Urbanization in Uttar Pradesh: Trends and Problems
K. K. Gavsker*
The pace of urbanization in India has been rapidly increasing with about 30percent of the total population already living in urban areas.
Urbanization inIndia is a part of the global trend towards growing urbanization
(Singh,2006:1). India has the second largest urban population in the world, next onlyto China. At the global level the percent of urban population in developedworld was 75, whereas it was 40.0 percent in developing world (2006). In thecontext of India, there has been decline in the urban growth rates since 1971-81.
Despite the deceleration, the growth in the urban population in absoluteterms and at the rate it is increasing makes India one of the fastest urbanizing countries in the world
(Singh, 2000:9). By way of the increase inurban population and sprawl of towns and cities, urban centres are at risk of numerous problems. These problems are associated with physical,infrastructural, environmental, social and economic conditions.Mostly, urban centres are believed as the place of livelihood andopportunities which attracts the population to migrate towards. Thus, urbanareas have been extending horizontally by encroachment of the surroundingland areas and becoming denser with vertical construction. These problemsare more or less similar in several cities of India. Grant and Nijman (2003)state,
cities differ in terms of the degree and mechanisms in which they arelinked to the external economy. This differentiation is as much a function of the idiosyncratic features of the city as a place and location, as it is of development in the global economy
(Richard and Nijman, 2003). Indianurbanization is characterized by the growth of large city. The cities Mumbai,Kolkata, Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmedabad and Hyderabad have been providingspaces to global investments and expansion of private sector in severalfields, but are under risk of numerous problems regarding housing,infrastructure, sanitation and sewerage, environmental etc. Around 50percent of population of Mumbai has been living in slum conditions which areworld popular. Further studies argue that such areas are totally unfit forhuman habitation.