2 Waving hands in a great blur
Let us think of the timefrequency plane. We can sort of think of
δ
(
t
−
t
0
) as a verticalline in this space. At time
t
=
t
0
, the thing goes crazy and you have every mode equallyrepresented. Everywhere else it is zero. On the other hand, the function
e
iωt
is of constantfrequency component at all times and is thus represented by a horizontal line. Thus, wecan sort of think of the Fourier transform as a rotation through
−
π/
2 radians of the timefrequency plane. Now then, the FRFT is just a rotation through arbitrary angle
α
. Ireally should have ﬁgures for what comes next, and I will, but bear with me. If we rotatea vertical line of distance
u
from the origin by angle
α
(for the sake of the mental picture,say 0
< α < π/
2). Now, we have a line of decreasing slope. Speciﬁcally, the slope of theline is tan(
α
−
π/
2) =
−
cot(
α
). Now through basic trig, we ﬁnd that the
y
intercept, as itwere, is at
u
csc(
α
). Thus, we kind of have a function, which at time
t
= 0 has frequency
u
csc(
α
), but the frequency decreases by
−
cot(
α
)
t
. Thus we have
e
−
ω
(
t
)
t
where we knowthat
ω
(0) =
u
csc(
α
) and that that
dωdt
=
−
cot(
α
)
t
. Thus,
ω
(
t
) =
u
csc(
α
)
t
−
cot(
α
)
t
2
/
2.Well, this is great, we kind of know what happens to a delta function under the FRFT. Itseems like it gets taken to the chirp
e
i
(
u
csc(
α
)
t
−
cot(
α
)
t
2
/
2
)Which should mean that this isour desired
B
α
(
t,u
). However, we know from our deﬁnition of
B
α
(
t,u
) that it is symmetricin
t
and
u
. Our current chirp function isn’t. To make it so, without messing with ourconditions on
w
(
t
), we simply multiply by
e
i
cot(
α
)
u
2
/
2
and get
e
i
(
u
csc(
α
)
t
−
cot(
α
)(
t
2
+
u
2
)
/
2
). Itturns out, this is basically what
B
α
(
t,u
) is. However, we want the FRFT to be a unitarytransformation, and for this to be so, we should calculate the normalization factor. Thatis, we want to know
C
in(
F
α
{
f
(
t
)
}F
α
{
f
(
t
)
}
) =
C
(
f

f
)where (
··
) is the inner product. After a lot of integral manipulation, we arrive at
∞−∞
f
(
t
)
∞−∞
f
(
τ
)
∞−∞
e
i
(
ut
csc(
α
)
−
cot
(
α
)(
t
2
+
u
2
)
/
2
e
−
i
(
uτ
csc(
α
)
−
cot
(
α
)(
τ
2
+
u
2
)
/
2
dudτdt
The most inside works out to be 2
π
sin(
α
)
δ
(
t
−
τ
). Thus our normalization factor is
12
π
sin(
α
)Which is almost true, except that because of the way inner product is deﬁned, what withmultiplying a number by its complex conjugate and all, what we really have is that
C
¯
C
=12
π
sin(
α
)3