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P. 1
Matematici aplicate în economie

Matematici aplicate în economie

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Published by: Cătălin on May 08, 2009
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02/01/2013

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1. Spa\u0163ii\u015fi subspa\u0163ii liniare (vectoriale)
1.1
S\u0103 se arate c\u0103 mul\u0163imeaMm,n(\u211d) a matricilor de ordinul (m,n) cu elemente reale
formeaz\u0103 spa\u0163iul liniar peste\u211d.
Rezolvare
Fie
(
)
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
a
A
=
=
=
,
(
)
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
b
B
=
=
=
,
\u2208
j
i
a
\u211d,\u2208
j
i
b
\u211d.
Definim cele dou\u0103 opera\u0163ii ale spa\u0163iului vectorial:
(
)
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
j
i
b
a
B
A
=
=
+
=
+
\u015fi
(
)
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
a
A
=
=
\u03b1
=
\u03b1
.
Verific\u0103m \u00eent\u00e2i propriet\u0103\u0163ile de grup:
G1 .Asociativitatea
Trebuie s\u0103 ar\u0103t\u0103m c\u0103: (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) = A + B + C
( )
\u2200A,B,C\u2208Mm ,n(\u211d).
Avem: (A + B) + C =
(
)
(
)
(
)
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
j
i
c
b
a
c
b
a
=
=
=
=
=
=
+
+
=
+
+
(
)
(
)
(
)
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
j
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
c
b
a
c
b
a
)
C
B
(
A
=
=
=
=
=
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
.
G2 .Elementul neutru este matricea nul\u0103
( )
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
0
O
=
=
=
ALGEBR\u0102 LINIAR\u0102
1
\u2276
G3.Elementul simetric
( )
(
)
\u2208
=
\u2200
=
=
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
a
A
Mm ,n(\u211d)( )
(
)
\u2208
\u2212
=
\u2212
\u2203
=
=
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
a
A
Mm,n(\u211d)
a.\u00ee. A + (-A) = (-A) + A = O
G4 .Comutativitatea
( )
\u2208
\u2200B
,
A
Mm,n(\u211d) avem:
(
)
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
j
i
b
a
B
A
=
=
+
=
+
(
)
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
j
i
a
b
A
B
=
=
+
=
+
deci: A + B = B + A( )
\u2208
\u2200B
,
A
Mm, n(\u211d).
Verific\u0103m acum propriet\u0103\u0163ile legii externe:
1)( )
(
)
( )
(
)
( )A
a
a
A
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
\u03b1\u03b2
=
\u03b1\u03b2
=
\u03b2
\u03b1
=
\u03b2
\u03b1
=
=
=
=
( )
(
)
\u2208
=
\u2200
=
=
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
a
A
\u2208Mm, n(\u211d)( )
\u2208
\u03b2
\u03b1
\u2200,
\u211d.
2)(
)
A
A
A
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
=
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
( )\u2208
\u2200AMm,n(\u211d),( ) \u2208
\u03b2
\u03b1
\u2200,\u211d
Avem:(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
=
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
=
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
=
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
=
=
=
=
=
=
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
a
a
a
a
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
A
A
a
a
a
a
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
=
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
=
\u03b2
+
\u03b1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
.
3)(
)
B
A
B
A
\u03b1
+
\u03b1
=
+
\u03b1
,( )
\u2208
\u2200B
,
A
Mm,n(\u211d),( )\u2208
\u03b1
\u2200
\u211d.
Avem:(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
.
B
A
b
a
b
a
B
A
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
n
.
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
j
i
\u03b1
+
\u03b1
=
\u03b1
+
\u03b1
=
+
\u03b1
=
+
\u03b1
=
=
=
=
=
=
4)
( )\u2208
\u2200
=
\u22c5
A
A
A
1
Mm,n(\u211d).
(
)
(
)
A
a
a
1
A
1
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
n
,
1
j
m
,
1
i
j
i
=
=
\u22c5
=
\u22c5
=
=
=
=
.
Not\u0103
1 este scalarul cunoscut din\u211d.

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