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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

No.7 1-M a rc h1 9 9 3
E S O ,C N R Sa n dM PIS ig nA g re e m e n to nEnhancem ent
of the VLT In te rfe ro m e te r
O nD ecem ber1 8 ,1 9 9 2 ,a c e re m o n y
to o k
p la c e
a t
th e
\u20acS O
H e a d q u a rte rs
d u rin g
w M ch
a n
Im p o rta n t
trip a rtite
a g re e m e n tw as s ig n e dth a tw ill s ig n ifi-
c a n tly
e n h a n c e
th e
s c ie n tific
p o s s i-
b ilitle so f th e Very Large T e le s c o p e .
A fte rap e r io do f in te n s e n e g o tia tio n s ,
D r.A .B e rro ir (D ire c to r o f C N R S -IN S U I,
D r.W .
H a s e n c le v e r(G e n e ra l S e c re ta ry
o fth eM P I) a n dP ro f.H .v a n d e rL a a n
(E S OD ire c to r G e n e ra l)o n b e h a lfo f th e ir

re s p e c tiv e o rg a n iz a tio n sp u tth e ir s ig - n a tu re s o nac o n tra c t w h ic h w ill p e r m it th e

c o n s tru c tio n
o f
a
th ird
1 .8 -m e tre
m o v a b le te le s c o p e
fo r th e
V LT
In te r-
fe ro m e te r
(V L n ).T h is
to o k
p la c e
In
th e
p re s e n c e
o f
s e v e ra l
im p o rta n t
g u e s ts , in c lu d in gP ro f.P , L B n a ,F re n c h
d e le g a te toth eE S OC o u n c ila n d a c tiv e -
ly
in v o lv e d inth e
E S O
in te rfe ro m e tric
p ro g ra m m e ,a n d D r.G. P reiRa n dM r .D .
v o nS ta d e nfro m
th e
M a x -P la n c kS o-
c ie ty .S e v e ra lE S Os ta ffm e m b e rsw e r e
a ls op r e s e n t .
Inh isin trd u c tio n ,P ro f.v a n d e r L a a n
m e n tio n e dth eh is to ryo fin te rfe ro m e try ,
fro m th ee a rlyw o rk inth e ra d io d o m a in
F ig u r a1:S lg n ln g cm m nya t th eE S OH e a d q u a rte rs(fro mle ft
torig h t):P m f.F!L d n a ,m em bero f th eE S OC o u n c il;
D r.A . B e ro lr, D D ire c two f
C N R S -IN S U ; P ro f;H .v a nd e rL a a n , D lr e c to rG e n e ra ld
E S O : D r.U !H a s e n c le v e ~M PG
G e n e ra l S e c re ta ry ;D LG .P re IB ,M P G ;M K13.
w n
S ta d m ,M P G .
t oth eg re a to p p o rtu n itie s w ithm odem
o p tic a la rra y s .H e s p e c ific a llys ta te dth e
u n a n im o u ss u p p o rto f th eV L T Ip ro je c t
b y
th e
E S O
S c ie n tific
a n d
T e c h n ic a l
C o m m itte e (E X ) and wasfo llo w e db y
th e m anagero f th eV L T p ro je c t,P ro f.M .
T a re n g h i,w holik e n e dth eV L T l w itha n
a s tro n o m e r'sd re a m
c o m in gtru e .N o-
b o d y know s fo rs u rew h ic hn e wd is c o v -
e rie sw illb e
m adew ithth isa b s o lu te ly
u n iq u ein s tru m e n ti nth efu tu re .
T h e re p re s e n ta tiv e so fE SO sG erm an
a n d
F re n c hp a rtn e rss p o k ea b o u t th e
n o ts oe a s yta s ko ffin d in gm oney fo r
s u c hap ro je c ti nth e s ed a y so f lim ite d
re s s o u rc e s ,b u tI s o
h o w
h a p p yth e y
w eret ob le s satru ly
Europeanu n d e r-
ta k in g
o f
th is
d im e n s io n .
B o th
D r.
H a s e n c le v e ra n dD r.B e rro ir w e res u re
th a tth e
n e w
in s b u m e n tw o u ld
b eo f
e n o rm w sin te re s tt o th es c ie n tific com -
m u n itie s
i nth e ir
re s p e c tiv e
c o u n trie s
a n dth e yw e re
lo o k in gfo rw a rdt oth e
R g u n2 :D Is c u s s In gth ep ro je c t(fro mle ftt o
rig h t):P ro fH
va nd e rla a n , D ire c to rQ m
o f Em ; D r.A + B m Ir;D ire c to ro fC N R S -
IN S U ;
D r.
N !
H a s e n c le v e r ;M PG
G e n e ra l
S e c re ta ry ,a n d
P ro !!M .T e re n g h i,V L TF ? o -
gram m e M anager.
im p le m e n ta tio no fth en e w fa c ilitya tP a-
ra n a l.
P ro f.U nare m in d e d th o s ep re s e n to f
T h eV L T P ro g ra m m e
T h eV L T M a in S tru c tu re
M. Q U A T T R I,E S O

D u rin g th e d e v e lo p m e n to f th e p r o je c t th e V LT p ro g ra m m e w a sb ro k e n d o w n In to s e v e ra l s u b s y s te m s ,e a c h o f th e m

w ith
c le a r ly
Id e n tifia b lefu n c tio n a l r e -
q u ire m e n tsa n d in te rfa c e s w lth th e o th e r
p a rtso f th e p ro je c t. T h e s e s u b s y s te m s
w o u ld
h a v e
la te ly
been
c o n tra c te d to
E S Om e m b e r c o u n trie s ' in d u s tria l firm s
fo r d e s ig n a n d c o n s tru c tio n . T h e
u n it
8 -m
te le s c o p e m a in s tru c tu rei so n e o f
th e s es ub s y s te rn s .
The M a in S tru c tu re
T h e
m a in
s tru c tu re
is
a
te le s c o p e
w ith o u t m irro rsa n d fie ldd e ro ia to r.
In F ig u re1 th e ite m s w h ic h c o m p o s e
th e
m a ins tru c tu re
a re
in d ic a te d .T h e
m a jo r c o m p o n e n tsa re :
-
th e
te le s c o p e
s te e ls tru c tu re
(tu b e
a n d fo rk ),
-th e
m o to rs
w h ic h
m ake
it

m ove a ro u n d th e a ltitu d ea n d a z im u tha x e s (d riv e s ),

-th e
a n g u la r
m e a s u re m e n t
s y s te m
w h ic h g iv e s th e p o s itio no f the tw o
a x e s (e n c o d e rs ),
-th e
s u p p o rtin g
system
o fth e
te le -
s c o p e (h y d ro s ta tic b e a rin g s ),
-th e c o o lin g s y s te m
u s e dto c o o l th e
d iffe re n t p o w e r s o u rc e s p la c e do n th e
te le s c o p e ,
-
a ll t h e e q u ip m e n t w h ic h p r o v id e s a fe -
tyfu n c tio n s(b ra k e s , lo c k in gd e v ic e to
lo c k th e te le s c o p e in d e fin e d
p o s i-
tio n s
fo r
m a in te n a n c e ,
e m e rg e n c y
s to pb u tto n ss y s te m ),
-th e a u x ilia rys y s te m st o m o n ito rth e

te m p e ra tu reo f th e s te e l s tru c tu re to m o d e l th e th e rm a l d is p la c e m e n tso f th e a tta c h e d m irro r u n its ,

-th e e q u ip m e n t t oa c c e s s th e d ie r e n t
p a rtso fth e s tru c tu re fo r m a in te n a n c e
o r o p e ra tio n s ,
-th e
d u m m ie s
s im u la tin g th e
in e rtia
c h a ra c te ris tic so f th e m irro r u n its .
T h e F u n c tio n a lR e q u ire m e n ts
L ik e
any
in s tru m e n t o f

m e a s u re ,a te le s c o p e , o n c ei t sm odeso fu s ea re d e fin e d

a c c o rd in g
t o
th e
s c ie n tific
n e e d s ,m u s t
re d u c e to
th e
m in im u m
a c c e p ta b leth e in d u c e d d is tu rb a n c e to
th em e a s u re m e n tsi t h a st op e rfo rm .
W hen th em odeso fu s e a re d iffe re n t,
and
im p lyc o n tra d ic to ry re q u ire m e n ts ,
a n d a llo f th e m m u s tb e im p le m e n te d in
th esam e te L e s c o p e , a n a c c u r a te e v a lu -
a tio na t s y s te m
le v e lh a st ob ed o n ei n

o rd e rt o d e fin e th eb e s t c o m b in a tio no f p a ra m e te rsw h ic h c h a ra c te riz e th ed e - s ig n a n d w h ic h c a nb e c le a r ly s p e c ifie d t oas u b c o n tra c to r,w hoh a s to d e s ig n a

p a rto fth e
c o m p le te s y s te m
w ith o u t
k n o w in g th e to p le v e l re q u ire m e n ts .A t
th esam etim e , ino rd e rt o p ro c e e di n

p a ra lle l w ithth e d e s ig n o f th e o th e r s u b - s y s te m s , a ll th eIn te rfa c e re q u ire m e n ts a n d b o u n d a r y c o n d itio n s h a v e t ob ed e -

fin e d .T h isw as
th ejo b
p e rfo rm e da t
\u20acSO.T od e riv eth e fu n c tio n a l re q u ire -
m e n ts w h ic h w o u ldh a v eb e e n s p e c ifie d
fo rth e m a in s tru c tu rew e h a v es ta rte d
th efa c tth a ta lth o u g hth em e d ic a ls c l-
e n c eh a sp ro v e nth a ti t isp o a s lb tet o
d re a m
ac o m p le ted re a mi nju s tafe w
s e c o n d s ,i nth isc a s e ,i th a s ta k e nE u r o -
p e a na s tro n o m e rsa lm o s t2 0y e a rst o
r e a liz eth isp a rtic u la rd re a m .H ec o n -
g ra tu la td
a llIn v o lv e d ,s c ie n tis tsa n d
e n g in e e rs ,w lth
th e
e x c e lle n tp re p a ra -
tlo n s ,w h ic hh a v efin a llyb o rnfru it.H e
b rie fly
c o m p a re dth e
V LT
w ith
o th e r
la rg et e l e s c o p ep ro je c tsa n d c o n c lu d e d
th a ti tI se x a c tlyth eg re a ta n du n iq u e
in te r fe r o m e tr ic
p o s s lb ltitie s
w h ic h
le ts
E S O tsp ro je c ts ta n d
o u t
am ong
th e
o th e rs .A sa na s tro n o m e r,h ew as lo o k -
In gfo rw a rdt op a rtic ip a teI n som eo f th e
most
im p o rta n ts c ie n tific
ta s k st o
b e
u n d e rta k e nw ithth e V L T I,In c lu d in gth e
s tu d yo fp ro to -p la n e ta rys y s te m sa n d
th ec e n treo f th eM llk yW ay.
T h ep h o to sfro m
th ec e re m o n yw e re
ta k e nb yE S O p h o to g ra p h e r H .-H .H e y e r.
7 h e E d ito r
fro mth efo llo w in gb a s ic re q u ire m e n ts :
1. p o in tin g b e tte r th a n 1 "
2 . tra c k in g b e tte r th a n0 .0 5 " (b o th u n d e r
aw in d
s p e e do f1 8m /s
m ax.w ith
w in dg u s tsu p to2 7 m /s)
3 . s ta b ilityo f th e s e c o n d a ry m irro r a fte r

c h o p p in go f0.2''p e a k t o v a lle y w itha c h o p p in g a m p litu d eo f1'a t5H z a n d 8 0%d u tyc y c le (in fra re d m ode)

4 . s ta b ilityo f th e O p tic a l P a th D is ta n c e
w ith in1 4 n mfo r a n in te g ra tio n tim eo f
1 0 rn s ,5 0n r n fo ra n in te g ra tio n tim e
o f4 8in s a n d2 2 5n rnfo r a n in te g ra -
tio n
tim e
o f
2 9 0ms
u n d e ra
w in d
s p e e d
o f
1 0 m /s
(in te rfe ro m e tric
mode)
5 . s ta b ilityo f th e p o s itio n o f th e a ltitu d e
a n d th e a z im u tha x e s d u rin g th e ro ta -
tio no f th e te le s c o p e

6 . s ta b ility o fth e a tta c h m e n t p o in tso f th e in s tru m e n ta tio n d u rin gth e ro ta - tio no f th et e le s c o p e

7.s ta b ility o f th e a lig n m e n to f t h e m ir r o r
u n its (prim ary,s e c o n d a tya n d te rtia ry )
w ith in
a
r e la tiv e
d is p la c e m e n t
b e -
tw e e nth e m irro rs w h ic h w ill n o tc a u s e
ad is p la c e m e n t o f th e

im age in the N a s m y th fo c a l p la n e h ig h e r th a n th e b lin dp o in tln g re q u ire m e n t.& c a u s e th e

d iffe re n tia l d is p la c e m e n to f th e m irro rsd u e to th em a ins t r u c t u r e is o n ly o n e o fth ec o n trib u tio n s to th e d is p la c e m e n t o f th eim a g e in th ef o c a l p la n e (o th e rsa re th e d e fo rm a tio n in - s id eth e m irro r u n its th e m s e lv e s ),w e re q u ire d th a t th e c o n trib u tio no f th e m a in s tru c tu re s h o u ld n o tb eh ig h e r th a n0 1 '3

ath es u r f a c e so f th e te le s c o p eI nc o n -
tact w ithd wa ir w ith inr t l d e g re eCIn
o rd e rt oa v d dp e rtu rb a d o ndth ea t-
m o s p h e res u rro u n d in gth eM escope
a n dc o n s e q u e n ts e e in gd e te rio ra tio n .
M a inS tru c tu reSpacM dons
A s a lre a d yd e s c rib e da b o v e , th e m ain
s tru c tu rei sa ne le c tro -m e c h a n ic a ls y s -
te m ,a n d int h i ss e n s e o n lye le c trica n d
m e c h a n ic a l fu n d tia n a l re q u ire m e n b , lik e
d d b e tio n s,e ig e n fr e q u e n c is ,w e ig h ts ,
w in dre s is ta n c e ,m o to rto rq u e , e n c o d e r
a c c u ra c y ,a n ds oa n ,c a nb
s p e c ifie d
a n d te s te do n th efln a lp r o d u c t .
T h ejo b
tod e r t v eth e s e
p a ra m e te rs
k e p tu sb u s yfo rq u itealo n gp e r io d ,
d u rin gw h ic hala r g e
amounto fp a ra -
M
' ca n a l-,
tr a d e -o ffam ong d iffe r-
e n t p o s s ib les o lu tio n sa n dalo to f c o n -
c e p tu a l d e s ig nw ere c a rrie do u t.
D u rin g
th is
p e rio d
A1
th e
d e c tro -
m e c h a n ic a lp a m e te m
t os p e c ifyth e
m a ins tru c tu rew e red e fin e d ,a n da tthe
sam e tlm eaIa g enum ber o fr e q u lr e -
m e n tew e reim p o s e d to
a llth e
o th e r
s u b s y s te m so fth eV L T .
R ic c a r d oG ia c c o n i R e c e iv e s H ig h
N A S AH o n o u r
P ro fe s s o r R ic c a rd o G iic o n i,D ire c to r G e n e ra lo f E S Os in c eth eb e gin n tn go f
th isy e a ra n db e fo reth e nD ire c to ro f th eS p a c e T e le s c o p eS c ie n c e In s tl\u20ac u tei n
B a ltim o re ,U .S .A .,
h a sju s tb e e na w a rd e dth e
"N A S A
D is tin g u is h e dP u b lic
S s rv ic eM e d a l" .
TheD ire c to ro f N A S A ,M r.J o h nM . K lln e b e r g ,h a sc o n v e y e d h isp e r s o n a l
c o n g ra tu la tio n st oP r o f .G ia c c o n i, In fo rm in gatt h esame tim e th a t th is m edal Is
g lm
o n lyt oin d iv id u a lsw h-
d is tin g u is h e da c c o m p lis h m e n tsc o n tr ib u te d
s u b # t& n tia llyt o
th e
N A S Am is s lo n . M o r e o v e r ,th ec o n trib u tio nm ustb es o
e x tra o rd in a ry th a to th e r fo a m so f r e c o g n itio nb yN A S A w o u ldb e in a d e q u a te .I ti s
th eh ig h e s th ~ n o u r
th a tN A S A c o n fe rst oan o n -g o v m m n tin d lv jd u a l.
A llo f u satE S Oh e a rtily c o n g ra tu la te P ro f.G ia d b o n lt oth is u n iq u ed ls tln c tlo n ,
s orig h tly d e s e rv e dth ro u g h m nyy e a rso f h a rd w o rkt o th e b le n d it
o f a s tro n o m -
e rso n a ll c o n tin e n ts .
7 h g E d tto r
S ln c eth eb e g in n in g ,a n da ls obm ed
ith e
m e c h a n ic a ls tru c tu re
m ust
b e
o n th ed lre c te x p e rie n c ew e m ade w ith
v e rylig h t, s tiffa n d com pact
th eN n ,afe wth in g sappear@ dt ob e
8 .e lim in a tio no rre d u c tio nt oth ev e ry
v e ry
im p o rta n tt o
a c h ie v eth e
p e r fo r -
minimum
o f
a llth e
e ffe c ts
w h lc h
m an#
re q u lte m e n tso f th e V L f:
m u ldh a v ec a u s e dd is tu rb a n c et oa
s n w o th
m o tio n
o f
th e
te le s c o p e
a ro u n dth ea x e s(fo re x a m p le s te p -
w is em o tio nd u etos tic k in ge ffe c ts
c o m ln gfro mth eu s eo f b a ll M n g s ,
o rc o n t a c tb e tw e a ng e a r-te e th )
3 .v e ry g o o da c c u ra c ye n o o d e rs h a dt u
b ed ire c tlym o u n te do nth e a x e so f
th ete le s c o p ea v o id in ga n yg e a ro r
fric tio nw hesl c o u p lin g
4.a c c u ra tea e ro d y n a m icd e s ig nofth e
p a rtso f th em alns tn rc tu ree x p o s e d
toth e w in dino rd e rt o # d u rnd is tu rb -
ancec a u s e db y w ln d tu r b u lm o e .
F ig u re1:S c h e m a tic (som et&
v ie wo fth et e le s c o p een dlis t o fm a in c o m p o n e n ts ,
T h e P r e lim in a r y D e s ig n
Based on
th ete c h n ic a ls p e c ific a tio n s
d e riv e d asd e s c rib e da b o v e , ac a llfo r
te n d e r w a si s s u e dtoas e le c te d g ro u p
o f c o m p a n ie si nth eE S O m e m b e rc o u n -
trie s .
A fte r a h a rdjo bo f s e le c tio na n d a n a l-

y s iso fth e o ffe rs ,ac o n s o rtiu mo f Ita lia n c o m p a n ie s w as s e le c te d .T h eA E Sc o n - s o rtiu mi s c o m p o s e do fA n s a ld oC o rn - p o n e n ti

(A G O ),
s itu a te d
in
G enova,
E u ro p e a n

In d u s tr ia lE n g in e e r in g (E IE ), s itu a te dI nV e n ic e ,a n dS O IM I, s itu a te d In M lla n .

O n2 3S e p te m b e r1 9 9 1th ec o n tra c t
w ass ig n e d .A fte ra b o u t1y e a r U te p r e -
Ilm ln a ry d e s ig n(F ig s . 2 and3 ) w a sc o m -
p le te d , a n d th eP r e llm ln a r yD e s ig nR e -
v ie wF O R )w asc a rrie do u tI nV e n ic eb y

a nE S Ote a mw h ic hin c lu d e da b o u t1 5 p e o p let oc o v e rd lth ete c h n ic a l a s p e c ts o f th ep ro je c t,a n d tw o w e ll-k m w ne x -

te rn a l te le s c o p ee x p e rts ,P ie rreB e lyo f
th eS p a c eT e le s c o p eIn s titu tea n dT o r-
b e nA rtd e rs e no f th e N o rd icT e le s c o p e
G ro u p .

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