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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

B ig g e r T e le s c o p e sa n d B e tte r In s tru m e n ta tio n :
R e p o rto n th e 1 9 9 2E S O C o n fe re n c e
M .-H . U L R IC H ,E S O
T h e
C o n fe re n c e
"P ro g re s s
in
T e Ie -
e q u a lt o6 .5m
a reu n d e rc o n s tru c tio no r
T h isshow s th e In te n s ea c tiv ityta k in g
s c o p e
a n d
In s tru m e n ta tio nT e c h n o lo -
a re
p la n n e d w ith
v a rio u s
d e g re e s
o f
p la c en o win a ll m a jo r o b s e rv a to rie s n o t
g ie s "to o k
p la c ei n
G a rc h in g
on
A p ril
fu n d in g(s e eT a b le1 ).The to ta l c o lle c t-
o n lyt ob u ild th e s ete le s c o p e sb u t a ls o
2 7 -3 0 ,
1 9 9 2 . T h is m e e tin g iso n ei na
in ga re a o f th e s e te le s c o p e si s6 7 5 m 2o r
t o
e q u ip
th e m .A m ong
th e s e
g ro u p s
s e rie s o fC o n fe re n c e so rg a n iz e de v e ry
7 0 tim e s th a to fa3 .5r nte le s c o p e .
b u ild in gla rg e te le s c o p e s , th e m o s ts u c -
o th e ry e a ra lte rn a te lyb y K itt P e a kN a-
tio n a lO b s e rv a to ry
a n d
b y
E S O .T h e
next one s h o u ldta k ep la c e in tw oy e a rs
InA riz o n a .
T h eC o n fe re n c e s o rg a n iz e db y
E S O
h a v e
a
tw o fo ld
p u rp o s e .
F irs t,a s
a
m e e tin ga t th ew o r ld w id ele v e lt o
p re -
sent
a n d
d is c u s sre c e n ta d v a n c e si n
te le s c o p e sa n d
in s tru m e n ta tio n .S e c -
ond, fo rth eg e n e ra lE S O c o m m u n ityt o
in fo rmth e m s e lv e so f te c h n o lo g ic a lp ro -
g re s s
b o th
a tE S O
a n d
o th e r
o b s e r-
v a to rie s . T h isC o n fe re n c e w asa tte n d e d
b y2 7 0 e x te rn a l p a rtic ip a n tsa n d6 9E S O
p a rtic ip a n ts .T h e re
w e re
11 0
p o s te rs
a n d6 1ta lk s .
T h efirs t tw od a y sw e re
d e v o te dt o
la rg ete le s c o p e s , m irro r fa b ric a tio n ,a n d
e n c lo s u r e s(5 1 p o s te rs ,3 2ta lk s ).A d a p -
tiv e o p tic sw asth e s u b je c to f th eth ird
d a y .T h efo u rthd a ys a w
are v ie w
o fa
num bero fo p tic a la n d
in fra re din s tru -
m e n ts fo r th eV LTa n d o th e r te le s c o p e s .
Ab rie fo u tlin eo f th e s e to p ic s fo llo w s .
1 . T e le s c o p e s a n d M irro rs
A tth ep re s e n t tim e th irte e nin d iv id u a l
te le s c o p e s w ithd ia m e te r la rg e rth a n o r
R ic c a r d oG ia c c o n i-
E S O y sN ext D ire c to rG e n e ra l
In Its6 7 th m e e tin g inG a rc h in go n J u n e4a n d5 .1 9 9 2 th e C o u n c iIo fE S Oa p p o in te d
P ro f.R lc c a r d o G ia c e o n ia s D ire c to r G e n e ra l fo r th ep e rio d1 9 9 3-1 9 8 7 .H e s u c c e e d s
P ro f, H anyv a nd e r L aanw hosefiv e -y e a r t
me n d s th isy e a r,
P ro f.G iam niwash mI n G enova (Ita ly ) I n1 9 3 1a n dg o t h ls d u c a t l o n In P h y s ic sa t
th eU n iv e rs ityo f M ila n o , b e fo r e e rn lg ra tln gt o th e U n ite dS ta te s . In h isa c tiv ity h eh a s

b e e n a s s o c ia te d w ith s e v e ra l le a d ln gin s titu tio n s In c lu d in g P r in c e to n U fllv e r s lty ,A m e rl- c a n S c ie n c e a n d E n g in e e rin g .H a rv a rdU n iv e rs itya n d h a s r e c e iv e d m a n y h o n o u rs fo r h is a c h ie v e m e n ts in s c ie n c e .

P ro f. G ia c c o n ii s fa m o u s fo r h is p io n e e r in g w o rkI n th e d e v e lo p m e n ta n d a p p llc a tlo n
of X -ra yte c h n o lo g ie sin a s tro n o m y . le a d in g to the d i s c o v w o f th efirs t e x tra -s o la rX -
ra ys o u rc e .T h eX -ra ys a te llite sU H U R U (la u n c h e d In1 9 7 0 )a n d th e E in s te inO b s e rv a -
to r y (la u n c h e d in1 9 7 8 )a r e a s s o e la te d w ith h lsnam e.
S in c eth e e s ta b lis h m e n t o fth eS p a c e T e le s c o p e S c ie n c eln s tltu te InB a ltim o reI n
1 9 8 1 , P ro f.G la c c o n ih a sb e e nI t s D ire c to r, w h lle h o ld in ga p m fe s s o r s h lpa t th e J o h n
H o p k ln sU n iv e rs itya n d , m o rere c e n tly o n ap a r t- tim e b a s is , a ls o a tth e U n iv e rs ityo f
M ila n o .T h eST Sclh a sb e e n c e n tr a lt o th e H u b b leS p a c e T e le s c o p e 'ss u c c e s s Ins p ite
o fb
o p tic a l fla w
a n ds e lv e saw o r ld - w ld ec o m m u n ity o fH S T u s e rs .A t E S O
h is
a s s o c ia tio nw ith th eH S T w illc o n tin u e ,b e c a u s eE S OH e a d q u a rte rsIsth e h o s to f th e
E u ro p e a nC o o r d ln a tln g F a c ltlty fo rth eH S T .T h eE C F Isa jo in tv e n tu re o fE S Oa n d th e
E u ro p e a nS p a c e A g e n c y (E S N .
T h e p rlm e a s s ig n m e n to f th en e w D ire c to r G e n e ra l w lllb e th e c o m p le tio no f th eV e ry

L a rg e T e le s c o p e(V L T ) O b s e rv a to ry w h ic hE S O is c o n s tru c tin g w ith E u ro p e a n In d u s try In C h lle 'sA ta c a m ad e s e rt, w h ilea tth es a m e tim eo p e ra tln g th e w o r ld 'sla rg e s t in fra re d 1 o p tic a l o b s e rv a to ry , th eL a S llla O b s e rv a to ryfo r th ea s tro n o m y c o m m u n ity inE S O 's

m em ber s ta te s .
T a b le1:f a l~ s ~ o p e s
w ithd la m e le r k w g lla r tn a no re q u a lto6 5rnu n d e rm r3 8 tn rc tfa nw
p l~ n n e d .
o e ssfu lo n e sw illb e th o s e w h ic h n o t
o n lya ttra c t e x c e lle n c ea n d o r ig in a lity o f
th eo b s e rv in gp ro g ra m m e s b u tw h ic h
w illa l s o m a keth e n w e s w y e ffo rtt o
a c h ie v eth e h ig h e s tq u a l ma n d e ffic ie n -
c y in th eIn s tru m e n td o na n d d a taa n a l-
y s is .
A m ongth em osta d v a n c e dp ro je c ts ,
th ein s ta lla tio n o fth e
la s ts e g m e n te d
m irro ro f
th e
K m k
Ite le s c o p e
w as
announced.T h e te lm m p ai ni t s p
m
t
stateh a saFW HM o f2a rc s = .
W orki s
n o w in p ro g re s s to a c h ie v eth es p e c ifi-
c a tio n o fafin a l FW HM o f0 .4
arc-.
T h ee ffo rtsa r etw o fo ld :o n ei st ofin is h
th efig u r in g o fe a c h segm ent w itha n io n
b e a m

a n dth eo th e rist o a lig n th e3 6 in d iv id u a l m lm r s . T h e io nb e a mfin is h - in gc a n s is tsI n e ro s io n o f th es u rfa c e

w ithac o m p u te r o p e ra te dk nb e a mo fa
fe wc rni n d ia m e te r.T h isi sb e s tu s e dt o
th eI w t s u rfa c ed e fe c ts1to2p
inh e ig h t.C a n th is p ro c e s so f a u to m a te d
m e a s u re m e n ta n d o o m p u te r c o n tr o lle d
fin e
fig u rin g
re p la c e rth e
m a g ic a lfin a l
to u c ho f th ee x p e rie n c e do p tic ia n ?
R e g a r d in gth e
V L T ,
itw as
a lre a d y
a n n o u n c e d
(T h e
M essenger
No.
6 7 ,
1 9 9 2 ) th a tth efa b ric a tio n
of
th efirs t
m im ri sw ell a th a m & :th e8 . 6 - r nb la n k
h a sb e e na n n e a le da n di sn o wi nth e
p ro c e s s o f c e ra m b tio n ,ap ro c e s st o
a c h ie v eth ez e ro e x p a n d o nc o e ffic ie n t
o f Z m d u ra n d w h ic hw ill ta k e 8 m o n th s .
( G e m m ir a tio ni s r o u g h ly s p e a k in gaw ay
o f p a rtia llyc r y s Z a llitin gt h eg la s sm ass
b y s lo wa n d c o n tr o lle d h e & in g .T h ec ry s -
talh a san e g a tiv ec o e ffic ie n to fe x p a n -
s io n w h ic h c a nc o m p e n s a teth ep o s l-
tiv e
e x p a n s io n c D e fic ie n t o fa
pw dy
g la s s y m a te ria l.)T h em im w ill th e nb e
s h ip p e d
t o
th e
RfXiSC fa c to ry
necmr
P a risw h e reitw lllb eg ro u n d ,fig u re d
a n dp o lis h e dt oi t s8 2 - m d ia m e te rs iz e ,
th e ns h ip p e dt o th eV L Ts h e .A s e c o n d
b& m
b la n kh a s a ls op a s a dth ea n n c w l-
in g p ro c e s s m da th ird
oneI si nth e
a n n e a ln go v e n .

T h e fa b ric a tio no f b o r o s l a t eh o n e y - c o m brn irrw sIs a ls o p ro g re s s in g .Tw o m irro rs , o n e o f1 .8r niu rd o n e o f3 .5m

h a v eb e e nc o m p le te ly fin is h e d . T h efin a l
fig u re
is
8 0 %
o fth e tig h t w ith in
0 .3
a rc s e c , w e ll w ith inth e s p e c ific a tio n .T h e
firs t6 .5mh a s re c e n tlyb e e nc a s t .
T h eJ a p a n e s e
Large
N a tio n a lT e le -
m ope w ilEhave a t h in m e n is c u s w h ic hi s
b e in gfa b ric a te db y C o m in g .T h es i t eo f
th eJ L N To n M auwK e ai sIna c o n v e -

n ie n tlo c a tio nt od oin te rfe ro m e try w ith th S st e l e s c o p ea n d th e t w o1 0 -rn d i a m e te rK e c ktd m p e s . (T h e J a p a n e s e p ro -

je t3
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P le b d e s , ap o e ticnam ew h ic h isg h r e n
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c ia lly inth ea rtis tic w o rld ; fo r exam pbkt
isth e n a m eo fap c& y
lo u r n a l.)T h e
la rg efig u r ei nd o lla r sg iv e nfo r th ep ro -
je c ti sth efig u rep ro p o db yth ea s -
t r o m m mt o th efu n d in g a g e n c iwi t is
F ig u re1 :T h eE S OD ire c to rG e m ta t,PmtH av a nd wL a a n ,
opens th eC a n fm n m .
2
F ig w e2:F
mt
ip o s te r g fw .
a" p & s ir n is ticm axim um ".Inc o n t r a s t ,in
m s fo rmi ti n t oa na d v es u p p a rtb a s e d
th e
W e s t8 9 7 1w o rldth etra d ftlo n
ist o
on
a irb a g s
and
h w x p e n s hs ff-th e -
stevtn e g o tia tin gfro mas rs ta lt fig u re ,a n
s h e lfc w rtro lle rs .
" o p tim is tic m inim um ".
Sw ~al
r n e h d so fp ro d u c h qla rg e
(m n w e x )s s o o n d a rym irrorsw e re
p re -
s e n te d :a c tiv ela p s dm bm rr e p lic a tio n
a n d
adscr
use
o f
a
p rs filo rm te r
to
m e c h a n ic a llym e g a u rnh
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ofth e
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its
id e a l
sh a p e .T h is lm wm e th o dh e 8k e nsw c-
c e w fu lly(s p w ific a tio n1 0 0 %dlig h tIn
O If5 )u s e dt ofig u reth eb
kT e !e s c o p e
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Es1 .5m
ind ja m e ttw
a n dfo rw hbhm em a x im u m
g g p h w l~
a m p ric k
is1 3 0p .T h es e m n d ra tyo f
th eM Ti sp r e s e n t l yp la n n e dt ob ei n
S ic ,acom poundw h ic hh a sad e n sity
a lig h tlyla rg e rth a nZem durb u t w hose
2A d A s p tlv eO p tO c s : b rn ls e sa n d
D ia tc u ltle s
T h a th irdd a y3 a rM
w ithasum m ary
of th eS e c o n dE S O C onferenceo n W fgh
R e so lu tio n
im a g in g
b y
In te rfe ro rn ft8 y
(m a M essengerN o .6 8 ,p . 5 ).T h e
o fth e
d a yw asd e v o te dt o
A d ap G ve
O p tic sa n dap o s te r s w s iu n . T h iso n ei s
th e
first
o fth ela rg eE w m p a a r cC o n -
fe re n c e s
an
g ro u n d -b & s e dts le s c o p m
a n din s tru m e n ta tio ni nw h ic ha$ ig n M -
c a n tfra c tio no f th ep ro g ra m m e w asa&
a s td efo ra d tp tiioo p tic sT h isr e f l e c t s
firs tlyth e
I n c r e a s e d
re a lm tio no ft h @
p o te n tia lim p o rta n c eo f a d a p tiv eo p tic s
a s
o n e
o fU leastm m m erfs to o 1 8
fn
g m u n d -b a s e d
observatories.S e c o n d ly
a
w e a lth
o fin fo rm a tio n
tKw
hom e
a y a lla b b
from
th re e
w e ll-fu n d e d
U S
la b o r a to r ie sw h o s e p a rto f th e irre s e a rc h
ina d a p fiv e o p tic sh a srw n tlyb e e nd e
c la s s ifk kL b lw m c eLUm mN a tio n a l
L a b o ra to ry
In
C a ltfo m ia ,
P h lllip a
Labom m ya t M rtla n dA ir F omB a rni n
N h t~M e x ic oa n dU n c o lnta b o m to r ya t
M t"T (M assachusetts).O neo f th es e v e r a l
re a s o n s fo rt h i s d e c la s ifi~ h 'o nw as th e
ra p idp r~ g re g ~
Inth es
u
m
1us0o f
a d a p th reo p tic sm adeI nth ea s tro n o m i-
c a lc o n te x t,e s p e c ia llyt h eC O M E -O N
e x p e rim e n t-th eM e u d m -E S O
W W
m entInw tla b ~ ~ ra tto n
w ithth re eF re n c h
IW a to r ie s .
A d a p tiv eo p tic sp rw en tssu b sta n tid
g d ~ a n ta g e sfo r
h ig h -re s d u b lo n
d im 4
im a g in g ,s
~
~
y
,
s te rlla rc o ro n o g -
m phya n dla n gb a s e fin e o p itiW A RIn te r-
taro m etry .F orrfire c t Im aging,a d a p tiv e
o p tic s
IEEm orep o w e tfu lth a ns p e c k le
Inlefferom ehy
fo r
m a p p in g
r e la tiv e ly
a n t
e x te n d e d
o b je c ts
(e .9 .
d is ta n t
g a lw le s ).
R e g a rd in g
h ig h
rM o M o n
8 p & !3 3 M 3 1 4 r
(m yR
-1
a d a p tiv e
o p tic sw illa llo w
o n et o
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S in c efo ra
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h ig h
s p e m ta 1 m lu tlo n ,# e
lln e a rd im e n s to n
o ft h e g ra tin gi s p r~ p o rti~ n a l
t~ th ee n -
trances litw id th ,adecreaseo f th e@ it
w 1&
fm m1to0 .2 5 m econd w illc o r -
v e e p e n dt oas
~
~
p
h
w ithg ra tin g s
a n do th e ro p tide le m e n ts fw r tim e 6
s m a lle rr.P h i sre s u ltsi nas p e a tro g ra p h
w h ic hIsle s se x p ~ h ,
c a s ka h d fa s -
te rt ob u ild ,a n dw ithle s sth e m &a n d
Y w n g m o d u lu si s-4 0 0 g lg a p a s tc a l in -
s te a do f7 0 .B e c a u s eofth isq u a lityt h
i
m irro rc a nb e lig h te rb yafa e to r-4th a n
ifi tw
eb u itto f gkw ,a n d th u sach 1m
th ed y n m ic a fp e rfm m c a~ ~
to
a c c a m p lis hth eta s k so ffo c u s in g ,
m trin g ,im a g es tts b llk a tio na n d
eippe-
c ia llyc h q q lim g .
B u t
v e ry
in b m tim g
d w e Io p m e n ts
w ere
a ls o
p r e se p lte d
fo r
" o ld
te te
m opesMh ilt s w e ra ly e a rsa g o , fa r6 s -
a m p leth e-r ig
ofn e wte c h n o lu $ $ y
o n th eG T IO4 -mtelm m p eb ytra n s fe r-
ringte e h n o la g yd a v d o p a d fo rth e\u20ac S O
M Tto th ls" o I d "4-mtd 8 5 c o p s .S m ifi-
c a lly , th Lc rx k s is tsinre m o v in gfro mth e
dom ea n dh u lld in ga llth a tc e u ldb em -
m oved, im p r o v in gt h ein s u la tio no fu n -
rn o v a b teh e a ts o u m(p u m p sfo r exam -
p le ;), Im p r o v in gt h ev e n tila tio nb yo p e n -
In g4 -m -h ig hw in d o w smth elo w e rp a rk
s ft h edm e w a lls ,re fig u rin g th es a c o n -
d
~
,
and m o M ln gaPQ nnm eMim g e
F ig u re3~m ~
io r.f
S
n
g# wfirs t 6 5 -mL u m sIIh tehanvm bm lrm r.7 3 e 6 .5 -m
anal-.
Momrrm b b u si sth ep ia nt o
m ddu n d e r c o n ~ m lo n .
A rA tfim
o ft h e C g n fm m e ,th e6 .5 -m m imh a d n lm d yB een
m o d iifyt h ep r im a r ym Im rs u p p o rta n d
c a s t.

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