___________________________________ROBERT STEEBER AND CASEY GRAHAM BROWN
later part of the 20
century. Contrasting early leaders such as Fredrick Taylor, the father of Scientific Management, John Dewey, thedeveloper of the scientific method, or Max Weber, the theorist whointroduced the Bureaucracy Theory with McGregor’s Theory X andTheory Y or Contingency Theories developed by Fred Fielder, or PaulHersey and Kenneth Blanchard (Marion, 2002), leadership theory hasdeveloped from “Plan, organize, and, control, control, control”(Morgan, 1986, p. 26) to a less rigid approach.In a complex world, leadership responsibility has become morecomplex to meet challenges. The person in charge must possess skillsto be a leader and manager and have the capacity to understand theskills appropriate for the activities (Marion, 2002). Gaziel (2003)examined educational leadership as separate skills of leading andmanaging. According to Gaziel, “School principals tend, in the presentsample, to use multiple frames in solving problems” (p. 484). Thestudy’s objective was to predict the leadership and managerial abilitiesof the campus principal based on the organizational metaphorsestablished by the work of Morgan (1986) and the frames of theseorganizations based on the research of Bolman and Deal (1984).Morgan symbolized organizations as machines (structural), organisms(human-resource), political systems (political), or brains (symbolic),and according to Bolman and Deal, the leadership style best suited for the establishment must model behavior that was appropriate for any of the 4 types of organizations.The leader must define for himself or herself what is true(epistemology), what is real (ontology), and what is right (axiology).From that point, the leader must either communicate these philosophies to the organization or, through human resource practices,find individuals who are similar in thought and place them into open positions. Those organizational members, as well as any new memberswho adhere to this vision, will work within the philosophical mission,or the leader, unable to accommodate change, will be removed(Wheatley, 1999).