m e n t. In te r- n a tio n a liz a tio n a n d m o b ility o f s c ie n tis ts is th e re fo re a c o rn e rs to n e o f o u r s c ie n - tific p o lic y .

T h e P o rtu g u e s e S c ie n tific C o m m u n ity is s till r e la tiv e ly s m a ll-a b o u t 5 0 0 0 fu ll- tim e e q u iv a le n t s c ie n tis ts-

but young,
c o m p e te n t a n d
d y n a m ic . T h is
num ber

h a s to b e ra p id ly in c re a s e d , b o th b y n e w e n try -le v e l re c ru its a n d a ls o b y a ttra c t- in g s e n io r fo r e ig n s c ie n tis ts .

A t
th is
s ta g e ,
o u r
in fra s tru c tu re s
-
b u ild in g s , e q u ip m e n t a n d s u p p o r t p e r -
s o n n e l-
a re
s till
in s u ffic ie n t,
lim itin g
m a n y tim e s th e e ffo rts o f o u r s c ie n tis ts
S p e e c hb y P ro fe s s o r T e re s a L a g o

I b e lie v e to d a y is in d e e d a n im p o r ta n t m a rk in th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f A s tro n o m y in

P o rtu g a l.
I n
th e
p re s e n t
tim e s
o f
a w a re n e s s fo r S c ie n c e a n d T e c h n o lo g y ,
't o d a y 's e v e n ts a re o f in d is p u ta b le
im -
p o rta n c e
fo r th e
fu tu re
o f A s tro n o m y ,
b o th in re s e a rc h a n d e d u c a tio n .
T h e y
com e
in
th e
s e q u e n c e
o f
a n
in itia tiv e ta k e n
b yJ N lC T
in
1987, and
th e
s u b s e q u e n t p ro p o s a l fo r a

n a tio n - w id e p ro g ra m m e fo r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f A s tro n o m y lA s tro p y s ic s . J N IC T 's

in itia -
tiv e
w as
th e n
v e ry
im p o rta n t
fo r
A s-
tro n o m y ,
a lw a y s
fo rg o tte n
o r
m e re ly
to le ra te d
b o th
b y
re s e a rc h
p la n n e rs
a n d
u n iv e r s ity
a u th o ritie s .

A s tro n o m y w a s , fo r th e v e ry firs t tim e , c o n s id e re d a s o n e o f th e a re a s th a t s h o u ld b e d e - v e lo p e d .

O f e q u a l im p o rta n c e
w a s th e
s im u l-
ta n e o u s
s u rv e y
o f th e
s itu a tio n
a t th e
P o rtu g u e s e
O b s e rv a to rie s
-
th e
firs t

d o n e in m o d e rn tim e s-in c lu d in g a fu ll e n q u iry o n th e fa c ilitie s , p e rs o n n e l, a c tiv - ity (te a c h in g a n d re s e a rc h ), p ro g ra m m e s a n d

p ro je c ts
b e in g
c a rrie d
o u t a t th e
th re e
U n iv e r s ity
O b s e rv a to rie s

(P o rto , C o im b ra a n d L is b o a ) a n d a t th e N a tio n a l O b s e rv a to ry (L is b o a ).T h e c o n c lu s io n s o f th is s u rv e y g a v e a re a lis tic im a g e o f th e

a n d m a k in g th e ir life s o m e w h a t d iffic u lt. B u t th e re a re s o m e g o o d p ro s p e c ts o n th e h o riz o n t o o v e rc o m e th is s o lu tio n .

I n
th e
fra m e w o rk
o f
th e
S tru c tu ra l
F u n d s R e fo rm
o f th e
E C , P o rtu g a l h a s
s u b m itte d
a
P ro g ra m m e-
e m b le m a ti-
c a lly n a m e d th e S c ie n c e P ro g ra m m e-
d e s ig n e d t o c re a te n e w s c ie n tific
in fra -
s tru c tu re s , re in fo rc e e x is tin g
ones and
tra in
n e w
s c ie n tis ts .
T h e
p ro g ra m m e ,
w h ic h
w as
e x tr e m e ly w e ll r e c e iv e d
b y
th e E C C o m m is s io n a n d a p p ro v e d w ith
m in o r
a lte ra tio n s ,
is
n o w
in
th e
firs t
s ta g e o f e x e c u tio n .
T h e
a r tic u la tio n
o f
th is

P ro g ra m m e w ith th e n e w E C F ra m e w o rk P ro g ra m m e 1 9 9 0 1 9 4 w ill c e rta in ly p ro v id e th e s ta g e fo r a ra p id d e v e lo p m e n t o f P o rtu g u e s e S c ie n c e a n d T e c h n o lo g y . It is u p t o th e s c ie n tific c o m m u n ity t o s e iz e th e o p p o r - tu n itie s

a v a ila b le t o th e m . T h e g o v e r n - m e n t s h o u ld o n ly c re a te th e rig h t e n v i- ro n m e n t a n d o f c o u rs e a d e q u a te c o n d i- tio n s

a n d
th e n
s te p
a s id e
a n d
in
d u e
tim e e v a lu a te th e re s u lts .
T h e
p riv a te
s e c to r s h o u ld
b e
c a lle d
u p o n t o p a rtic ip a te m o re a c tiv e ly in th e
R&Da c tiv itie s . W e u n d e rs ta n d th a t fo r

a s m a ll o r m e d iu m e n te r p r is e , R&Dis a v e ry e x p e n s iv e a c tiv ity . T h a t is w h y U n i- v e rs ity -In d u s try

p a rtn e rs h ip s s h o u ld

b e s tr o n g ly e n c o u r a g e d a n d it p le a s e s m e t o s a y th a t s o m e e n c o u ra g in g e x a m p le s h a v e a lre a d y flo u ris h e d in th is c o u n try .

In its p re s e n t q u e s t fo r d e v e lo p m e n t,
P o rtu g a l c a n
d ra w
in s p ir a tio n
t o
th e

G re a t M a ritim e D is c o v e rie s o f th e 1 5 th a n d 1 6 th c e n tu r ie s , w h ic h w e r e p o s s ib le b y

th e
c o n ju g a tio n
o f fo u r fa c to rs :
(1 )
p o litic a l w ill;(2 )rig o ro u s a n d m e th o d ic
s c ie n tific
k n o w le d g e ;
(3 )
e n te rp ris in g

s p irit a n d th e c a p a c ity o f ta k in g ris k s ; (4 ) m a s te ry o f th e te c h n o lo g ic a l s y s te m s o f th a t tim e , n a v ig a tio n a n d w e a p o n ry .

T h e
c h a lle n g e s
w h ic h
c o n fro n t

u s n o w a d a y s re q u ire th e s a m e in g re d ie n ts fo r a n a d e q u a te re s p o n s e .

s itu a tio n a t th e , u n til th e n , u n iq u eS ta te - o r U n iv e rs ity -fin a n c e d In s titu tio n s fo r a s - tro n o m ic a l

a c tiv ity .
A lth o u g h
th is
is
n e ith e r th e p la c e n o r th e tim e to

com - m e n t o n th o s e re s u lts , th e y s h o u ld , e v e n to d a y , b e g iv e n s e rio u s a n d u rg e n t a tte n - tio n . Q u a lifie d h u m a n re s o u rc e s a re th e c ru c ia l c o m p o n e n t, o th e rw is e a ll e ffo rts a re c o n d e m n e d to fa ilu re .

T h e s itu a tio n o f A s tro n o m y

in P o rtu - g a l re m a in s v e ry w o rry s o m e : in s te a d o f th e "E u ro p e a n a v e ra g e " o f 1 0 to 2 0a s - tro n o m e rs l1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

in h a b ita n ts ,

w e a re s till s h o rt b y a fa c to r o f 1O! A n d th e la c k o f lo n g tra d itio n o f re s e a rc h w o rk in

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