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R. Y. Mahore

R. Y. Mahore

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Published by: Appan Kandala Vasudevachary on Jun 28, 2013
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09/16/2014

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Urbanization and Environment
Dr. R. Y. Mahore*
, Prof. and Head, Department of Economics, R.T.M.Nagpur University,Urbanization is the movement of population from rural to urbanareas and the resulting increasing proportion of a population that resides inurban rather than rural places. It is derived from the Latin 'Urbs' a term usedby the Romans to a city. Urban sociology is the sociology of urban living; of people in groups and social relationship in urban social circumstances andsituation. Thompson Warren has defined it as the movement of people fromcommunities concerned chiefly or solely with agriculture to othercommunities generally larger whose activities are primarily centered ingovernment, trade, manufacture or allied interests. Urbanization is a two-wayprocess because it involves not only movement from village to cities andchange from agricultural occupation to business, trade, service andprofession but it also involves change in the migrants attitudes, beliefs,values and behavior patterns. The process of urbanization is rapid all over theworld. The facilities like education, healthcare system, employment avenues,civic facilities and social welfare are reasons attracting people to urban areas. The census of India defines some criteria for urbanization. These are:
Population is more than 5000
 The density is over 400 persons per sq.km
75% of the male population engages in non-agricultural occupations.
Cities are urban areas with population more than one lakh.
Metropolises are cities with population of more than one million
Urban Poverty
Poverty is defined as people's inability to secure the minimum level of subsistence with a person not having adequate income to buy food with total
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caloric norms 2150 in urban areas. As of 1999-2000, the proportion of peopleliving below the poverty line estimated for all India stood at 26.10 per cent(27.09 in rural areas and 23.62 in urban areas).
Urban Population Density
 The density of population in urban areas not only reveals the concentration of people in urban areas but also highlights the structural condition of thetown/city. Although density is essentially the quotient obtained by division of the population of an area by the extent of the area, the resultant figureenables the following trend analyses while expressing the average populationdensity of the area, it also reveals size and class distribution of thepopulation.1. Difference in the density of population between the central and outer area.2. The growth and distribution between of new and old townships.
Growth of slum
A rapid increase in urban population results in the problems of straining orbreaking-down of sanitary facilities and other infrastructure in cities andtowns. The local bodies are faced with the responsibility of providingamenities with limited or often scant resources. The net result of thisincongruity between the resources and responsibilities not only leads toformation of new slums but also gives new dimensions to the problem of slums. Slums are a formidable problem merely because the gap betweenresources and demand for shelter tends to exist perpetually. The urban poorby themselves can neither afford to build pucca house or spare the hardearned money for stay in rented houses with basic amenities. Such peopleencroach Government and private lands kept vacant. Many slums aresituated in vulnerable locations like river margins, water logged areas, roadmargins, etc. The slum population prefers to live in unhygienic conditions andin areas prone to floods and accidents.
 Water supply
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An increasing urban population has been creating a huge gap betweendemand and supply of water every year. The last Census estimated thatapproximately only 70 per cent of urban towns have access to safe drinkingwater. The minimum per capita supply of water required in urban areasvaries from 70 lit/day to 130 lit/day, and this requirement of water supplyvaries according to the land use classification of the towns.
Solid Waste Disposal
Solid waste is generated in almost all parts of the urban areas and solidwaste management becomes complicated in bigger cities. Collection,transportation and disposal of solid waste are the major operations involvedin solid waste management. In most cities/towns, the refuse is dumped in anunsatisfactory and haphazard manner without sanitary land fill. The goal is toachieve 100 per cent source segregation, disposal of garbage in a scientificmanner and thereby making the habitation areas garbage free and also avoidcontamination of natural resources. Privatization of Solid Waste Managementhas been encouraged in all municipalities and corporations. Self Help Groupsare also being involved in Solid Waste Management. A detailed exercise hasbeen undertaken to prepare Action Plans for Solid Waste Management in allMunicipalities and Corporations.
Complexity of environmental problems
Probably most of the major environmental problems of the next century willresult from the continuation and sharpening of existing problems thatcurrently do not receive enough political attention. The problems are notnecessarily noticed in many countries or then nothing is done even thesituation has been detected. The most emerging issues are climate changes,freshwater scarcity, deforestation, fresh water pollution and populationgrowth. These problems are very complex and their interactions are hard todefine. It is very important to examine problems trough the social-economic-cultural system. Even the interconnections between environmental problems
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