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MS Irfana Samdani

MS Irfana Samdani

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Published by: Appan Kandala Vasudevachary on Jun 28, 2013
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An Analysis of Urbanization in India during the Period of 1981 to2001
MS Irfana Samdani*
IntroductionUrbanization is the transformation of traditional rural economics to modernindustrial one. In 1800, only 2 percent of the world population lived in urbanareas. According to latest report of United Nation the number has grown to 3billions and in 2007, it crossed another milestone, more than half of the worldpopulation lives is urban area. If this movement continues in 2050, nearly 2/3
of world population live in cities.In present time urbanization is differ from region to region and from country tocountry. The process of economic liberalization and associated structure reformswould speed - up Rural-Urban (RU) migration and boost the pace of urbanization.Linking the Indian Economy to Global Economic would lead to massive inflow of foreign capital as also rise indigenous investment relating in an increase inemployment opportunities with in and around the existing urban centers.However there is an argument on the employment generation in urban economyis not due to capital intensive nature of industrialization but due to the low rateof investment in public sector in an attempt to control the budgetary deficitwould result in slowing down the agriculture and agro-industrial growth whichcould result in high rate of unemployment in rural areas. It would result in highgrowth of population in urban areas leads to unregulated expansion of informalsectors. Recent data of population in urban centers, question the preposition of accelerated urban population growth.
In this article an attempt are made to study and examine some issues relatedwith the urbanization India over a century during the period of 1901- 2001census. Its try to analysis the trend and pattern of urbanization to the extend of city development plans and its effect on urban government.*Ms Irfana Samdani, PhD Scholar Osmania University. Working as faculty withCygmax Institute of Management, S.R Nagar Hyderabad.
Urbanization pattern: Interstate Analysis
2 The important feature of urbanization in India Is – urban growth at macro level isslow but the expansion of cities is rapid. It’s analyzed that the distribution of urban population across size categories revels that the process of urbanization inIndia had been large city oriented. This an evident from the table number 1 thatthe high percentage of urban population being concentrated in cities, which hasgone up systematically in the last century. The details are given in table number1 Table Number 1Statement Showing Average Monthly Per Capita Expenditure And PercentagePoor In Different Sixe Classes Of Cities/ Towns during the period 198788,1993-94and 1999-2000Sl.NoCity/Town Size1987-88URP1993-94URP1993-94MRP1999-2000MRP1Million PlusCities32460660810702Medium Towns(50,000 ToOne Million)2424454538313Small Towns(Less Than 50,000)210 3783827004All Urban Centers2464584658555Rural Areas15828126486Percentage Poor1Million PlusCities35.222.618.414.22Medium Towns(50,000 ToOne Million)40.332.227.620.43Small Towns(Less Than 50,000)45.336.233.224.24All Urban Centers41.231.427.419.95Rural Areas47.641.035.723.9
3Note: the NSS data on consumption expenditure were collected in 1987-88 usinguniform reference period (URP) of one month for all commodity groups. In case of 1999- 2000, different reference periods were used for commodity groups andhence the term mixed reference period (MRP) fro 1993-94, information has beenpresented by both the reference period for facilitating comparison.Source: the estimates are based on unit record data pertaining to 50ht and 55
rounds of consumption expenditure survey of the national sample surveyorganizationAs neo classical economists view urban centers as the engines of growth for theregion or the country. Concentration of population and economic activity inspace has been considered crucial fro leveraging certain external economics thatprovide a base for improvement in efficiency, technological innovation andaccess to global market. The fact that growth impulses originates from the citiesand towns is supposedly confirmed by the fact that per capita urban income isgenerally higher than that of rural areas. The data support for this in Indiancontext is not very robust since income data with rural urban break-ups are notavailable at regular basis. Some important attempts are made to provide suchbreaks- ups it was mention in the task force on urban development which hadestimated that urban income exceed rural by 182 percent in 1980-81(GOI1983)
. The Patten of urban growth across states is significantly different from that of the level of urbanization. Since independence until 1991, the development statesthat have high percentage of people in urban growth has however beenregistered in relatively underdeveloped sate are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan,Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. This implies that the relation ship between urbangrowth and economic development is generally negative. However some of thedeveloped states like Maharashtra and Haryana are exceptions as they recordurban growth rates higher than the country average. The detail is given in tablenumber 2.
Table number -2Pattern Of Urbanization And Growth Of Urban Population AcrossStates/ UTsPercentage UrbanPopulationAnnual ExponentialGrowth Rate
Sl.No State19711981199120011971 1981991 to

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