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Bukti Evolusi, Homologi

Bukti Evolusi, Homologi

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Published by Andi Citra Pratiwi
Evolusi, Homologi,
Evolusi, Homologi,

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Published by: Andi Citra Pratiwi on Jun 29, 2013
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11/26/2013

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HOMOLOGY PROOVES THE EVOLUTION
BY:
GROUP 5
ANDI CITRA PRATIWIRISKA MINDARSARI JALILARIANTI INDAH JAYABIOLOGY DEPARTMENTMATHEMATIC AND NATURAL SCIENCE FACULTYMAKASSAR STATE UNIVERSITY2012
 
HOMOLOGY PROOVES THE EVOLUTIONA.DEFINITION
The word homology, coined in about 1656, derives from the Greek homologos, where “
homo = agreeing, equivalent, same”
+
logos = relation”
.In biology, two things are homologous if they bear the same relationship to oneanother, such as a certain bone in various forms of the "hand." In 1843, RichardOwen defined homology as "the same organ in different animals under everyvariety of form and function". Organs as different as a bat's wing, a seal's flipper,a cat's paw and a human hand have a common underlying structure of bones andmuscles. Owen reasoned that there must be a common structural plan for allvertebrates, as well as for each class of vertebrates (Anonymous
a
. 2012).Richard Owen (1848) introduced the term homology to refer to structuralsimilarities among organisms. To Owen, these similarities indicated thatorganisms were created following a common plan or archetype. That is, althougheach species is unique, the plans for each might share many features. Nevertheless, if every organism were created independently, it is unclear whythere would be so many homologies among certain organisms, while so fewamong others. It is also hard to make sense of the fact that homologous structurescan be inefficient or even useless (Anonymous
 b
. 2012).Homology began as a philosophical concept that certain physicalattributes share similarity in form and position among species in a natural group.Within the recognized vertebrate groups, early comparative anatomists had notedthat individual bones of vertebrate skeletons showed positional correspondenceamong specific elements, e.g. the forelimb of reptiles, chickens, dogs andhumans. Such congruent configurations are classified as homologous and thecorresponding parts as homologues (Figure 1a). In the case of complex structurescomposed of repetitive elements, e.g. the vertebrae of the spinal column, such
 
elements are termed serially homologous. With the introduction of the principleof descent with modification (Darwin, 1859), the concept evolved beyond thesimple one of topological similarity from an idealized type into an understandingthat such similarities arise through inheritance and common ancestry (Figure 1b).Figure 1. Concepts of homology. (a) Owen’s homology was a conceptof corresponding structures between organisms as similar or homologous based on their relationship to the archetype. (b) After Darwin, thesimilarity in structure is understood to arise from ancestor/descendantrelationships.Owen (1843: 379) defined homology simply as the ‘same organ indifferent animals under every variety of form and function’. He alsodistinguished homology from analogy, which he defined as a ‘part or organ inone animal which has the same function as another part or organ in a differentanimal’ (Owen, 1843: 374). Here, homology is recognized as an innate property

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