Nearly all European men can be classified into one of thenine most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplo-groups or clans. Haplogroups are defined by mutationsorsinglenucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs). The ninemost common haplogroups, in alphabetical order, areE3b, G, I1a, I1b1-P37, I1b2-M223, J2, N3, R1a, andR1b. Sometimes, two more haplogroups, E3a and (inNortheast Europe) N2, are added to the list, whichmakes the total number eleven. In addition, there aremany other rare haplogroups in Europe.shows the Y phylogenetic tree for Europeanhaplogroups. It includes forty haplogroups attested inEurope, but thirty of these are so rare that their frequen-cies do not reach one per cent anywhere in Europe. Thesix thicker branches or groups of branches of the tree,representing Haplogroups R1, I, N, E, J, G, and some of their subgroups, are discussed in this review. The moredetailed structure of these haplogroups may be seen inthe Y phylogenetic tree maintained by ISOGG (2007).The tree in is a simplification of that in thearticle by Underhill and Kivisild (2007).The SNP’s presently available provide information onlyon the large-scale classification of Y chromosomes. Eachhaplogroup may be further resolved into clusters basedon similarity of Y Short Tandem Repeats or Y-STR’s.Additional information may be derived from other ge-netic markers. However, only the SNP classificationswill be used in this paper, but this provides information
____________________________________________________________Address for correspondence: Kalevi Wiik, firstname.lastname@example.orgReceived: 10 Oct 2007; accepted: 03 Feb 2008.
on the development of the human family, specifically theEuropean part of the family, over the last 40,000 years..The genetic development and migrations of the ancestorsof European men can be presented in the following tenphases; see.(1) About 50 thousand years ago (kya) all the ancestorsof the present European men still lived in northeasternAfrica and formed only one clan.(2) About 45 kya the clan was split into an “African”Clan E and an “Asian” Clan F, and the “Asian” clanmoved out of Africa to the Arabic peninsula and theNear East.(3) About 40 kya part of the “Middle Eastern” Clan Fgave rise to the “Central Asian” Clan K.(4) About 35 kya two new clans, R and NO, branchedoff from K. Clan R moved to western Central Asia andClan NO to eastern Central Asia.(5) About 30 kya Clan R was split into R1 and R2, andClan R1 moved to the steppe area between the Uralmountains and the Caspian Sea.(6) About 25 kya one branch of Clan R1, Clan R1b,reached Iberia and the Atlantic Coast, and somewhatlater Clan R1a branched from R1 and became commonin the present-day Ukraine.(7) About 25 kya the “Middle Eastern” Clan F sentanother branch to Anatolia and further to the Balkans,and anew sub-Clan I emerged.