Employment Opportunities and Salaries
The NCTE has made these qualifications mandatory for all teachers. Candidateswith a master’s degree in a school subject and a degree in education canbecome teachers in higher secondary schools at both the state and centrallevels. Salaries paid to teachers and teacher educators vary widely from systemto system and even from state to state. Salaries payable to teacher educators,whether in the government or private sector, are governed by NCTE regulations.
Teacher Appraisal / On-the-job Performance
Mechanisms for appraisal of on-the-job performance of teachers and teacher educators do exist on paper but appear to be non-functional in practice. In effect,after the training phase, the performing teacher or teacher educator hardly ever gets evaluated in a regular and systematic manner. The system does little todiscriminate between the effective and ineffective performance.
The Context of Teacher Training Colleges in India
Quality standards are poor, the result of an inadequate accreditation andmonitoring system. Official NCTE guidelines focus more on inputs than onresults. Basic teaching, learning and reference materials are in short supply.There is limited exposure to modern or “progressive” teaching and learningmethods and practices. The output of graduates is poorly matched to thedemand for teachers, particularly by subject discipline. Equally important, fewpolicies are in place to provide incentives for teacher training colleges to improve.
Weak Accreditation and Monitoring
NCTE sets the norms and standards, and specifies required qualifications of teacher educators. NCTE lacks the manpower, resources, and capacity tomonitor compliance with these norms and standards or in providing necessarysupport for these teacher training colleges to become better qualitatively.Recognition of the need for independent assessment and accreditation of Teacher Training Colleges led to the establishment of the National Assessmentand Accreditation Council (NAAC) of University Grants Commission in 2002,which produced a manual for self-assessment so institutions can strengthen their programs on their own initiative. It is unknown how many institutions are engagedin this process, but it is safe to assume this effort needs to be strengthened andexpanded.
Shortage of Resources in Teacher Training Colleges
Many faculty vacancies, especially outside capital cities reflect “pressure groups”on teacher posting system. Average Class Size is of ninety five trainees.Learning materials are outdated and or in short supply; laboratory and ICTresources scarce and hardly ever used. Fifty percent teacher trainees surveyedstated they lacked necessary books while only thirty percent of Teacher TrainingCollege faculty had Internet connections or links to other educators or outsideresources. Where the material is made available the motivation is lacking.
Pedagogy of Teacher Education
Videotaped teaching sessions (> 150 minutes), made with lecturers’ consent in arange of Teacher Training Colleges, did not show good models of interaction or