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messenger-no74

messenger-no74

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/01/2013

No. 74 -
D ecem ber1 9 9 3
T E L E S C O P E S
A N D
IN S T R U M E N T A T IO N
N e w s tro m C o u n c il

T h e fo llo w in gis S e c tio n 1 (th e s e c tio n re le v a n t fo r th eV L TP ro je c t) o f th e re s o \ue000 lu tio n is s u e d b y C o u n c il d u r in g its m e e t\ue000 in g o f D e c e m b e r2 ,1 9 9 3 :

In
its O c t o b e r 4 a n d
5 ,1 9 9 3 m e e tin g
C o u n c il
e x p re s s e d
it s
a p p ro v a l
o f th e
r e v is e d
V L T N L T I
p r o je c ta s
re fe rre d
in
J u n e 1 9 9 3 C o u -4 8 3 fo r c o n te n t, s c h e d u le
a n d s ta ff. F in a n c ia l d iffic u ltie s d is c u s s e d
in
th e
F in a n c e
C o m m itte e
m e e tin g
o f
N ovem ber
8
a n d
9 ,
1 9 9 3
a n d
re c e n t
e x p r e s s io n
o f c o n c e rn
in
a
d ip lo m a tic
n o te fro m
th e F re n c h G o v e rn m e n t h a v e
le d to r e c o n s id e r a tio n o f th is p la n .
F o llo w in g
th e
p re s e n ta tio n
a n d
d is \ue000

c u s s io n o f d iffe r e n t a lte rn a tiv e s fo r c o s t re d u c tio n , C o u n c il a d o p ts fu rth e r m o d \ue000 ific a tio n s

t o
th e
V L T
p ro g ra m m e
p la n .
T h is
in c lu d e s th e
p o s tp o n e m e n to fth e
im p le m e n ta tio n
o f
V L T I,
V IS A ,
C oude
T ra in a n d a s s o c ia te d a d a p tiv e o p tic s fo r
a ll te le s c o p e s .
In
c o n s u lta tio n
w ith
th e
S c ie n tific
T e c h n ic a l C o m m itte e
a
s o lu \ue000

tio n w ill b e s o u g h t to in tr o d u c e a d a p tiv e o p tic s a t th e N a s m y th fo c i a t th e e a rlie s t p o s s ib le tim e .

F u rth e rm o re ,
th e
E x e c u tiv e
w ill
e n \ue000
d e a v o u rt o
re in tro d u c e
fu ll C o u d e
a n d
in te rfe ro m e tric
c a p a b ilitie s
a t
th e

e a r\ue000 lie s t p o s s ib le d a te . T h is w ill in c lu d e p r o \ue000 v is io n s f o r c o n tin u in g

te c h n o lo g ic a l re \ue000
s e a rc h
a n d
d e v e lo p m e n t
p ro g ra m m e s
d e v o te dt oth is e n d .
V L TN e w s tro m th e V L TD iv is io n
M .T A R E N G H I, E S O
T h e s ta tu so fV LT a c tiv itie sis s h iftin g
m o re a n d
m o re
fro m
th e
d e s ig n

to the c o n s tru c tio n p h a s e . M a jo r p ro g re s s w a s a c h ie v e dinth e fo llo w in g a re a s :

M e c h a n ic a l S tru c tu re

T h e d e ta ile d d e s ig n o f th e s tru c tu reis re a c h in g c o m p le tio n . T h e c a lc u la te d lo w \ue000 e s t lo c k e d ro to r e ig e n fre q u e n c yis8 .1

H z
a ro u n d
th e
e le v a tio n
a x is
a n d
a b o u t
1 0H za r o u n d th e a z im u th a x is .T o o b ta in
th is a n dt oo p tim iz e th e
m a n u fa c tu rin g ,
th e m a s s h a s in c re a s e d w ith re s p e c tt o
th e o r ig in a l d e s ig n . T h e
m a x im u m
to ta l
m o v in g m a s sis4 5 0 t o n s w h ic h in c lu d e
3 2 0 to n s o f s tru c tu ra l s te e l.
A
d e m o n s tra tio n
te s t o f th e
e n c o d e r
w as
c a rrie d
o u t s u c c e s s fu lly . T h is
e n \ue000
c o d e r
u s e s
tw o
la s e r
in te rfe ro m e te rs
a n d
a
n u m b e r o f fla t
m irro rs
fix e d
o n
th e
s tru c tu re . E a c h
m irror can
cover a
ra n g e
o f a b o u t 4 d e g re e s
a n d
th e
tw o
h e a d s
p e rm it
th e
tra n s itio n
fro m
o n e
m irro r
t o
a n o th e r
w ith o u t
th e
lo s s
o f
in fo rm a tio n .
E n c lo s u re s
T h e
d e s ig n
a n d
c o n s tru c tio n
o f th e
e n c lo s u r e s
w e re
c o n tra c te d
t o
th e
S E B IS C o n s o r tiu m
inIta ly .T h e fin a l d e \ue000
s ig n
is
n e a r
t o
c o m p le tio n
(J a n u a ry
1 9 9 4 ).
W in d
tu n n e l
te s ts
h a v e
b e e n
p e r\ue000
fo rm e d
fo r
th e
assessm ent
o f
w in d
lo a d s
o n
a s in g le
e n c lo s u r e . A d d itio n a l
te s ts
w ill
b e
p e rfo rm e d
in
N ovem ber
1 9 9 3 to s tu d y th e
in te rfe re n c e b e tw e e n
th e e n c lo s u re s .
M irro rsa n dM 1U n it
T h e
firs t
p rim a ry
m irro r
b la n k
h a s
b e e n d e liv e r e dt oR E O S C
a n d th e p a d s
fo r th e
a x ia l s u p p o r t s
have been
g lu e d

o n th e b a c k . T h e m a n u fa c tu rin go fo th e r b la n k s b y S c h o t t p r o c e e d s a s p la n n e d . Tw o

p a ra lle l c o n tra c ts
w e re
is s u e d
fo r
th e d e s ig no fth e m ir r o rG e ll. T h e P re lim i\ue000
n a ry
D e s ig n
R e v ie w
w ill
ta k e
p la c e
a t
th e b e g in n in go fn e x t y e a r.
M 2U n it
T h e
c a ll fo r te n d e rs
has been
is s u e d
a n d
th e
te n d e rs
a re
e x p e c te d
in
m id \ue000
D e c e m b e r. T h e
re q u ire m e n ts
in c lu d e
a
fa s t
g u id in g
m ode
(fie ld
s ta b iliz a tio n )
a n d
a
c h o p p in g
m ode

fo r fre q u e n c ie s u pt o5 H z a n d a m p litu d eo f u p to 1 a rc \ue000 m in u te .

C o a tin gP la n t
T h e
te c h n ic a l
s p e c ific a tio n s
a n d
s ta te m e n to fw o rk
fo r th e

C a ll f o r T e n \ue000 d e rs h a v e b e e n c o m p le te d . T h e s p e c ifi\ue000 c a tio n s

a re
b a s e d
o n
a s p u tte rin g
p ro \ue000
c e s s .
T h e
s ta rto fth e
c o n tra c t
is
e x \ue000
p e c te dt obe M ay 1994.
W a s h in gU n ita n dC le a n r o o m
T h e
s p e c ific a tio n s
a n d
s ta te m e n to f
w o rk
fo r
th e
c a ll
fo r te n d e rs
is
b e in g
p re p a re d . T h e c o n tra c t fo r th e
w a s h in g
u n it w ill
in c lu d e
th e
p ilo t w a s h in g
u n it
(fo r th e
3 .6 -m e tre
m irrors) forL a
S illa .
C le a n ro o m
s p e c ific a tio n s
h a v e
b e e n
p re p a re d . T h e
c le a n r o o m
w ill c o m p r is e
b o th
th e
c o a tin g
a n d
w a s h in g
u n it fo r
th e 8 -m
m irro rs.
C a s s e g r a ina n dN a s m y th
A d a p te rs
T h e
c o n c e p tu a l
d e s ig n
h a s
b e e n
c o m p le te d
a n d
th e
c a ll fo r te n d e rs
w ill
b e se n t o u t e a rlyin
1 9 9 4
a fte r a n a ly s is
o fth e re s u lts o fa p r e lim in a r y e n q u iry . A
c a ll fo r te n d e rs
is
ru n n in g
fo r th e

p ro \ue000 c u re m e n to fC C D c a m e ra s fo r a u to g u id \ue000 in g a n d w a v e fr o n t s e n s in g a p p lic a tio n s .

C oudeS ta tio n
T h e c o n c e p tis b a s e d o n a la rg e tu rn \ue000
ta b le
o n
w h ic h
a ll
th e
c o u d e
s ta tio n
e q u ip m e n tis
fix e d .
Itis
u s e d
t o
com \ue000
p e n s a te th e
fie ld
ro ta tio n
fo r c o u d e
in \ue000
s tru m e n ts a n dt o
p o s itio n th e
c o llim a t\ue000
in g
u n its
t o
b e
u s e d
fo r
th e
d iffe re n t
ty p e so fb e a m
c o m b in a tio n s . T h e
c o n \ue000
tr a c t fo r th e
c o n s tru c tio n
o ftu rn ta b le s
h a s b e e n is s u e d .
A d a p tiv eO p tic s
A n
o p tim iz a tio n
s tu d y
h a s
p e rm itte d
th e fin a liz a tio n
o f th e e s s e n tia l p a ra m e \ue000
te rs
n e c e s s a ry fo r th e e s ta b lis h m e n to f
s p e c ific a tio n s .
H a n d lin gA s p e c ts
A
n e w
c o n c e p t fo r th e
M 1
h a n d lin g
to o l h a s b e e n
d e v e lo p e d . T h e
p r in c ip le
isa h y d ra u lic w h iffle tre e . T h e g e o m e tr y
is
id e n tic a lt o
th a to f th e
R E O S C
to o l.
T h e
M 1
h a n d lin g
to o l
w ill
in c lu d e
th e
liftin g s y s te m
a n d w ill fo r m
a s e lf-s ta n d \ue000
in g
u n it
in
th e
M irro r
M a in te n a n c e
B u ild in g .
V L T IS y s te m
L e v e l
A
n u m b e ro f s tu d ie s
a t s y s te m
le v e l
a re
c u rre n tly
b e in g
c a rrie d
out or have
b e e n

c o m p le te d . T h e s e s tu d ie s a re im \ue000 p o rta n t fo r a s s e s s in g th e o v e ra ll p e rfo r\ue000 m ance

o fth e
V L T I
a s
w e il
a s
fo r th e
s p e c ific a tio n
o fV L T Is u b s y s te m s , s u c h
a s th e d e la y lin e s . S tu d ie s in c lu d e :
-
C o n tro l
m odel
o f
d e la y
lin e /frin g e
s e n s o r
-
S tru c tu ra l
d e fo rm a tio n
o f
u n it
te le \ue000
s c o p e s u n d e r w in d lo a d s
-
S tu d yo fa c o u s tic n o is e in s id e U T e n \ue000
c lo s u r e s
-
S tu d yo fth e rm a l e n v iro n m e n tinV L T I
fa c ilitie s
-
M e a s u re m e n ts
o f
g ro u n d
tra n s fe r
fu n c tio n s o n
P a ra n a l
A u x ilia r yT e le s c o p e s
C a lls
fo r
te n d e rs
fo r
th e
d e s ig n ,
m a n u fa c tu re , te s t
in

E u ro p e , tra n s p o rt t oa n d e r e c tio nin C h ileo f th r e e a u x ilia r y te le s c o p e s

a n d
e q u ip m e n t
fo r
1 1
s ta \ue000
tio n s w e re s e n tt oin d u s tr yin J u ly 1 9 9 3 .
B e a mC o m b in e rS y s te m
A nin -h o u s e d e s ig n s tu d yo f th e b e a m
c o m b in e r
is
n e a rin g
c o m p le tio n .
T h e

m a in o b je c tiv eo fth e s tu d yis a c o n c e p \ue000 tu a l d e s ig n w h ic h a llo w s th e a s s e s s m e n t o fth e

in te rfa c et o
th e
c iv il e n g in e e r in g
in fra s tru c tu re a n d
u n d e rs ta n d in g
o fth e
tra d e o ffs b e tw e e n
v a rio u s c o n c e p ts fo r
th e h o m o th e tic m a p p in g .
In s trum e n ta tio n
T h e
V L T
M e d iu m
R e s o lu tio n

S p e c \ue000 tro m e te r/lm a g e r (IS A A C ) re a c h e d th e F i\ue000 n a l D e s ig n

R e v ie w
(F D R ).T h e
C O N IC A
(H ig h
R e s o lu tio n
N e a r In fra re d C a m e ra )
a n d
F O R S
(F o c a l
R educer
S p e c tro \ue000
g ra p h ) a re a p p ro a c h in g th e
FD R
s ta g e .
T h e
U V - V is u a l
E c h e lle
S p e c tro g ra p h
(U V E S )
c o m p le te d
th e
P re lim in a ry
D e\ue000
s ig n
R e v ie w
inO c to b e r. T h e M u lti- F ib e r
A re a
S p e c tro g ra p h
(F U E G O S )
is
b e in g
s tu d ie d
b y
a
c o n s o rtiu m
com posed
o f
th e
O b s e rv a to ire
d e
M e u d o n , th e
O b\ue000
s e rv a to ire
d e
G e n e v e , th e O b s e rv a to ire
d e
T o u lo u s e
a n d
th e
O s s e rv a to rio
d i
B o lo g n a . T h e
P h a s e
A
s tu d y
e n d e d
in
O c to b e r a n d
isb e in g
r e v ie w e d
b yE S O
te c h n ic a l s ta ff. T h e
M id -In fra re d
Im a g e
S p e c tro m e te r
is
b e in g
s tu d ie d
b y
th e
S e r v ic e
d 'A s tr o p h y s iq u e
C E A lD A P N IA
a n d
ism a k in g p ro g re s sin P h a s eA .
F irs t L ig h t fro mth eN TT In te rfe ro m e te r
T .R .B E D D IN G ,0 . V O N D E RL \u00dc H Ea n dA A Z IJ L S T R A , E S O
A
E C K A R Ta n dL .E . T A C C O N I-G A R M A N ,M PE G a re h in g , G e rm a n y
It is n o t o b v io u s t h a t p la c in g
a m ask
o v e r a te le s c o p e
a n d
b lo c k in g
m osto f
th e lig h t w ill im p r o v e its im a g in g p e r fo r \ue000
m ance.
Y et
several groups
h a v e
d o n e
ju s t th is
in
a n
e ffo rt to
o v e rc o m e
th e
lim its
o f
a tm o s p h e ric
s e e in g
a n d
a c h ie v e th e b e s t a n g u la r r e s o lu tio n fr o m
la rg e
te le s c o p e s
s u c h
a s
th e
4 .2 -m
W HT,th e 3 .9 -m
A A T ,th e
H a ie 5 - m
a n d
th e
M a y a ll 4 - m
a t
K itt
P e a k .
A p e rtu re
2

m a s k in g h a s m a in ly b e e n u s e d fo r b r ig h t s o u r c e s h a v in g r e a s o n a b ly s im p le s tr u c \ue000 tu re .

F o rtu n a te ly ,
th e re
a re
som e
v e ry
in te re s tin g
o b je c ts
th a t
s a tis fy
th e s e
c rite ria :
c o o l
g ia n t
s ta rs ,
w hose
la rg e
a n g u la r d ia m e te r s (u pt o
-0 .0 5 ")m ake
th e m
id e a l ta rg e ts
fo r
b ig
te le s c o p e s .
A p e rtu re
m a s k in g
h a s
s o
fa r

a llo w e d d e te c tio no fc o n v e c tiv e h o t s p o ts o n th e re d s u p e rg ia n t a O ri a n d a s y m m e trie sin

th e a tm o s p h e r eo f M ir a (e .g ., W ils o n e t
a l.1 9 9 2 ; H a n iff e t a l.1 9 9 2 ).

T h is a rtic le d e s c rib e s a p e rtu re -m a s k \ue000 in g o b s e r v a tio n so fc o o l g ia n ts w ith th e 3 .5 -m

N D
inth e n e a r in fra re d(1 .5~
l
m
)
.
W e
c h o s e
th e
in fra re d
b e c a u s e ,
a l\ue000
th o u g h
th e
a n g u la r r e s o lu tio n
is

som e\ue000 w h a t p o o r e r th a n a t v is ib le w a v e le n g th s , th e s ta rs a re

m uch
b rig h te r a n d th e a t\ue000
m o s p h e r ic
s e e in g
is
m o re
fa v o u ra b le .
B e fo re d e s c rib in g
o u r o b s e rv a tio n s , w e
g iv e
a b rie f
in tro d u c tio n
t o
th e
te c h \ue000
n iq u e s in v o lv e d .
O p tic a l/IR In te rfe ro m e try
T o
p ro d u c e
im a g e s
th a t
h a v e
h ig h
a n g u la r r e s o lu tio n
o n e
m u s t o v e rc o m e
th e
s e e in g .
T h is
m eans

c o m p e n s a tin g fo r p e rtu rb a tio n sinth e w a v e fro n to f th e lig h t th a t re s u lt fro m

its p a s s a g e th ro u g h
th e
a tm o s p h e re .
T h e s e

p e rtu rb a tio n s a ris e b e c a u s e th e re fra c tiv e in d e xo fth e a tm o s p h e re

is
c o n tin u a lly
flu c tu a tin g ,
p rim a rily d u e to
tu r b u le n t m ix in g
o fre \ue000
g io n so fair w ith

d iffe rin g te m p e ra tu re s . T h e in c o m in g w a v e fro n t c a n b e th o u g h t o fa s b e in g

m a d e u po f a la rg e n u m b e r o f p a tc h e s , e a c h h a v in g a d ia m e te ro fro , w h e re

th e
w a v e fro n t
is
a p p r o x im a te ly
fla t a c ro s s
e a c h
p a tc h . T h e
q u a n tity
ro
d e te r m in e s th e s e e in g : a t a w a v e le n g th
A ,t h e s e e in g d is k h a s a F W H M
o fa b o u t
1 .2V r o (e .g .,ro=
1 5c m
at 550 nm
fo r 1 "
s e e in g ) .
A d a p tiv e o p tic s s e e k s to c o m p e n s a te
fo r w a v e fro n t p e rtu rb a tio n sin
re a l tim e
u s in g
a
s m a ll
d e fo rm a b le
m irro r.
P ro \ue000
v id e d
th e
m irro r h a s
e n o u g h
a c tu a to rs
(o n e
fo r
e v e ry
ro -s iz e d
p a tc h
o n

th e p u p il), itisp o s s ib le to p la c e m o s to f th e lig h t

in
a
d iffra c tio n -lim ite d
c o re .
O f
c o u rs e ,
o n e
a ls o
re q u ire s
s u ffic ie n t
p h o to n s
p e r
ro -p a tc h
t o
m e a s u re
th e
w a v e fro n t a n d c a lc u la te th e c o r r e c tio n .'
Itisp o s s ib le t o a c h ie v e
h ig h
a n g u la r
r e s o lu tio n
p a s s iv e ly
(i.e . w ith o u t a d a p \ue000
tiv e
o p tic s ),
p r o v id e d
o n e
h a s
a
fa s t
d e te c to r.
T h is
in v o lv e s
re c o rd in g
th e
d is to rte d im a g eina s u c c e s s io n o f s h o r t
exposures, each
o fw h ic h
"fre e z e s " th e
s e e in g ,
a n d
p r o c e s s in g
th e m

o ff-lin e . T h isisth e b a s iso f s p e c k le in te rfe ro m e \ue000 try .

E a c h
s h o rt-e x p o s u re
im a g e
c o n \ue000
ta in s
h ig h -re s o lu tio n
in fo rm a tio n
w h ic h
c a n b e e x tra c te d v ia a F o u rie r tra n s fo rm
a n d
c a lib r a te d
u s in g
s im ila r
o b s e rv a \ue000
tio n so fa n e a r b y u n r e s o lv e d s ta r.
A p e rtu re
m a s k in g
is
id e n tic a l
t o
s p e c k le

in te rfe ro m e try , e x c e p t th a t o n e p la c e s a m a s k o v e r t h e te le s c o p e p u p il. T h e

m ask
m ay
c o n s is t
o f
a
s m a ll
num bero fh o le s
a rra n g e d
in
a
n o n -re \ue000

d u n d a n t p a tte r n (i.e ., s o t h a t a ll b a s e lin e v e c to r s a re d is tin c t) . A lte rn a tiv e ly , it m a y b e

p a rtia lly
re d u n d a n t,
s u c h
a s
a n
a n n u lu s o r a s lit. T h e p r o s a n d
c o n so f
a p e rtu re
m a s k in g
h a v e b e e n d is c u s s e d
e ls e w h e r e
(H a n iff
&
B u s c h e r
1 9 9 2 ;
B u s c h e r&H a n iff 1 9 9 3 ; H a n iff 1 9 9 3 ) a n d
h e re
w e
s im p ly
t r y
t o
s u m m a r iz e
th e
m a in a rg u m e n ts .
1A d a p tiv eo p tic sis n o t lh e s a m ea s a c tiv eo p tic s .
T h e
la lte r in v o lv e s a d ju s tin g

th e p rim a ry m irro r1 0 c o r r e c lto r le le s c o p ef1 e x u re , e tc ., a n d th e c o r r e c \ue000 tio n s

a re
n e c e s s a r ily
m ade
o n
a
m uch

s lo w e r tim e s c a le . T h is ty p e o r c o r r e c tio n p r o d u c e s e x c e l\ue000 le n t lo n g - e x p o s u r e im a g e s , b u t c a n n o t b e u s e dto r r e a l- tim e s e e in g c o m p e n s a tio n .

W h y U s e a n A p e rtu re M a s k ?
E a c h
ro -s iz e d
p a tc h
o n

th e p u p il h a s a nu n k n o w n p h a s e e rro r, c o r r e s p o n d in g t o

th e
unknow n
th ic k n e s s
o f
a tm o \ue000
s p h e re
a b o v e
it .
E a c h
p a iro fp a tc h e s
fo rm sa nin te rfe ro m e te r th a t m e a s u re s a
p a r tic u la r s p a tia l fr e q u e n c y
o n
th e

s k y . W ith a n u n - m a s k e d p u p il th e re a re m a n y d iffe r e n t p a irs m e a s u rin g a g iv e n s p a tia l fre q u e n c y .

E a c h
o n e
c o n trib u te s
a
d if\ue000
fe re n t p h a s e
e rro r, s o

th a t m a n y frin g e p a tte rn s w ith th e s a m e s p a tia l fre q u e n \ue000 c y

a re
s u p e r im p o s e d
o n
th e
d e te c to r
w ith d iffe r e n t p o s itio n o ffs e ts . T h e re s u l\ue000
ta n t
frin g e
pow er
w ill
b e
th e
s u m
o f
th e s e
ra n d o m ly -p h a s e d
c o n trib u tio n s .
T h e p r o b le m

isth a t th e w a v e fro n t e rro rs a re d iffe re n tine v e ry s h o rt-e x p o s u re im \ue000 a g e , s o th e fin a l frin g e p o w e r, b e in g th e s u m

o fa ra n d o m
w a lk , w ill a ls o f lu c t u \ue000
a te .
T h is
in tro d u c e s
s o - c a lle d
a tm o \ue000

s p h e r ic n o is einth e p o w e r s p e c tru m . A n o n -re d u n d a n t a p e rtu re m a s k ,inw h ic h n o b a s e lin eiss a m p le d m o r e th a n o n c e , e lim in a te s

a tm o s p h e ric
n o is e .
T h is
is
p a rtic u la rly
im p o rta n t
in
th e
in fra re d ,
w h e re
th e
la rg e
n u m b e rs
o f
p h o to n s
m ean
th a t
a tm o s p h e ric
n o is e
u s u a lly
d o m in a te s o v e r p h o to n n o is e .
A n o th e r a d v a n ta g e

o fn o n -re d u n d a n t a p e rtu re m a s k in gisth a t it im p ro v e s th e a c c u ra c y w ith w h ic h o n e c a n c o rre c t fo r v a r ia tio n sina tm o s p h e ric s e e in g , s o m e \ue000 th in g w h ic hiso fte n th e lim itin g fa c to rin h ig h - r e s o lu tio n im a g in g . T h isis b e c a u s e a p u p il c o m p o s e do fs u b a p e rtu re s e a c h h a v in g

s iz e
:s
ro
is
q u ite
in s e n s itiv e
t o
c h a n g e s
in
th e
a c tu a l
v a lu e
ro .
O f
c o u rs e , a
m ask
a ls o
re d u c e s
th e

lig h t le v e l a n d re s tric ts o b s e rv a tio n st ob rig h t o b je c ts . B u t fo r th o s e

o b je c ts , th e re
is
a na d d itio n a l a d v a n ta g e if th e lig h t b e in g
d is c a r d e d
d o e s
n o t c a rry
u s e fu l
in fo r\ue000

m a tio n . T h is la s t p o in t b e c o m e s c le a r if o n e im a g in e s o b s e r v in ga no b je c t w h ic h is

o n ly
b a re ly
r e s o lv e d
b y th e

fu ll te le \ue000 s c o p e a p e rtu re .Inth is c a s e , th e " u s e fu l" lig h t c o m e s fro m

th e o u te r p a rtso fth e
p u p il a n d
th e

re m a in d e r o n ly s e rv e s to a d d n o is e to th e s ig n a l w e a re in te re s te d in .B y u s in g a m a s k , o n e c a n e ffe c tiv e ly in c re a s e th e r e s o lv in g p o w e ro fth e te le \ue000 s c o p e b y g iv in g m o r e e m p h a s is t o h ig h s p a tia l fr e q u e n c ie s .

A b ig d r a w b a c ko fu s in g a n o n - r e d u n \ue000 d a n t m a s k w ith a s m a ll n u m b e ro fh o le s isth e p o o r c o v e ra g eo f s p a tia l fre q u e n \ue000 e ie s . A g o o d c o m p r o m is einth e p h o to n \ue000 ric h in fra re d re g im eisa na n n u la r m a s k . T h is h a s fu ll s p a tia l fr e q u e n c y c o v e r a g e w h ile b e in g m in im a lly r e d u n d a n t: r o u g h \ue000

Iys p e a k in g , e a c h
b a s e lin e
ism e a s u re d
tw ic e . F u rth e rm o re , a th in a n n u lu s la rg e \ue000
Iy
re ta in s
th e
o th e r
a d v a n ta g e s
m en\ue000
tio n e d
a b o v e , n a m e ly a c c u ra te

c a lib r a \ue000 tio n a n d e n h a n c e d re s o lu tio n . H o w e v e r, a na n n u la r m a s kis n o t a g o o d c h o ic ein th e

v is ib le
re g im e , w h e re
p h o to n
n o is e
F ig u re1 :T oc h a n g e b e tw e e n m a s k s , th e N T T
w as
tilted to
1 5 \u00b0(ro m

th e h o r iz o n ta l a n d th e m irro r c o v e r(g re y )w a s p a r tia lly c lo s e d .H e re , O skar von

der L\u00fche
(Ie ft)a n d
T im
B e d d in g
(rig h t) s ta n d o n
th e
te le s c o p e
s tru c tu rea n d
s h o w
o ffth e
7 -h o le
m ask.
T h e
b la c k c ir c le
b e h in d
th e ir
h e a d s
is
th e
a n n u la r

m ask a tta c h e d to th eM 3 b a ffle . A n d re a s E c k a rtis s ta n d in g a t flo o r le v e l.

g e n e r a lly
d o m in a te s
o v e r
a tm o s p h e ric
n o is e .
H e re ,
B u s c h e r
&
H a n iff
(1 9 9 3 )
a d v o c a te th e u s eo f a lo n g s lit.
W e
d o
n o t w is h
t o
g iv e
th e
im p r e s \ue000
s io n th a t m a s k in g a te le s c o p eisa lw a y s
th e
b e s t
s tra te g y .
In
sam e
s itu a tio n s ,
h o w e v e r, th e re a re
p o w e rfu l a rg u m e n ts
fo r d o in g
s o
a n d
th e s e
is s u e s
a re
d is \ue000
c u s s e d
m o r e fu lly
inth e

re fe re n c e s .T o s u m m a riz e ,a n a p e rtu re m a s k w ith n o n \ue000 re d u n d a n t

h o le s
p r o v id e s
m o re
a c c u \ue000
ra te ly
c a lib r a te d
m e a s u re m e n ts
a t th e
fu ll d iffr a c tio n lim it, b u t a t th e e x p e n s eo f
lo w e r s e n s itiv ity a n d
p o o re r s p a tia l-fre \ue000
q u e n c y
c o v e ra g e .
A s
n o te d
a b o v e ,a n
a n n u la r m a s k
s h o u ld
b e
a
g o o d
com \ue000
p ro m is ein th e in fra re d , b u t th is m e th o d
h a s
s o
fa r o n ly
b e e n
te s te d
o n
b in a ry
s ta rs (H a n iff e ta l.1 9 8 9 ).
M a s k in g th e N T T
O u r o b s e rv a tio n s
w e re
m ade
o n
th e
N D
in
A u g u s t 1 9 9 3 , u s in g
th e
S H A R P
in fra re d
c a m e ra
(E c k a rt e t a l. 1 9 9 1 ).In
o rd e r to
s a m p ie th e
im a g e s fu lly a t th e
d iffra c tio n
lim it
a t
th e
J
b a n d ,
i t
w as
n e c e s s a ry to
m a g n ify th e
im a g e
s c a le .
W ed id th is b y p la c in g a fo c a l e x p a n d e r
ju s tin
fro n to f th e
d e w a r w in d o w . T h is
d e v ic e ,
w h ic h
w e
nam ed

C O S H A R P , c o n s is te do fa p a ir o f le n s e s m o u n te din a n

a lu m in iu m
tu b e .
C O S H A R P
p e r\ue000
fo rm e d
p e rfe c tly a n d w e w is h th e s a m e
s u c c e s s
t o
it s
m o re
e x p e n s iv e
s p a c e \ue000
b a s e d c o u s in .
3

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