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Urbanisation and Problems to Combat it - Yuvaraja. U

Urbanisation and Problems to Combat it - Yuvaraja. U

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with due respects to Yuvaraja. U who was presented this article in a national seminar
with due respects to Yuvaraja. U who was presented this article in a national seminar

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categoriesTypes, Research
Published by: Appan Kandala Vasudevachary on Jun 28, 2013
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09/16/2013

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Urbanization: Problems and Measures to Combat
 
 Yuvaraja. U
1.0Introduction
 The growth of cities and the consequent acceleration in the process of urbanization in the world is one of the most striking developments of moderntimes. In the 21st century urbanization is the main indicator of economicdevelopment. Urban growth is an undeniable fact across the world, so is inIndia. In economic point view, urbanization is a process whereby the primaryproductive functions are replaced by complex secondary and tertiaryfunctions. Urban migration and industrialization are account much for thelarge share of this rapid growth. Urbanization in India had begun about 2500 BC. Urban centers likeHarappa and Mahanjodaro are the initial examples of olden times. In India,during the times of Rajaputs and Mughals (AD 800-1200) administrationseveral urban centers and pilgrim centers where found. In this period Delhi,Agra, Allahabad, Varanasi and Patna, Kolkatta, Bombay, Goa, Cochin etc werea few urban regions in India. With the British rule, Indian economy wastransformed into a colonial market for the supply of new materials to theBritish Industries. This hit adversely on natural growth of number of cities inthe country. British Administration had its empire capital, provincial capitalsand district headquarters in India which were urban in character. Afterindependence urbanization in India took place in a drastic manner, in theform of Administrative decentralization, establishment of new Industries etc.Following this urbanization gained momentum in India.In India, in 1991, of the total population 25.7 per cent lived in urbanareas which is currently about 29 per cent. India’s urban population hasgrown more than 11 times over the last century, from 254 Lakh in 1901 to2850 lakh in 2001. In 2001in the total world population about 42 per centlived in urban areas. The number of million cities in the world in 1950 was 78which increased to 433 in the year 2000. By the year 2025 the number of 
 
million cities would touch the mark of 622 where 43 per cent of thepopulation is accepted to live in urban areas. Hong Kong and Singapore(each100 %) are high urbanized areas in the world, against Trinidad, Tobagoand Uganda, (each 12%). Mumbai is the largest Metropolitan city in Indiawhich occupies fifth place in the world ranking with a population of 16.43million, which is expected to occupy the second place (population wise) by2015. Added to this Delhi (16 million) and Kolkatta (13.8 million) also findplace in the list of 10 metropolitan cities in the world. The State of TamilNadu (43.86%) is highly urbanized in the country where Bihar (10.47%) isleast urbanized. Karnataka finds Sixth place in the country in respect of urbanization.
1.1The Paper
With the above realities in mind, the present Paper attempts at a brief discussion of the issues related with
Urbanization
and shall deal with the
Remedies
 
to combat
the aggravating situation in India based on secondaryinformation.
1.2Urbanization Problems
Urbanization is not only indicator of economic development but alsocreates problems of different nature such as urban poverty, unemployment,growth of slums, housing shortages, congestion, overcrowd as linked withtransport and land inadequacies, environmental population, road accidentsetc. Also, insufficient open space, rapid development of illegal residentiallayouts are identified and recognized as urban problems in developed as wellas developing countries with increased urbanization.Mainly, increased urbanization results in the following:1.Urban Poverty2.Urban Unemployment3.Emerging New Slums4.Environmental Impacts5.Housing Crisis
1.2.1Urban Poverty
2
 
Urban Poverty is a major problem of urban development andmanagement in developed as well as developing countries. It is the directand inevitable consequence of modern capitalism. It is widespread and morealarming in developing countries like India on account of theirunderdevelopment on the hand and the pseudo urbanization or overurbanization on the other. The urban poverty is both relative and absolute,particularly in over-populated developing countries like India. Table-1 gives data on urban and rural poverty in India. In 1977 thenumber of urban poor was 64.4 million (45.2 per cent) which increased to76.3 million (32.4 per cent), and started declining (67.1 mln in 1999) from1993 and stood at 49.6 million with a percentage of 15.1 in the year 2007.From this it is possible to argue that number of urban poor has been decliningsince 1999 in absolute terms. However, 15 per cent mark of urban poor ismatter to be worried. Urban poor are living in extremely deprived conditions with insufficientphysical amenities like low-cost water supply, sanitation, sewerage drainage,community centers and social services relating to health care, nutrition pre-school and non- formal education etc. A large section of this populationconsists of low-skilled rural migrants or migrants from smaller towns. Hence,one can put that these people lack a decent living.
1.2.2Urban Unemployment
Urban unemployment is one of the most disturbed factors of theeconomic development. Position of unemployment in urban areas is open anddisguised ones. In 1999-2000 urban employment in India was 7.65 per centas against 7.19 per cent in 1993-94. In urban India, 57 males and 90 femaleswere unemployed per 1000 persons in 2004 according to the 60
th
round of NSS Survey, as against 52 males and 84 females in 1993-94 (50
th
round NSS
3

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