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messenger-no73

messenger-no73

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/01/2013

No. 73 -
Septem ber 1993
A
M e s s a g e tro m
th eN ew E d ito r
It is a n h o n o u ra n da p le a s u r e to ta k e o n th e r e s p o n s ib ilityo f th e E d ito r s h ipo f T H E M E S S E N G E R .T h e fo r m e r e d ito rs ,a n d
inp a r tic u la r R ic h a r d W e s t w h ow as e d ito r fo r tw o te rm s(1 9 7 6 -1 9 7 9a n d1 9 8 6 -1 9 9 3 ), m a d e th e M e s s e n g e r a n in fo rm a tiv e
a n dfrie n d ly p u b lic a tio n . It is th e re fo re c le a r th a t n o la rg e c h a n g e s s h o u ld b e b r o u g h t to th e M e s s e n g e r.
H o w e v e r, b e c a u s eo fth e fo r th c o m in g d e p lo y m e n to f th eV L T -V LT I, th e E S O o b s e r v e r s ' c o m m u n ityh a s a n in c re a s in g n e e d
fo r te c h n ic a l in fo rm a tio n
in
a ll d o m a in s : s ite
in fra s tru c tu re ,
te le s c o p e s , in s tr u m e n ta tio n

a n dd e te c to rs , c a lib ra tio n , d a ta a n a ly s isa n da r c h iv in g . M o r e e m p h a s is w ill b e g iv e n to th e s e to p ic s c o n c e r n in g b o t h P a ra n a la n dL a S illa .T h e M e s s e n g e r w ill a ls o c a r r y a r tic le s o n th e u s eo fth e

V L T -V L T Ifo r s p e c ific a s tr o n o m ic a l to p ic s . T h e s e a rtic le s a re w ritte nb y a s tro n o m e rs in v ite db y th e E d ito r to p r e s e n t th e ir v ie w s .A s b e fo re , o b s e r v a tio n a l r e s u lts o b ta in e da t L a S illa w ill a ls o b e p r e s e n te d .In th is a re a , th e re w ill b e n oa tte m p ta tp re s e n tin ga c o m p le te p a n o ra m ao f th e o b s e rv a tio n s c a rrie do u t a tE S O ,a n dth enum bero f a r tic le s in th e o b s e r v a tio n s s e c tio nis lik e ly to flu c tu a te fro m is s u e to is s u e .T h em ost a p p a r e n t c h a n g ein th e lo o ko f th e jo u r n a l isad iv is io n in to s e c tio n s : fir s t th e te le s c o p e sa n d in s tr u m e n ta tio n in c lu d in g d e te c to r s . T h is w ill b e fo llo w e db y a r tic le s o n s c ie n c e w ith th eV L T .T h e n th e re w ill b ea s e c tio n o n s c ie n tific re s u lts o b ta in e da tL a S illaa n da s e c tio n o n o th e r a s tr o n o m ic a l new s.

T h e
la s t s e c tio n
g ro u p s
a ll th e
a n n o u n c e m e n ts
o fE S O
c o n fe re n c e s
a n d
w o rk s h o p s ,
som e
a n n o u n c e m e n ts
fo r
p o s itio n s (m o s tlyinth e S c ie n c e D iv is io n ), th e tit/e so f th ea c c e p te d p r o g r a m m e sa n d s im ila r m a tte r s .
T h e
te c h n ic a le d ito ro f th e
M e s s e n g e r r e m a in s
K u rt K j\u00e4 ra n d
I lo o k
fo rw a rd
t o
o u rc o lla b o r a tio n
in
p r o d u c in g
th e
M e s s e n g e r.
M a r ie - H e le n e U lric h
e m a il In te rn e t: m u lr ic h
e s o .o rg
T E L E S C O P E S
A N D
IN S T R U M E N T A T IO N
T h e8 .2 -m
P rim a ry M irro rs o fth e V L T
R .M U E L L E R ,H . H O E N E S S ,S c h o tt G la s w e r k e , M a in z ,G e rm a n y
J .E S P IA R O ,J . P A S E R I, R E O S C , L o n g ju m e a u , F r a n c e
P
O IE R lC K X , E S O
1 .In tro d u c tio n
T h e
8 .2 -m
Z e ro d u r
p rim a ry
m irro rs
o f th e
V L Tte le s c o p e s a re
o n
th e ir w a y
to th e o b s e rv a to ry .O nJ u n e 2 5 , th e firs t
o f th e
fo u r
m irro r b la n k s
(c o d e
nam e
J o e
D a lto n ) w a s d e liv e r e d
b yS C H O n ,
th e
m irro r
b la n k
m a n u fa c tu re r,
t o
R E O S C ,w h o w ill p o lis h it a n d m o u n t its
in te rfa c e s .
In s p e c tio n s
p e rfo rm e d
b e \ue000
fo re
d e liv e r y h a v e
n o t o n ly d e m o n s tra \ue000
te d
th e
c o m p lia n c e
o f th e
b la n k
w ith
it s
s p e c ific a tio n s ,
b u t
a ls o
th e
p e rfo r\ue000
m ance
o f
th e
b la n k
m a n u fa c tu re r
in
a c h ie v in g s u p e r b q u a lity .
O n
J u ly
1 9a t 1 4 :2 0 , J o e
w as
tra n s \ue000
p o rte d to
M a in z h a rb o u r, a fe w
k ilo m e \ue000
tre s a w a y fro m

th eS C H O np la n t (F ig \ue000 u re1 ).A t 9p .m . it w a s lo a d e d o n to th e b a rg e

E L D O R .T h e
E L D O R
went down
th e R h in e to
R o tte rd a m , tra v e lle d s o u th
to G a la is , th e n u p th e S e in e t o E v ry a fte r
c r o s s in g
P a ris
o n
F rid a y
2 3
o v e rn ig h t.
O n
M onday
2 6
a t
1 0
a .m .
it was
u n \ue000
lo a d e d
a n d
p la c e d
o n to
a
tra ile r.
T h e
ro a d
tra n s p o rt
t o
th e
R E O S G
p la n t
s ta rte d
a t 0 :0 0 o n T u e s d a y2 7
and Joe
a rriv e d
a t
R E O S G
a t
0 2 :3 0
a .m .
T h e
c o n ta in e r w a s o p e n e d th e s a m e d a y a t
1 4 :0 0 '.
O ne
o f th e
g re a te s t d iffic u ltie sinth e
d e s ig no f te le s c o p e s la rg e r th a n a b o u t 4
0 1 '5 m e tre s is th e m a n u fa c tu rin g o f th e
p rim a ry
m irro r b la n k . T h e
c la s s ic a l d e \ue000
s ig n
o f a th ic k
a n d
s o lid

m irro r w o u ld im p ly e n o r m o u s m a s s e s . F irs t o f a lo n g s e rie s o f p r o b le m s , th e

h o m o g e n e ityo f
a
2 0 0 -to n
c a s tin g
is
v e ry
u n lik e ly
t o
s a tis fy
th e
s trin g e n t
re q u ire m e n ts
a p \ue000
p lie d
t o
h ig h
a c c u ra c y
o p tic a l c o m p o \ue000
n e n ts .
E v e n
u n d e r
th e
u n r e a lis tic
a s s u m p tio n
th a ta llm a n u fa c tu rin g
a n d
a s s e m b lin g
is s u e s c o u ld
b e
s o lv e d ,a n
8 -m
m irro r m o re th a n
1 m
th ic k w o u ld
s till
d e fo rm
to o
m uch
u n d e r
it s
ow n
w e ig h t. R e m e m b e r th e b a s ic id e a : g e t a
s u rfa c e
th e
s iz e
o f a s m a ll a p p a rtm e n t
dow n
t o
s u b -m ic ro n
a c c u ra c y ,
a n d
m a in ta in it.
T h e re
a re th re e
p o s s ib le
d ie ts to
g e t
th e m a s s d o w n : r e d u c e its w e ig h t, m a k e
it o u t o f s e g m e n ts ,0 1 'g e t it s lim
and use
it s
s u p p o rt
t o
c o n tro l
it s
s h a p e .
T h e

th re e n a m e s b e h in d th e s e s o lu tio n s a re : P a lo m a r , K e c k ,N D ,r e s p e c tiv e ly . H o w \ue000 e v e r,in

th e
8 -m
ra n g e , a P a lo m a r-ty p e
p rim a ry
m irror still
n e e d s
so m e

a c tiv e c o n tro la sg ra v ity a n d th e rm a l lo a d s m a y a ffe c t th e

s u rfa c e
a c c u ra c y . T h e
e ffe c \ue000
tiv e n e s s
(w ith
re g a rd
t o
p e rfo rm a n c e
a n d
s a fe ty )
o f
v e ry
la rg e

honeycom b s tr u c tu r e s is s till t o b e p ro v e n , w h ile th e s e c o n d

1 0 -m
K e c k
te le s c o p e
is
o n
it s
w ay,a n d th eN D
h a sa lre a d y p ro v id e d
s u p e rb
im a g e s .E a c h
o f th e th re e s o lu \ue000
tio n s
h a s
it s
p ro s
a n d
c o n s ,
a n d

th e tr a d e - o ff is e x tre m e ly d iffic u lt. T h e re a re n o

m ira c le s , ju s t tre m e n d o u s e ffo rts to
b rin g th e c o n c e p ts in to o p e ra tio n .
2 . T h e A c tiv e ly C o n tr o lle d
M e n is c u s C o n c e p t
T h e c o n c e p t s e le c te d b yE S O
fo r th e
V L T
is
a n
e x tra p o la tio n
o fth e

c o n c e p t d e m o n s tra te d firs t w itha ne x p e rim e n ta l m ir r o r 1 min d ia m e te r a n d s u b s e q u e n tly w ith theN D .It c o n s is ts o f a f/1 .8 , 8 .2 - m d ia m e te r

a c tiv e ly
s u p p o rte d
Z e ro d u r
m e n is c u s ,
1 7 5
m m
th ic k .
T h e
m irro rs
w ill
b e
s u p p o rte d
a x ia lly
b y
1 5 0
h y \ue000
d r a u lic
a c tu a to rs .
T h e s e
a c tu a to rs
c a n
b e
s e e n
a s
c o m p u te r-c o n tro lle d
s p rin g s : th e y d o n o t c o n s tra in th e s p a -
I
O n
E S O
s id e th e w h o le p r o c e s s h a s b e e n e x te n \ue000
s iv e ly
re c o rd e d
b y
M e s s rs .
H e y e r,
M adsen
a n d
Z o d e t. T h e y s h a llb ea c k n o w le d g e d
fo r th e ir e x \ue000
c e p tio n a l d e d ic a tio n a n d e ffic ie n c y .
2
F ig u re1 :J o e o n its w a yto M a in z h a rb o u r.
tia l
p o s itio n
o f th e
m irro r a t1 5 0
lo c a \ue000
tio n s
b u t a im
a t p r o v id in g
a fo rc e

d is \ue000 tr ib u tio n w h ic h re s u ltsina fu lly p r e d ic t\ue000 a b le

e la s tic
d e fo rm a tio n
o f th e
m irro r.
W ith
a n
a c tiv e
m irro r, fle x ib ility
is
u s e d
t o
c o m p e n s a te
fo r m a n u fa c tu rin g

e rro r a n d fo r o n -lin e , re a l-tim e o p tim iz a tio n o f th e o p tic a l p ro p e rtie s o f th e te le s c o p e .

T h e
h y d r a u lic
support system
is
d i\ue000
v id e d
in to
th re e
s e c to rs , e a c h
o f th e m

p r o v id in g a v irtu a l fix e d p o in t. T h e re fo re , th e a x ia l p o s itio n a n d tilt o f th e m ir r o ris fix e d .

T h e
a c tu a to rs
in te rfa c e
t o
th e
m irro r th ro u g h a x ia l p a d s , th e g e o m e try
o fw hic h
isa th re e -Ie g s p id e r. E a c h
le g
is
c o n n e c te d
t o
a n
in v a r
p a d
a b o u t
5 0m m
ind ia m e te r,w h ic his g lu e d o n to
th e
c o n v e x
s u rfa c e . T h e
d is tr ib u tio n
o f
th e s u p p o rtsh a sb e e n o p tim iz e d to p r o \ue000
v id e
th e
lo w e s t p o s s ib le

p rin t-th ro u g h o nth e m ir r o r 's s u rfa c e . A d d itio n a lly , th e trip o d s in tro d u c e s h e a r fo rc e s w h ic h re \ue000 d u c e

lo c a l
d e fo rm a tio n s .
T h e
r e s id u a l

e rro risinth e,J 4 0 rm s ra n g e , a n d w ill b e a lm o s t to ta lly p o lis h e d o ffa sth e m irro rs a re fig u re d o n th e ir tr ip o d s .(S e e s e c tio n 4 .3 , E ffe c tiv e n e s s o f th eF L IPm e th o d .)

O u rin g
o p e ra tio n
th e
exact shape
o f
th e
m irror w illb e
m o n ito re d
by Shack\ue000
H a rtm a n n
sensors. These
s e n s o rs
c o l\ue000
le c t th e
lig h t o fa n
o ff-a x is s ta r to fo rm
a n
im a g e
o f th e
p u p ilo f th e
te le s c o p e
o n to
a
g rid
o f le n s e s .
A
G G O
c a m e ra
re c o rd s th e d is tr ib u tio no f th e p o in t im \ue000
a g e s
p r o v id e d
b y th e
in d iv id u a l m ic r o \ue000
Ie n s e s . A
p h a s e
e rro r o f th e
in c o m in g
w a v e fro n t w o u ld
im p ly a v a r ia b le
in c li\ue000
n a tio n
o f th e
ra y s
w ith
re s p e c t to
th e
a x is o f e a c h m ic r o le n s th u s r e s u ltin gina
d e v ia tio n
fro m
th e
n o m in a l d is tr ib u tio n
o f s p o t im a g e so nth eG G O . T h is d e v ia \ue000
tio n
ism e a s u re d a n d th e w a v e fro n t re \ue000
c o n s tru c te d .
T h e
n e c e s s a ry
c o rre c tio n
is
tra n s la te d
in to
a
fo rc e

d is tr ib u tio n w hic his a p p lie d to th e m ir r o r th ro u g h its a c tiv e

s u p p o rt.
W ith
a c tiv e
o p tic s
th e
fre q u e n c y o f c o rre c tio n
isb e lo w
a b o u t
1H z. W ith its s ix rin g s o f s u p p o r t th eV L T
s h o u ld
b e
a b le
t o
c o m p e n s a te
e rro rs
w ith
s p a tia l
fre q u e n c ie s
u p
t o
a b o u t
1m -"w ith ina n a c c u ra c yin th e ra n g e o f
5 0t o
1 0 0n m
rm s ,i.e . w e il b e y o n d th e
e ffe c t o f a tm o s p h e ric tu rb u le n c e .
O n
th e
u s e r 's
s id e
a c tiv e
o p tic s
s h o u ld
b e
fu lly
a u to m a tic ,i.e . th e
o n ly
n o tic e a b le
e ffe c t
s h o u ld
b e
th e
h ig h
q u a lity o f th e d a ta c o lle c te d
u n d e r p e r\ue000
m a n e n t c o m p u te riz e d
o p tim iz a tio n .
O f
c o u r s e th is s itu a tio n is q u ite d e m a n d in g
inte r m s o f tu n in g a n d re lia b ility , a n d th e
c o n c e p t
in e v ita b ly
re q u ire s
p e rm a n e n t

m a in te n a n c e , a s a n y la rg e a n d c o m p le x te le s c o p e .O nth e o th e r s id e th e p o s itiv e a s p e c ts

o f
th e
a c tiv e
o p tic s
c o n c e p t
e x te n d
fa r b e y o n d
th e

p o te n tia l e x c e l\ue000 le n c e o f th e o p tic a l p ro p e rtie s . In d e e d it p r o v id e s fa r m o re d e s ig n a n d m a n u fa c \ue000 tu rin g p e r s p e c tiv e s th a n a p a s s iv e c o n \ue000 c e p t, w ith

p o s itiv e
c o n s e q u e n c e s
b o th
o np e rfo rm a n c e a n d c o s t.
T h e
fra g ility o f th e
th in
m e n is c u s
re \ue000
q u ire s

p a r tic u la r a tte n tio n .A lls u p p o rts a n d a u x ilia r y e q u ip m e n t w h ic h w ill in te r \ue000 fa c e

t o
th e
m irro r a t o n e
s ta g e
0 1 'th e
o th e r a re d e s ig n e d to k e e p th e p r o b a b il\ue000
ity o f d a m a g e
under about 10-
5
u n d e r
m a x im u m
lo a d s .
N e v e rth e le s s ,

g iv e n th e h ig h fle x ib ility o f th e m irro rs a n d th e h ig h ly n o n - lin e a r re la tio n

b e tw e e n d a m \ue000
a g e
p r o b a b ility
a n d
lo a d
p a ra m e te rs
T h e
is s u e
o f m a tc h in g
is
le s s c r itic a l
a sw e il, a sth e a c tiv e s u p p o r t c a n h a n d le
a fa irly la rg e e rro r o f th e c o n ic c o n s ta n t.
A lth o u g h th e o p tio n o f a p e n ta p ris m
te s t
o n
th e
p rim a ry
a n d
s e c o n d a ry
m irro rs
c o m b in a tio n
c a n
s till
b e
o rd e re d ,
th e
c u rre n t s tra te g y fo r th e
V L T
is
t o
h a v e
s e p a ra te
c ro s s -c h e c k s
p e rfo rm e d
o n
th e
p rim a ry
a n d
s e c o n d a ry
m irro rs.
T h e s e
a re
d ir e c t te s ts ,i.e .th e y d o
n o t
in v o lv e
re la y
le n s e s
w h ic h
c o u ld
in tro \ue000
d u c e s y s te m a tic e rro rs , a n d th e y a im
a t
e n s u r in g
th a t
n o
s ig n ific a n t
m a tc h in g
e rro risle ft.
A sfo r a n y o p tic a l c o m p o n e n t, o p tic a l
te s tin g
ise s s e n tia la s
it s h o u ld
e n s u re
th a t
th e
m a n u fa c tu rin g
to le ra n c e s
a re
fu lfille d , a n d
a s

a p ro p e r m e a s u re m e n t o f th e s u rfa c e d a ta (ra d iu s o f c u rv a tu re a n d c o n ic c o n s ta n t)isre q u e s te d fo r th e c a lib r a tio n

o f th e
fie ld
a b e rra tio n s .
In \ue000
d e e d ,
th e
la tte r h a v e
t o
b e
d e d u c te d
fro m
th e
o ff-a x is
m e a s u re m e n t b y
th e
w a v e fro n t s e n s o rs ,ino rd e r th a t th e a c \ue000
tiv e
s y s te m
a p p lie s
th e
a p p ro p ria te
c o rre c tio n s .
3 .M irro r B la n k s
L a rg e -d ia m e te r
a n d
m e d iu m - th ic k \ue000
n e s s
m e n is c i
a re
e c o n o m ic a lly

m anu\ue000 fa c tu re d b y u s in g th e s p in c a s tin g te c h \ue000 n iq u e .

T h is
te c h n iq u e
w as
s p e c ific a lly
d e v e lo p p e d
b y
S C H O n
in

1 9 8 6 -1 9 8 7 fo r th e p ro d u c tio n o f m irro r b la n k s o f th e 8 -m

c la s s . C o n tra ry to th e c o n v e n tio n a l
c a s tin g
te c h n iq u e , s p in
c a s tin g
is
a b le
t o
p ro d u c e
a
m e n is c u s
w h ic h
a p \ue000
p ro a c h e s
th e
fin a l s h a p e
o f th e
m irro r
w ith o n ly s m a ll o v e r s iz in g , th u s r e d u c e d
m ass. The
m e n is c u s s h a p e
iso b ta in e d
b y ro ta tin g th e m o ld(w hic hh a s a s p h e r \ue000
ic a l b o tto m )
w h ile
th e
g la s s
is
not yet
s o lid ifie d .
T h e
s p in
c a s tin g
te c h n iq u e
h a s
p ro v e n
s u c c e s s fu lin
th e
p ro d u c tio n
o f
s e v e ra l
ra w
b la n k s
o f th e
8 -m
c la s s .
._ -.'
. . . . . . .~
.
.
l
!
<
%
~
/
/
/
~
"fo u n da n o th e rb u b b le ? ::J
s p e c ifie d
in
s u c h
a w a y th a t a fte r c o n \ue000
v o lu tio n
w ith
th e
a tm o s p h e ric

s e e in g th e ir e ffe c to nth e lo n g - e x p o s u r e im a g e w ill be

lim ite d
t o
a m a x im u m
d e c re a s e
of 5%
o f th e
p e a k
in te n s ity
in
s te lla r

im a g e s ,inth e v is ib le a n d w ith a s e e in g a n g le o f 0 .4 a r c s e c o n d s fu ll w id th a t h a lf m a x im u m . It c a n

b e
e a s ily
show n
th a t
th e s p e c ific a tio n e n s u re s s im u lta n e o u s \ue000
Iys e e in g - lim ite d
a n g u la r r e s o lu tio n
a n d
h ig h
s ig n a l
th ro u g h p u t
a n d
s ig n a l- to \ue000
n o is e r a tio .
A p o s itiv e c o n s e q u e n c e o f th e a c tiv e
o p tic s
c o n c e p t
is
th a t
it
a llo w s
th e
m a n u fa c tu re r
t o
c o n c e n tra te
o n
h ig h
s p a tia l
fre q u e n c y
e rro rs ,
w hic h
h a v e

u s u a lly lo w e r a m p litu d e b u t m u c h h ig h e r s lo p e s a n da reth e re fo re m o re d e trim e n \ue000 tal to

p e rfo rm a n c e th a n
th e
lo w
s p a tia l
fre q u e n c y o n e s .In
o th e r w o rd s ,a n
a c \ue000
tive m irrorislik e ly tob e s m o o th e r th a n a
p a s s iv e
o n e ,
a n d
th e re fo re
t o
p r o v id e
b e tte r c o n tra s t a n d s ig n a l-to -n o is e ra tio .
T a b le1 .
P a ra m e te r
S p e c ific a -
A c h ie v e -
tio n s
m ent
O u te rd ia m e te r
8 2 0 0
\u00b1
2
8 2 0 1 .5 2
m m
In n e rd ia m e te r
1 0 0 0\u00b1
0 .5
9 9 9 .8 1
m m
C o n c e n tric ity
5 1
0 .0 1
m m
T h ic k n e s s
1
1 7 6+2 -0
1 7 7 .9
m m
R a d iu so f c u rv a tu re (c o n c a v e s u rfa c e )
2 8 9 7 5
2 8 9 6 8
2
m m
(c o n v e x s u rfa c e )
2 8 9 7 7
2 8 9 7 9
3
m m
P ro file to le ra n c e (c o n c a v e s u rfa c e )
2
0 .1 2
4
m m
(c o n v e x s u rfa c e )
2
0 .0 5
5
m m
R e s id u a l s tr e s s e s (te n s ile )
5 0 .1 0
m a x .0 .0 7
M Pa
(c o m p re s s iv e )
5 0 .6 0
m a x .0 .0 8
M Pa
C o e ffic ie n to fth e rm a l e x p a n s io n (m e a n v a lu e )
o\u00b1
0 .1 5
-0 .0 4 3
1 0 -6 oK -1
(h o m o g e n e ity )
5 0 .0 5
0 .0 0 9
1O -6 OK -1
I
N o rm a ltoc o n v e x s u ria c e ,o n a d ia m e te r o f8 1 6 0m m . -
2
B e s tfittin gs p h e re . -
3
B e s tfittin gs p h e re . -
\u2022 In c lu d in gth eeH ecto f th e7m m e rro ro n th era d iu so f c u rv a tu reo f th ec o n c a v e s u r ia c e . -
5
In c lu d in gth e
eH ectofth e 2m m
e rro ro nth era d iu so f c u rv a tu re o fth e c o n c e x s u ria c e .
--
-
-
'
-
I? 'I'
~
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
/ " - /
. /
~
.
/
"
. /
-----
(e .g .a re a o f s tre s s fie ld s , m a g n itu d e o f
s tre s s ,
d u ra tio n ,
s u rfa c e
fin is h ) ,
tra n s \ue000
p o rt,
h a n d lin g
a n d
o p e ra tio n
o f
a n y
la rg e
m irro r
h a v e
t o
fo llo w
s tric t
a n d
rig o ro u s ru le s .
T h e
m irro r
its e lf
is
m ade
o u t
o f
a
h ig h ly
hom ogeneous
Z e ro d u r
s u b \ue000
s tra te , w ith

n e a r-z e ro re s id u a l s tre s s e s . T a b le 1 s u m m a r iz e s th e m a in s p e c ific a \ue000 tio n s

fo r
th e
m irro r
b la n k s ,
to g e th e r
w ith
th e
a c h ie v e m e n t
b y
S C H O n
fo r
th e firs t m irro r b la n k .
In
m a n y re s p e c ts
th e
m irro r
b la n k
is
o f
e x c e p tio n a l
q u a lity .
In
a d d itio n
t o
th e
g e o m e tric a l
a n d
m a te ria l p ro p e rtie s , th e
in te rn a l q u a lity
w as
s p e c ifie d
in
te rm s
o f
m a x im u m
num ber
o f
b u b b le s
a n d
in c lu s io n s .
A g a in ,
th e
r e s u lt
is
w e il
w ith in
th e
s p e c ific a tio n .
T h e
c o n v e x
s u rfa c e
h a s
tw o
h o le s
( to
b e
c o m p a re d
t o
1 0
a llo w e d ) ,
m a x im u m
d ia m e te r 3 4 .8
m m
a n d
m a x im u m
d e p t h 4 0 m m ,w h ic h
re \ue000
s u lt fro m
th e
re m o v a l o f in c lu s io n s b e \ue000
fo re
c e r a m iz a tio n .
L o c a l
a c id
e tc h in g
has been
a p p lie d
a n d th e
e ffe c t o f th e
h o le s
o n
s tre s s
fie ld s
is
s u c h
th a t th e
p r o b a b ility
o f b re a k a g e
is
s till
b e y o n d
1 0 -5
.

T h eo p tic a l s p e c ific a tio n s g iv e n to th e o p tic a l m a n u fa c tu re r a reinline w ith the a c tiv e

o p tic s
c o n c e p t
a n d
fo llo w
th e
fo r m a lis m
d e v e lo p e d a tE S Oto q u a n tify
o p tic a l
p e rfo rm a n c e
o f
g ro u n d -b a s e d
te le s c o p e s .
T h e
m irro rs
w ill
b e
p o lis h e d
o n
a n
a c tiv e s u p p o r t s y s te m
w h ic h

in te rfa c e s to th e trip o d s . T h e m a n u fa c tu re ris p e r\ue000 m itte d

t o
p h y s ic a lly re m o v e
lo w
s p a tia l
fre q u e n c y e rro rs , p ro v id e d th a th es ta y s
w ith in
th e
s p e c ifie d
b u d g e t
o f
\u00b11 2 0
N e w to n m a x im u m
a c tiv e fo rc e . T h e o p \ue000
e ra tio n a l p e rfo rm a n c e
o f th e
m irro rs
is
g iv e n
b y th e
re s id u a l e rro rs a fte r a c tiv e
c o rre c tio n .
T h e
la tte r
h a v e
b e e n
3

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