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messenger-no63

messenger-no63

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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02/01/2013

AN ew S o u th e rnH e m is p h e r eG a la c ticE x tin c tio n M ap
B asedo n S u rfa c eB rig h tn e s s e so fE x te rn a l G a la x ie s
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EA .V A LE N T IJ N ,E S Oa n d L a b o ra to ryfo rS p a c eR e s e a rc h ,G ro n in g e n ,
th eN e th e rla n d s
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T h ep re c is es u rfa c eb rig h tn e s sv a lu e s
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Z e rop o ln tI ss o m e w h a t a rb itra ry ,b u t8lo w e r
lim itc o u ldb ed e d u c e db ya v o id in gn e g a H v e
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e
mfu n c tio n .
I.ss
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m e d iu mIno u r o w nG a la x ya n d th e te c h -
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s tu d le db e fo re Ins o -c a lle d 're d d e n ln g '
s tu d ie s ,T h e c u rre n t a n a ly s ls u s e s p a r a -
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g a la x ie s , In s im ila rity
w ithp re v io u sre d d e n in gs tu d ie s ,a n db
n o ts e n s itiv e toth o s e re g io n sa f th es k y
th a tm a yb es oh e a v ily o b s c u r e d t h a tw e
s ta tt
to
m iss
o b je c ts
lo c a te d
b e h in d
thesere g Io n s .T h e s eh e a v lly o b s c u r e d
re g io n sc a nb e b e tte rtra c e d b yg a la x y
c o u n ts ,as e p a ra te p r o je c t, w h ic hI s s till
In p ro g re s s .H e re ,w e a n n o u n c esom e
R rs trw b

o fo u r W ln c tio nstu d les,I n p a rtic u la ra S d e g r e er e s o tu tlo ne x tln c - tlon m apo f theS o u th e rnS k y w itha a

W
= 0 .t3 " 'a n do(E (B-V )) = 0 .O B m .
2 .T h e T e c h n iq u e
T h e
h ith e rto
m o s t fre q u e n tly
u s e d

m o d dfo r th ee x tln c tio nhth e S o u th e m G la la c tlc h e m ls p h e w ( B u r s te in , H e ile s )Is e x c lu s k re lyb a s e do n th em a p p in g o f n e u tra l h y d ro g e n . S in c e th is

m apphg
w asd o n ew lth
a ra th e rp o o rs p a tia l
s a m p lin g ,th er e s u ltin ge x ttn c tlo nm ap
w asg r o s s l y d o rn h a te db y lrttw p o la tlo n s
o f d a ta .F u n h e rm o re , u sln gH Id a tare -
lie so nsc o n s ta n t H I-to -e x tin c tio n ra tlo .
T h e o v e ra ll v a lu e o fth ls m i ob u n o e rta in
b ya t le a s tafa c to rtw o ,a n d1sth o u g h t
t od e v ia tem o re lo c a lly . T h is m o tiv a te d
B u rs te in
a n d
H e ile s
t o
In c lu d e
a ls o
g a la x yc o u n ts ,w hend e r iv ln g t h d re x -
tin c tlo nW
e tfo r th eN o rth e rnH e m i-
s p h e re ,b u tth is c o u ld u n fo rtu n a te lyn o t
b e d o n efo rth eS o u th . M o tiv a te db y th e
m
n ta v a ila b ility
of
th e
p h o to m e tric
d a tai nth eE S O -L Vc a ta lo g u e , w eh a v e
u n d e rta k e n
som e
s ta titis tlc a l
e x p e rl-
m e n tstos e e w h e th e rth ed a ta w o u ld
a llo wa nIm p ro v e m e n t o f th lss itu a tio n .
F ig u re3 :T h eid e ao f d m tlo n
m easure-
m en&u s l~
Ehes u n la c eb d g h ttm s so fg a k -
leshtw ob a n d &
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e x te r n a lg a la x y
a ta
p a rtic u la rs in g le
b a n ds h o u ldre s p o n d Ina Ih e a rw ay to

th ee x tln c tio n in th e G a la x y ,s u c h s in g le - b a n ds u r f a c eb rig h tn e s s v a lu e sa re n o t g o o d e x tin c tio nin d ic a to rs ,s in c eth e y h a v e

a
to o
la rg e
s c a tte ra ro u n d
th e
m eanv a lu e( o-0 .6m a g ).I fhow ever,
w e
h a v e
a
s a m p le
o f
g a la x le s
w lth
m easured
s u rfa c e
b rig h tn e s s
in
tw o

b a n d s( Ba n dRfo rE S O - L V ) ,th e nw e c a nta k e In toa c c o u n t th efa c t th a tth e y a res tro n g lyc o rre la te d w ith e a c ho th e r

(F lg . 2 );a sam easuw
o fe x tln c tlo no f
e a c hIn d iv id u a l g a la x y ,w ec a nu s eI ts
d is ta n c efro m
th e
a v e ra g ere g re s s io n
cuw e
o f
u n re d d e n e d s u rfa c e
b rig h t-
n e s s e s ,m easured a lo n gth ed ire c tio no f
th ere d d e n in gv e c to r( s e a F ig . 3 ),
H o w e v e r,ino rd e rt o o b ta inth isd ls-
ta n -
w eh a v et ok n o wth e lo c a tio no f
th e
c u rv e
d e s c rib in g th e
u n re d d e n e d
s u rfa c eb rig h tn e s s e s ,b u tt oo b ta inth is
cuw ew e m ustk n o wth ee x tin c tio nfo r
e a c hg a la x y-Justth e s e t o f v a lu e sw e
a relo o k ln gfo r.T h e o n ly s o lu tlo n t oth is
d iffic u ltyIst o o b ta in b o th th e e x tin c tio n s

a n dth elo c a tlo no fth ec u tv e s tm u lta - n e o u s ly-Ino n e s te p .T h isi sp o s s lb te w ithh e lpo f th e* a n a ly s iso fv a ria n c e " s ta tis tic a l te c h n iq u e . T h is te c h n iq u ere - p r o d u c e s th e w e lld o c u m e n te dra tloA d

& -0 .5 6 5
a n dI nth e fu rth e rp ro c e s s in g
th is v a lu eh a sb e e na d o p te d . Inc o n -
s tru c tln g
th e
u n re d d e n d
c u rv e
w e
m adeu s eo f th ep a ra m e te rQ w h ic h Is

In d e p e n d e n to fe x tln c tio nb u td e p e n - d e n to ns u r f a c eb rig h tn e s s .I ns h o rt, th e s ta tis tic a l a n a ly s is s o lv e s th e f u n d o n

f(Q )a n d A d l,b ) Ino n es te p .T h e in tr o -
d u c tio n o f th eQ
p a ra m e te r Isc lo s e ly
re la te d
to
a
s im ila r
p a ra m e te r
u s e d
fo rth e
a n a ly s iso fth e
re d d e n ln go f
sta r s.
T h e
fu ll
d e s c rip tio n
o f
th e
a b o v e
m ethoda n d its a p p lic a tio nt oE S O -L V is
e x p e c te d
t o
b e
p u b lis h e d
s o o n
(C h o b n le w s k ia n d
V a le n tijn ,
1 9 9 1 ,i n
p re p a ra tio n ).
T h e u n c e rta lrrtyo f th ed e riv e d a x tln c -
tio n Inth e6 b a n d
IsU (A B )= O .~ ~p e r
g a la x y .T h isc o rre s p o n d st oo (E (B -W )=
O.lm
w h ic hI sc o m p a r a b le t oth ea c c u ra -
c y o f e x tln c tfo n e s tim a te s d d u c e d fro m
th ep h o to m e tryo fs ta rs .W hena v e r a g -
ln g o v e r la r g e ra r e a s (E S O -L Vh a s a b o u t
o n e g a la x yp e r s q u a red e g re e )afo rm a l-

ly m u c h m ore a c c u ra te v a lu ef o r s u c ha n a re a can be o b ta in e d . For in s ta n c e , th e a v e ra g e

Ag
o v e ro n eE S Os k ys u r v e y
p la teh a sb e e ndeduoed w ltha n e rro ro f
O .lm ,

w h ic h c o rre s p o n d st oa n u n c e r- ta in ty inE (B -R )-0 ,0 4 .S u c h v a lu e sa re u s e fu lt o

v a lu a teth ela r g e s c a le d is -
trib u tio no fth e e x tln c tlo n ,b u t in d e e d ,
w ed on o tk n o wh o w m uoh s p a tia l s tn rc -
tu rei sp r e s e n tw ith int h e s ea v e ra g e d
a m
,ap ro b le mIn h e re n t inth is s o rto f
re s e a rc h .
3. The M ap
In F ig u re1w ep re s e n tam apo fth e
r e la tiv ee x tin c tio n inth eS o u th e rn H e m i-
s p h e re .
T h e
p h o to m e try
o f
e x te r n a l
g a la x ie sc a n n o tp r o v ld e a b s o lu tee x -
tin c tlo n ,o r ino th e rw o rd s ,
itc a n n o t
p ro v ld eth e
z e ro
p o in t.F o r m a lly ,th e
te c h n iq u e p ro v td e sth e re la tiv eeM nc-
tio n c o m p a re dt oa no v e ra llm ean o f
&PO.
W eh a v en o t fin a llz e dth ew n-
s ta n ty e t(o u rw o rk
anth is is s tlll in
p ro g re s s )b u tw ec a n e a s ilyd e d u c ea
lo w e r lim it fo rit .W ec a n n o ta tlo wn e g a -
tiv ee x tin c tio n st oo c c u r (th e w h itea n d
b lu e r e g io n si nF ig .1 )a n d m ore fo r m a l-
ly , w e can d e c o n v o lv eth eo b s e r v e d fre -
q u e n c y d is tr ib u tio no fA g w ithth e form at
6
e rro r fu n c tio n . T h isw ay,w e d e riv ea
lo w e r lim itt o
th e
z e ro
p d n to f0 .4 m ,
w h ic hh a s b e e nin c lu d e dIn th es c a tso f
F ig u re1 .
O ur u n d e rs ta n d in g of F ig u re1bth a t
m ost o f th es tru c tu re sth a tc a n be seen
a rew a l.W e c h e c k e dth a tth e yd o n o t
c o rre la te w ithth esp a tia l d is trib u tio no f
th e
ta rg e tg a la x ie s ,w h ile
a ro u n dth e
S o u th w nG a la c tic p o lew e c o u ldo b -
s e rv eag o o d s p a tia lc o rre s p o n d e n c e
w ithth eIR A S c irru s m apso f B o u la n g e r
eta l.W ecana ls oc o m p a re lh e a n t-
tio n
in
a
s m a ll,b u t s tH Is ig n ific a n tly
la r g e ,p a rto f
th e
N o rth e m

G a la c tic H e rn ts p h e re(9 2E S Os u rv e y p la te s ) w ith th a tI n

th e
S o u th e r n
G a la c tic
H em b
s p h e re .I nth er e g io n so f a b s o lu te g a la c -
t ic
la titu te
inth e
ra n g e
lW -3 0 " ,
w e
fin do n avem gea b o u t O .lm
m oree x t i n c -
tio n( A B )inth eS o u th .I fo u r w a lu a tio no f
th e
lo w e r Ilm lt on
th e
z e ro -p o in t
Is
c o rre c t,th e nth ea v e r a g ee x tin c tio n a t
lo w
galacticla titu d e s( c 7 qs h o u ldb e
A g>025m .
4 . A v a ls b ilityofth eD a ta
O urre s u ltsfo rth er e la tiv e d n c tio n
inth eBb a n d(A B )I no u r G a la x y w illb e
a v a ila b le inth e fo llo w in gfo rm s:
1,I no u rp a p e rw e a n tle ip a teap rin te d
lis to f
o v e ra lle x tin c tio n v a lu e s
fo r
e a c h
o fth e
4 0 4
E S O
sky
s u rv e y
p la te s th a t w e rea s s e s s e dI nth eE S O -
L Vp ro je c t.
2 .A
c o m p u te r
p ro g ra m m e
A E J
(in
M lD A Se n v iro n m e n t)w h ic hf i l l stw o
c o tu m n so fth e d lg itlz e dv e rs io no fth e
E S O -L Vc a ta lo g u e(th e M lD A Sta b le
PCAV:c o lu m n#1 0 2w hbh c o n ta in s
A B'p e rg a la x y 'a n dc o lu m n#
1 0 5
w h ic hc o n ta ln sth e
a v e ra g eA B p e r
p la te . I t Isd is trib u te d ,o nre q u e s t,b y
th ed a taa r c h iv is to fE S O .
3 .A n
A S C IIf i l e
w h lc h
c o n ta in sth re e
c o lu m n s :R . A .,D e c l. a n dA gf o re a c h
o f 1 0 ,9 3 0g a la x ie s .I ti s d is trib u te d ,o n
m qm ,
b y
J ,
C h o b n ie w s k i(A s -
tro n o m ic a lO h e rn to ry
o fth eW a r-
s a wU n iv e d ty , A le jeU ja z d o w s k ie4 ,
0 0 -4 7 8 W arszaw a,P o la n d )on 5 .2 5o r
3 .5flo p p yd ls k .
T h eR e c e n tO u tb u rs to f @ -R a y )N o v aM uscae 1991
M ,D E L L AV A L L E ,B .J .J A R V lSa n dR .M .W EST,E S O
D is c o v e ry
on th eS o v le tG R A N A T s a te lllteo nJ a n u -
tim ea b o u ttw ic ea s b rig h ta sth e w e ll-
T h e
tra n s ie n t
X -ra y
so u r c e ,
G R S
a ry9
a n d
th eA llS k yX -ra y
M o n ito r
know n X -ra ye m ittin gC ra b N e b u la .T h e
11 2 1-6 8(N o v aM uscae1 9 9 1 ),w asa l-
a b o a rdG in g a o nJ a n u a ry8 ,1 9 9 1 .L u n d
s e a rc h fo rap o s s ib le o p tic a l c o u n te rp a rt
m osts im u lta n e o u s ly d e te c te d
by
th e
a n d
B ra n d t(lA U
a r c .5 1 6 1 )re p o rte d
b e g a no nL a S lllao nJ a n u a ry1 1 , u 9 n g
W ATCH
a ll- s k yX -ra yc a m e rain s ta lle d
th a tth isn e wX -ra ys o u rc ew aaa t th a t
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a s tro g ra p hw ith o u ts u m
.
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show sN o v a M uacae1 9 9 1w M ch
u pI ne a r&J a n u a r y1H Iinth es w th m
c o n s te lM a rtM usca (th e F ly .T h ele ff ib m e
Isarry x o d u c tlo no fan e a r lie rrs d -m ithE S OS c h rn id tp la te (12& m lnexpaw e
on N la -F+ROW ;2 9 J a n u a ry1 9 7 6 ;ohem rG. P itm ),T o
th eIlg lh tbth es a m esk yM d,o b s e rv e dw ithth e E S ON ewT e c h n o r O a yT s d e s o q p e
W M I+CcD,5 -s e ce x p o s u r eInR :1 6J a n u a r y1 9 9 1 ,7 :2 2
U T :w in g 0 .9 m sm xo b s e mM . M iaV a lea n d8 .J B rv J s I;
h e r eth en o v arnb es e e n6 sI h eb & h i
o4recta t th ec e n tre .T h ep re -n o v ai s
fa in flyv is ib lea tth es e m e & io n
Inth el e f f frp v n e .

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